(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Horizons in Semitic Studies: articles for the Student"

1 

j 






J 

1 



J 



J 
1/ 

3 



^ 
^ 











•V 



ISBN o 7044 0374 9 



1980 



111 



CONTENTS 



Title page, by Henry St. John Hart i 

Contents iii 

Preface, by John Eaton iv 



An Introduction to Syriac Studies 

by SEBASTIAN BROCK viii, 1 

Ephrem as Poet 

by PETER ROBSON 34 

Syriac - a Tool for the Student of Early Christian Doctrine 

by FRANCES YOUNG .. 39 

Syriac Hagiography: An Emporium of Cultural Influences 

by SUSAN ASHBROOK .59 

Exploring the Targumim 

by . PETER JERROME 69 

Rabbinic Sources for the, Non-Rabbinist 

by MARTIN GOODMAN 78 

Widening Horizons: Some Complexities of Hebrew Grammar 

by GRACE EMMERSON 83 

Introduction to Akkadian 

by WILFRED LAMBERT 91 

Horizons in Arabic 

by PENELOPE JOHNSTONE 100 

Petworth and Palestine - Reflections by P.A.J. 112 





(9 »d h» »d to 

I' » • Q 

KV *=) e H 



t> p to 

• Is 



ejsu 



M - tft - 

o ac hi c+ »d 

* • *. 2" • 

* i 3 > 8 

o a *o p . 

o c+ c <+ 

ao.— h* 3* 

h. i o 
to *d 

b *-*. to a 

f. tr OH- 

to jy o »a P- 

5* w efr M 

c* - M 

■3* d n i 

S'ff&fff 

H1 (9 MP O 
*J tO MB 

h>iO n i § 

* 3 5 5 8 

ft CO P ^ 

ft o* o 

O HI H> 

H> O w 
H> H> -» O 



ff 



o o 

H> 3 

Q*d 
O • 
ft 

*8 



•CO H3" 
(ft HI 3* CD 
p p d- 

o ^h 3 3* 
tt> *d P g o 




H« O *0 W 

O tJ O P 3 

3 • to H« 

- to I 

M > H* H 
<->* O M O H 

1UIH3 PI 

P H' w | 

3- a 3 *i 

I H- 2 55 PI 
» M ^ P 3 
I H p JO H- 

O I 

*1 





trt co 

CD o 

• u 

a" co 

O M 

M 0) 

O H* 

< ° 



• 8 

rt- 

3* 

er 

co 

CD 

g 

a* 

& 
< 

e 




►^o HI? 

1 CO 

co 3* 3 

<j h. > 

co w 3 <+ 

n a o 



oca 

CD 3 CD 

o h« »d 

m 

O B 3 



^J o o 

nO H> H> 

g9 



3 O 



CD *1 
P CD 
O 3* 



St. 

a < 
off. 
ft* 
ft - 



§ 



a p 

(Q 

O 3 
GO 
•d 3 

<< ft- 

- H* 

3 
•O O 



H*Vj «!< 

3 O Qt) (t 

M 5 M 

to p 3* 

« 3HBP 

^ 1 O. CD 

5 a^j s 

O p £T rt- 

© O Vt{ m »p 

HC O *f 

P H C «-•• P 

rt- O H- 

H* tf CD C 09 

5 rt-Hffl O* 

3- hs n> 



a h 



g a 



a to 



t- »i 



o H 
o 

•- o 
- c 

rt- 

CD 



h> o rt-»a 



H 

tn 



H- c+ 
3 O 



o o co 
o a 3 
a co 

78 * a 

«+ X o © 

rt-H,?- 3 
3* O 1 

4 •* *° 

a o 

H> < H> >- 
H. h». p 

- s s.-. 

» a o 

3 3 U 

8^ g a 

§5-5? 

CO CL CO p 

CO M 

to < CO - 

O H. (J 

3 M CD - 

•-,S 

c a 



h. o •- 



3 co 
a h- 

to „ g, g 

- co o a r»- 

„ *t CO 3* 

P B HI 

a i- co <+ 

Oi H- co rt- 

O 3 3 C 3 

o. o R e 

S co _, cr 

CP vi h. co 

5S1 3 " 

o I E % t 

ffVj o 
3 H. CO M 

1 3 »1 rt- O 

- O 3 



$ to 
CO o 



- rt- 

H» CO 3* < 

O P H- 

5 1- rt- H 
rt- O t- 

SO H> 

?P O § 

&»?* 

CO O K O 

co o rt- 

a o 3* 

rt- Q, rt- J-" 

3* 3* CO 

S S3 5 

co a 

H rt- 

H) H- O O 

H* rt- O 

3 *•»< 

pu H* • O 

<n c 



CO 3 
CO CO 

o- rt- 

CD H- 
M rt- 

O H 

5 ° 

»d o 

• *1 

81 

• rt- 

<*■ 

3" 




viii 



AN INTRODUCTION TO SYRIAC STUDIES 
by Sebastian Brock 

I What is Syriac? 

II Why study it? Some areas of interest : 

(a) Biblical studies 

(b) Patristic studies 

(c) Liturgical studies 

(d) Early Syriac Christianity 

(e) Syriac poetry 

(f ) Syriac as a bridge culture 

III The scope of Syriac literature 
IV Syriac among the Aramaic dialects 

V Tools (a) Grammars 

(b) Anthologies of texts 

(c) Dictionaries 

(d) Main editions of the Syriac Bible 

(e) Histories of Syriac literature 

(f ) The historical background 

(g) Bibliographical aids 

(h) Series of texts and periodicals 

VI Epilogue : the delights of manuscripts 
Appendix : the Syrian Churches 



I What is Syriac? 

A five minute walk from South Ealing underground station in London 
will bring you to 'Assyrian House 1 , where on a Sunday the Liturgy of the 
Church of the £ast is celebrated in Syriac, One of the first things that 
a visitor will be told is that Syriac is a dialect of Aramaic, the lang- 
uage of Jesus in first-century Palestine, a fact of which all members of 
this Church are extremely proud - 

Syriac in fact continues to-day in use as the liturgical language 
of two Oriental Orthodox churches, the 'Assyrian 1 Church of the East 
(better known to western Christians under the misleading title of the 
'Nestorian' Church) and the Syrian Orthodox Church (again more familiar 
under the nick-names of the 'Jacobite* or 'Monophysite' Church)*. To a 
lesser extent Syriac is also used in the Liturgy of the Maronite Church, 
but in recent decades Arabic has been making rapid inroads there at the 
expense of Syriac. 

But classical Syriac is by no means just a 'dead* liturgical 
language: it is still employed as a literary language, especially 
among the Syrian Orthodox, and in some circles it is even spoken (it is 
the normal language of communication, for example, in the Syrian Orthodox 
monastic school of Mar Gabriel in Tur Abdin, in SE Turkey, where the 
children may come from Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish or Turoyo (modem Syriac) 
speaking backgrounds). Within the present century several European works 
of literature have been translated into Syriac - including Shakespeare's 
Merchant of Venice and Dickens 1 Tale of Two Cities. 



II Why study it? 

But just as people do not learn Hebrew in order to read the Hebrew 
translation of Goethe's Faust, so no one is going to learn Syriac for the 
purpose of reading Dickens; nor is anyone to-day likely to find it use- 
ful (as St Hilarion did, according to his biographer Jerome) for exor- 
cizing possessed Bactrian camels. There are, however, other incentives, 
for there exists an extensive range of native Syriac literature, as well 
as of translations into Syriac from Greek and other languages, dating 
from the second century up to the present day. What is commonly regarded 
as the best of this literature, however, was written in the 300-400 years 
prior to the advent of Islam, and with one or two exceptions it is the 
literature of this 'golden age' that has attracted the greatest attention 
among western scholars. It is worth looking at some of the areas which 
have claimed their particular interest. 

(a) Biblical studies 

The study of Syriac has long been seen as an important adjunct 
to biblical studies. The first printed edition of the Syriac New Testa- 
ment ones back to 1555 (the earliest European Syriac grammar dates from 
l^r^d the standard Syriac version of both Old and New Testaments 
known as the Peshitta, features in the great Paris and London polyglot 

(* For an explanation of the confusing terminology see the appendix below, 
on the Syrian Churches.) 



Bibles of the seventeenth century alongside the other ancient versions. 

The Old Testament books were translated into Syriac directly from 
Hebrew, no doubt at different times and perhaps in different places. 
It is striking that Syriac tradition has no account of the origins of 
its biblical versions such as we have for the Septuagint in the Letter 
of Aristeas. Certain books, in particular those of the Pentateuch, 
have close links with the extant Aramaic Targumim, and it is now gen- 
erally agreed that in these books there must be some sort of direct 
literary relationship between the Peshitta and Targumim, even though 
the exact nature of this relationship still remains very obscure. In 
the case of one book, Proverbs, the relationship is, remarkably enough, 
reversed, for the extant Targum of this book is evidently derived from 
the Peshitta, rather than vice versa . 

Since the oldest Syriac translations of Old Testament books 
probably only go back to the period of the stabilization of the Hebrew 
text in the first century AD, the Peshitta Old Testament is of less 
interest than the Septuagint to textual critics of the Hebrew Bible, 
although it does nevertheless offer a number of interesting readings 
which feature in the apparatus of Biblia Hebraica and Biblia Hebraica 
Stuttgartensia. 

Besides the standard version of the Old Testament , the Peshitta, 
there is a further translation, this time made from Greek in Alexandria 
around AD 6 15- Known as the Syrohexapla and made by Paul of Telia, 
this is a very literal translation of Origen's revised Septuagint text 
in the Hexapla, together with his critical signs (asterisks and obeli) 
and many marginal readings derived from Aquila, Theodotion and Symmachus. 
Not quite the whole of the Syrohexapla survives, but since very little 
of Origen's Hexapla remains in Greek the Syrohexapla is of prime im- 
portance for Septuagint studies. 

It is interesting to see that in the history of translation into 
Syriac (whether of biblical or of non-biblical texts) there is a con- 
tinuous move away from the free to the very literal, a process which 
reaches its climax in the seventh century. 

There are several versions of the Syriac New Testament of which 
the oldest, dating from the second half of the second century AD, is 
probably Tatian's Diatessaron or harmony of the Pour Gospels (he appears 
occasionally to have used some other sources as well). This work en- 
joyed wide popularity in the early Syriac church (it is not certain 
whether it was originally written in Greek or in Syriac), but was sub- 
sequently suppressed, with the result that no complete Syriac text of 
it survives: the nearest we have is Ephrem's Commentary on it. Al- 
though little is known of its original form, the influence of the 
Diatessaron was very widespread and we have medieval adaptations in 
Persian and Arabic, as well as in medieval German, Dutch, Italian and 
English. 



The earliest Syriac Gospel text that survives is known as the Old 
Syriac, and is preserved in two very old manuscripts, the Curetonian 
(in the British Library) and the Sinaiticus (at the monastery of St 
Catharine on Mt Sinai). Textually it is of very great interest, exhibit- 
ing a number of 'Western 1 readings. Along with the Old Latin it is the 
oldest surviving translation of the Greek Gospels. It is likely that 
the Old Syriac once covered the whole Syriac New Testament Canon (which 
excludes Revelation, 2 Peter, 2-3 John and Jude), but only quotations 
from books other than the Gospels survive. 

The standard New Testament version, the Peshitta, is a revision of 
the Old Syriac, completed probably in the early fifth century. The work 
of revision has sometimes been associated with the name of Rabbula, bishop 
of Edessa, but this is far from certain. The distribution of the revised 
text was evidently very effective for Peshitta manuscripts (of which 
several go back to the late fifth century) show remarkably little variation 
among themselves. 

In the early sixth century the Peshitta was brought yet further into 
line with the Greek original under the auspices of the great Syrian Ortho- 
dox theologian, Philoxenus bishop of Mabbug, who had found certain pass- 
ages in the Peshitta (notably Matt.l:l, 1*18; Heb.5:7 and 10:5) too free 
and susceptible of a 'Nestorian' interpretation. His version, known as 
the Philoxenian (although it was a certain chorepiscopus Polycarp who 
actually did the work) does not survive in its original form, but a 
century later it ©rved as a basis for yet another revision, made by Thomas 
of Harkel in Alexandria, about 615- Thomas's work, known as the Harklean, 
survives in a number of manuscripts (some of the seventh and eighth 
centuries) and, along with Paul of Telia's contemporary Syrohexapla, 
represents the peak of sophistication in the technique of literal trans- 
lation: every detail of the Greek original is reflected - which greatly 
eases the work of the modem textual critic who is interested in recon- 
structing the underlying Greek text! 

An excellent survey of the Syriac New Testament versions is to be 
found in chapter 1 of B.M.Metzger's The Early Versions of the New Testa- 
ment (Oxford, 1977), while for the Old Testament the best general dis- 
^s7ion is that by C. van Puyvelde, the Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supple- 
ment VI (I960), 834 f. 



(b) Patristic Studies 

A very large number of the works of the Church Fathers was 
translated into Syriac, sometimes more than once. The earliest to 
survive are some of Eusebius* works, including the Theophama, lost in 
its Greek original; all these happen to be preserved in fifth century 
manuscripts. The process of translating Greek texts continued apace 
until the end of the seventh century, by which time the Arab invasions 
had effectively cut off the Syriac speaking churches from close contact 
with Greek culture. 



Syriac translations of the Greek Church Fathers are of twofold 
interest. In the case of works where the Greek originals survive the 
Syriac translation not onlytsually antedates the earliest Greek manu- 
script by many centuries, but is itself preserved m manuscripts of great 



antiquity (sixth century manuscripts are not uncommon). Even more im- 
portant are the Syriac translations of works whose Greek originals are 
lost: besides Eusebius 1 Theophania these include treatises attributed 
to Hippolytus and Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius 1 Festal Letters, 
Theodore of Mopsuestia's Commentary on John, Cyril of Alexandrians 
Commentary on Luke, and various works by Evagrius Ponticus. Syriac also 
preserves in translation the writings of several Greek anti-Chalcedonian 
theologians whose works, having been suppressed in their Greek form, 
would otherwise have been totally lost to us; most notable in this 
category are the voluminous works of Severus, patriarch of Antioch from 
512 until 518. 

(c) Liturgical Studies 

For someone interested in the history of liturgy Syriac has 
great riches to offer. It was the general area of Syria-Palestine that 
proved the most creative and fertile in this field for early Christianity 
and it was from here that the rich Byzantine liturgies of St John Chrysostom, 
St Basil and St James ultimately derived; here too, more than anywhere 
else, did liturgical poetry* in both Greek and Syriac, flourish. The 
East Syrian Liturgy of St Addai and St Marx happens to be the oldest 
liturgy still in regular use, while West Syrian tradition has produced 
an astonishing abundance of anaphoras: over 70 come down to us, and of 
these a dozen or so are still commonly employed. 

Of particular importance to the student of comparative liturgy is 
the early Syrian baptismal rite, consisting of an anointing followed by 
immersion in water, a sequence evidently modelled on the Jewish initiation 
rite of circumcision and proselyte baptism. Only around AD 400 was a 
post -baptismal anointing introduced, thus bringhg Antiochene liturgical 
practice into line with that of other areas. 

The critical study of the contents of the many liturgical books in 
use in the various Syrian Churches is very much in its infancy. Here 
mention might be made of the useful bibliographical guide provided by 
A. Baumstark (one of the pioneers in the study of Syriac liturgy) in 
the appendix to his fascinating book, Comparative Liturgy (English trans- 
lation: London, 1958), and by J.M.Sauget in his Bibliographie des liturgies 
orientales 1900-1960 (Rome, 1962). 

(d) Early Syriac Christianity 

So far we have only considered the interest of Syriac as an 
appendage to larger fields of study, but Syriac literature is also of 
value in its own right, and here we may select two particular aspects, 
early Syriac literature as the sole surviving representative of a 
genuinely Semitic Christianity, and religious poetry, the genre in which 
Syriac writers best excelled. 

The earliest major authors whose names we know, Aphrahat and Ephrem, 
both of the fourth century, are virtually untouched by Greek culture and 
they offer us an essentially Semitic form of Christianity, quite different 
in many respects from the Christianity of the Greek and Latin speaking 
world of the Mediterranean litoral. From the fifth century onwards the 



Syriac speaking churches underwent a rapid process of hellenization 
with the result that no subsequent writers entirely escape from the 
influence of Greek culture in some form or other, and so it is primarily 
to these two early writers, Aphrahat and Ephrem, that we must turn in 
order to examine this phenomenon. This specifically Semitic aspect 
of the earliest Syriac literature has been curiously neglected, despite 
its potential interest for the study of primitive Christianity as a 
whole, for which its relevance could be said to be much the same as 
that of Rabbinic literature for New Testament studies. 

The fact that the earliest Syriac writers are virtually •uncon- 
taminated 1 by Greek - and hence European - culture also makes this 
literature of particular interest to modern Asian and African churches 
which, quite apart from an understandable desire to be rid of Christianity 1 ; 
various European cultural trappings, £ind themselves more at home with 
Semitic than with Greek thought patterns. 

An excellent and sympathetic introduction to this world of typ- 
ology and symbolic theology will be found inRJturray's Symbols of Church 
and Kingdom (Cambridge, 1975 )• 

(e) Syriac poetry 

Syriac literature has produced (and indeed still continues to 
produce) a very large number of poets, but one in particular among them 
towers in stature as a poet of real originality and spiritual insight, 
Ephrem of Nisibis, who died in 373 at Edessa; his madrashe , or hymns, 
can justly take a place among the great religious poetry of the world - 
despite the derogatory judgement of one or two eminent Syriac scholars, 
like F.C.Burkitt. Ephrem 1 s is an allusive lyrical poetry filled with 
paradox and wonder, and making highly imaginative use of typological 
exegesis. His intricate theory of symbolism has been described as an 
anticipation of the basic philosophical position of Paul Ricoeur. It 
is unfortunate that so little of his work is available in English trans- 
lation* • 

Syriac poetic form falls into two main categories, stanzaic and non- 
stanzaic verse; the former is known under the general title of madrasha, 
the latter under that of merara. Madrashe were certainly sung, and the 
titles of the melodies are preserved, but not the music itself. Each 
stanza was picked up by a refrain, and Ephrem (whose genuine writings 
show a great tenderness and concern for women) was noted for having had 
his refrains sung by female choirs. Each madrasha will be based on a 
particular stanza pattern built up on isosyllabic principles, where the 
basic units are groups of 4,5,6 or 7 syllables. Ephrem employs some 
fifty different stanza patterns, and these can range from the very simple 
(e.g. four lines of four syllables each) to the extremely complex. 

* Numerous extracts can be found in R.Murray's Symbols of Church and 
Kinadom (1975), and a selection of twelve poems, with a short intro- 
Sis^en in my The Harp of the Spirit v Twelve poems of St 
Ephrem (Studies supplementary to Sobornost 4, London, 1975). There 
li-an-important introduction to Ephrem* s theory of symbolism by 
R.Murray in P-™ie de l'Orient 6/7 (1975/6). 




t * o 3* p sr 

O p 3 O O H- 

.. to < rt to 



roc,. 



ro o 

3 



Art 3 

H rt A 3 rt R 

H- £ rt C 3" 3 

<Q H- A O 3 

^ < P A H»i 

< A H. rt- p C 

h-- to ro R to 



*< *-* 



§H rt 3 1 rt H> 
H* p p 3* 

P HdH'S* 

§»d 3* h. 
_ H- (D O CO 

(-■ rt O H« 3 3 
A *1 O 3 rt O 
^ ^ 2 tJ g rt 

Hj 3* A H« v< fl> 

^ P O O • 3 

ff) CO rt p rt 

*1 - rt H« 

OP H* I 

a H h» o > ro 

?T < O 3 3 J- 

P *1 << 

O ^ rt- p 

3* » 3 3" M H» 

P 3* p p H- 

C O* A rt 3 O 

< A 1 W- rt 

H- A A W 3 H* 



rt- O 



3 3 a *< p o 
H- to 4 rt- 3 

01 CO H* H* p 

3 << O p O M 
- H W O 3 x-' 

? cr m id h o 

H- H. H* >1 C 

O O 10 rt- I— 

3" • p A 3* a 

P A 

*S H> 3- 

1 p O p p 

ro ra ft i o < 

a 5. 3 3 c Q 

•i ro p m a 
ro 3 *a to ro 

a rt o A3 

_,_ m ro o* < 
rt << rt p H. 

-3 S §■ ■ 

a 3 



rt « C rt H- H 

O- tt =r to 3 
ro zr ro p 

o «- "3 rt 

rt O O P 3" 

H A 

_ rt 

- - rt 3 H> O 

A rt 3" A Op 

A C « 

s s. a s a ° 






_ ro 5 p rt 

^ e <j h 3* 

T A I- A C 
^ H- rt- to A 0. 

rt a o n o 

3* O O p C 

A rt C C H & 

01 to 



O 0*1*1 *< o'ctnotDQ. 

MUIA'-J OuA_ H-AO H> 3* 

O 3-H-OrtO O A O* 

rt A 3 a H* a *1 

" C' E . ro h o* to p 

y - v< 3 2 f » 3" •< O 

^•N^l^rtp o tyi VJ H- 

£ rt H- S: 3* rt rt M>l3 H- il- 
rtffPOAH'ff.lAgo 



,4 



VI , 

rt v^ co 



3* 



*. « S ro •jpli 5 <+ „ 
o ^ Z &S 3 >3 S I 73 

ro a p i- » cr o h.' f? t? 

swHroorortpHrt 

rt rt to rt to O 3* I-" O 

PWO< *i A p H 

3" ^^fi^ TJArt 

| » § s 3 h s sr a " r 

pro_roco3-*i rt-fi 
6-» » iro c » *i -* 



rt 

4 



r p 3* p o 3 
» h a rtv- a 

*• P rt 

, H- Ul A O O 

> + *1 o x> 

* ^ VII 3 3 3 H 
yi ^ CO to 3" 

^ St ^ rt H- M- A 
3*»< 3* « to, 

> M A rt rt|3 

jJHi to ro 

f A P A O 3 

' rt M h- r-slp 
►» g ro to vi T 

•i*^ *d P ui to o 

I " rt < to 

rt p G\*< < 
i rt- A *< + t- o 

A3 - p to 

■* . . p tr a 

u "si h- m h< 

• + tD O + D* 
">J P -si 

u < ff8 o 8 B 
! S 8. S * - B 

»■ 3* H- p ^ ._ - 

- __ rt to ro 
rt M« p + rt « 

I i I B ? e 

I- *i to "d 
o m v; hj 

K ^ rt M H O 

« -. »* >- 3 O* 

iff S ° &» & 

. g* to H, MIS H 

n O O A £& v; 



•O "< 



p o rt|3 h. to rt ro *-* ro 



rt < 



ro *-* A O- rt 

ON *< 



3-3"*^p+(0 \ d 

A 0-J3 ON3 H>0\0 
H> „+a OOrtO 



H> 3 -vl 
WPP 3 , 

A 3 O. to O M . 

2 o ro -^ 3 m o 

C C H I ft u 

O 

3* 



tfl _ 
rt 3 



O H> 
O 



§ 






OAH-aacyNSrt-sp 

_,.XPAMM- ctoto 
rtrttT3A30*1 
^s-Aj-Ctncos^^t?) 

8 8 5° 



a H- H« O O 

o < 

a a 

H. 

o 
p 







sr§ 

p o. 



3 p p. 

(Q 3 H« H 

H' rt W 

rt O H' H 
3* OP 

ro 3" 3 3 

1 H- H 

A CO O O 

rt O ^ 

O "• 



rt a 

J- rt 

(- 3- 

P A 



IU 



rt H« rt 

to to 



A H 

o - - 1 4 

(Q O rt 
O* 1 H> <Q 

"go. 

o a ro 
« a o 
ro P rt 



So 

p 



H *1 

»<! O A 

H> J- 1 

rt A 

p < < 



A H- 



a& 



E.S i 



(D "< 



A C O !-•• 

a p ro < 
• t? , a 

h- rt 

ro o w 

8^3. 



e 

o 

ro rt 

3 3 

p ro 

H . p. 



o ro 

I! 
II 

o I* 

, - 3 
ro a 



S rt 9 H- q W 
rt H« *1 




O p W 
3 H, *< 

& *1 

SP H- H- 

H . p a 

»0 I— H O 
*Q P O 

O 0.CO P 

o v; c H 



*1 A A 



O z 

A rt 3 H« 

■-?*& 

CO 3- o 
W O A I- 

•d *1 p 

!-•♦ A CO to 

g-Sg o 

P 3- C O 
K* H- A P 

l- rt 3 

*-* O t, P 

rt U A 00 

3* O A O 

»3 3 § 

truf? - 

to o o 

rt O *1 O 



3 H* O A 

Hit a 3 

5 g- a § 
rt p W O 

M 5 »1 H> 

*< O o _ 

- CO > 

2f rt *1 

O O rt 

h« p to ro 

3 H- H 

A H* 

? 3 -l§ 

A to 3 to- 

A A *a 

JC O 3* 

O OS H- 

§14 & 

a ro h« tn 
3 3 o 
«+ <a "o 




Ill The Scope of Syriac Literature 

Considered historically, Syriac literature can conveniently be 
divided up into three distinctive periods: (l) the golden age of Syriac 
literature, up to the seventh century; (2) the Arab period until about 
1300; and (3) 'the period from about 1300 to the present day. 

* 

The first is the period which produced the most creative writers, 
and it is to this that we shall return shortly. The second period, which 
came to an end at about the time of the conversion of the Mongols to 
Islam, was essentially one of consolidation and compilation: as in the 
Byzantine world, this period saw the birth of an encyclopaedic type of 
literature, uritnessing, right at its close, the appearance of the great- 
est of all Syriac polymaths, Gregory Abu'l Farn j , better known as 
Barhebracus (died 1286). Gregory wrote on every aspect of human know- 
ledge of his time, and it is not for nothing that ho has been compared to 
his western contemporary Thomas Aquinas (died 1274). 

The opening of the third period was a bleak one for all Christian 
communities in the Middle East, but the lamp of Syriac learning and 
literature never died out entirely, and there has been a continuous stream 
of writers, up to the present day, who have employed classical Syriac as 
their main literary language. In the seventeenth century wo also find 
the earliest flowering of Modern Syriac literature, in the form of poetry 
from the Alqosh school {north Iraq); it was only in the nineteenth 
century, however, with the establishment of a Syriac printing press at 
Urmia, that a written literature in Modern Syriac really got going. 
(Among the English works which the American mission at Urmia translated 
into Modern Syriac was Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress). In the present 
century the last decade or two have witnessed a renewed interest in 
this vernacular literature in both Iraq and Iran. 

Syriac literature of the golden age (third to seventh centuries) 
emergen from anonymity with the appearance of two great writers in the 
fourth century: Aphrahat, the author of 23 'Demonstrations' covering a 
variety of religious topics, and often touching on Jewish-Christian 
relations, and Ephrem, whom we have already met, undoubtedly the finest 
of all Syriac poets. But besides being an outstanding poet, Ephrem also 
wrote a number of prose commentaries on certain books of the Bible, among 
which his commentaries on Genesis and Exodus show intriguing familiarity 
with Jewish exegesis. His prose refutations of Marcion, Bardaisan and 
Mani constitute an important (if frustrating) source of information on 
the teaching of these three 'hcresiarchs r . 

The fifth and sixth centuries witnessed a remarkable helleniz- 
ation of much Syriac literature, both in style and in thought patterns, 
although poetry remained Jeast touched by such influence. Among the 
several notable poets of this era (see 11(c)), both Jacob of Scrugh (as 
a pupil) and Narsai (as a teacher) were associated with the famous 
'Persian School' at Edessa, which, after its closure by the emperor Zeno 
in 489 r moved across the border to Nisibis, safe within the confines of 
the Persian Empire. The history of this important and influential school, 
which had Narsai as its director for the last decades of the fifth century, 
has now heen well told in a monograph by Arthur VBobus. 



I 

Since Syriac literature has largely been (landed down in monasteries 
it is not surprising that much of it is specifically Christian in character. 
From the strictly theological literature two authors stand out for their 
originality of thought (and, in the case of the first, his style): 
Philoxenus of Mabbug (died 523) in the Syrian Orthodox tradition, and 
Babai (died 620) in that of the Church of the East. Characteristically 
both men also wrote treatises on the spiritual life, a topic on which 
there exist many very fine works in Syriac. Best known, but only one 
among many Syrian mystics, is Isaac of Nineveh (seventh century), whose 
writings were translated into Greek at the monastery of St Saba in 
Palestine in the ninth century: even today they are favourite reading 
among the monies of Mount Athos, while in Egypt their inspiration lies 
behind the contemporary monastic revival in the Coptic Church. What 
influence the Syrian mystics had on early Sufism is a question which still 
requires proper investigation. 



Biblical exegesis is another prominent genre, with important 
representatives in both East and West Syrian tradition. Over the course 
of time commentaries on biblical books became more and more encyclopaedic 
and derivative in character, each writer drawing extensively from the work 
of his predecessors. Excellent representatives of the two theological 
traditions are the East Syrian Ishodad of Merv (ninth century) and the 
West Syrian Dionysius bar Salibi (died H7l), both of whom have left behind 
them commentaries on the entire Bible. Comparison Df their two works 
and of their sources will show that, despite theological: differences, 
there was a good deal of mutual interaction as far as the history of 
exegesis is concerned. A few biblical commentators show a remarkable 
critical insight, perhaps none more so than Jacob of Edessa; besides 
numerous penetrating 'scholia' on difficult biblical passages, there 
survives his commentary on the six days of creation (the Hexaemeron) 
which t alecs on in places more the form of a scientific treatise. 

An ever popular genre - and one of considerable interest from 
the point of view of social history - is hagiography* . Some pieces of 
Syriac origin, such as the life of Alexis 'the Man of God 1 , were soon 
translated into Greek and Latin, and so come to enjoy great vogue in the 
medieval west, A particularly fascinating collection of lives are those 
of the Persian martyrs, dating from the fourth to the seventh centuries, 
throughout which period the Church of the East suffered intermittent 
persecution from the Sasanid authorities, normally at the prompting of 
the Zoroastrian clergy. 

Hagiography is often intimately connected with local monastic 
history. In the early Syriac life of Symeon the Sty lite we can observe 
the tensions between this amazing athlete of the ascetic life and the 
monastic community to which he belonged. How such tensions came to be 
resolved In the course of time can be seen from the sixth century Lives 
of the Oriental Saints, by the Syrian Orthodox Church historian John of 
Ephesus. Among East Syrian writers, Thomas of Marga's Book of Monastic 
Superiors shows how vigorous - and varied - monastic life continued to 
be under early Arab rule. 






See the contribution by Susan Ashbrook below, 



10 



Insights into the daily life and problems of ecclesiastics in 
positions both high and low are provided by the correspondence of various 
bishops, including two East Syrian patriarchs, Ishoyab III in the seventh, 
and Timothy I in the late eighth/early ninth, century. From the latter 
we learn, for example, that in his day the best Syriac manuscripts con- 
taining works by Greek writers were to be found in the library of the 
Syrian Orthodox monastery of Mar Mattai (still functioning today in N. 
Iraq), and he describes how he has to resort to underhand tactics in " 
order to have them copied. 

But by no means all Syriac literature is religious in character. 
Of particular importance for the historian are the various chronicles, of 
which there is a long line culminating in those of Michael the Syrian and 
Barhebraeus, both valuable sources for the history of the Crusades. 
Among the earliest works of this sort is the delightfully naive 'Chronicle 
of Joshua the Stylite', a source from which (to use Peter Brown's words) 
^we can learn more about what it was like to live (and to starve) on the 
streets of an ancient city, than we can ever know about the Rome of 
Cicero" . 

Mention has already been made (above, 11(f)) of Syriac philos- 
ophical and scientific literature. Although much of this was either 
translated from, or primarily based on, Greek works, the late Roman and 
early Arab period witnessed a number of scholars, such as Sergius of 
Reshaina (sixth century), Jacob of Edessa (seventh century), George 
bishop of the Arabs (eighth century) and Moshe bar Kepha (ninth century), 
who wrote with considerable learning and originality on secular as well 
as on religious topics. Commentaries on, and introductions to, Aristotle's 
logical works, constituting the Organon, take an important place among 
such writings. It is interesting to observe how little effect the Arab 
invasions had on Syriac culture of the seventh century; the many important 
scholars of this century also include among them a remarkable astronomer, 
Severus of Sebokht, only a few of whose writings have yet been published. 

On a less exalted level there are works in Syriac on alchemy, 
the interpretation of dreams, astrology, and various forms of divination. 

There also survives a certain amount of essentially popular 
literature in Syriac, such as the animal tales of Indian origin, Kalilah 
and Dimnah (better known under the name of Bidpai to seventeenth century 
European writers like La Fontaine); this work exists in Syriac in two 
separate translations, one made from Middle Persian in the sixth century, 
the other from Arabic in the ninth. Of native Syriac origin are the 
tensions, or contest poems, usually given a thin liturgical veneer (which 
has ensured their survival). This is actually a genre which goes back 
to ancient Mesopotamia, from where we have examples in both Akkadian and 
Sumerian; subsequently it was to be taken up by the Arabs (known as the 
munazara ) , and, perhaps by way of Spain, by medieval Spanish and Provencal 
jongleurs. In Syriac there are to be found precedence disputes between 
such figures as Death and Satan, Earth and Heaven, the Months of the Year, 
Wheat and Gold, the Vine and the Cedar etc. 



11 

Several important areas have been passed over in silence - the 
extensive apocryphal literature, and the canonical and legal texts, to 
name but a couple - but sufficient has by now been said to give some idea 
of the variety to be found within the confines of Syriac literature, and 
it is time to turn to look at the place of Syriac among the various 
Aramaic dialects, and then to survey some of the more important 'tools 
of the trade'. 



IV The place of Syriac among the Aramaic dialects 

Within the Semitic languages Aramaic belongs to the group of 
North West "Semitic languages which comprises Eblaitic, Amorite, Ugaritic, 
Phoenician, Hebrew and Moabite, besides Aramaic. By the end of the 
second nillerwLum BC two distinctive sub-groups among the North West Semitic 
languages had emerged, Aramaic and Canaanite, the latter consisting of 
Phoenician, .Hebrew and Moabite (some scholars would classify Ugaritic, 
too, as Canaanite). . 

The term 'Aramaic' in fact covers a multitude of different 
dialects i ranging in time from the early first millerwium BC (isolated 
inscriptions) to the present day when various modern Aramaic dialects 
are still spoken in certain areas of Syria, Eastern Turkey, Iraq, Iran 
and the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Of the several written dialects 
of Aramaic we have extensive literatures produced, mainly in the course 
of the first millennium AD, by three different religious groups in the 
Middle East, Jews, Christians and Mandeans; of these three, the Christian 
and Mandean dialects of Aramaic developed their own distinctive script, 
and it is largely for that reason that these two dialects have come to 
be called by the separate names of 'Syriac' and 'Mandean' (or 'Mandaic'). 
The various dialects of Jewish Aramaic, on the other hand, were written 
in that form of the old Aramaic script which was adopted by the Jews 
after the exile for writing Hebrew (and hence now known as 'square Hebrew', 
as opposed to the abandoned 'palaeo-Hebrew' script). To-day it is 
customary to use 'square Hebrew', in printing all dialects of Aramaic 
other than Syriac and Mandean (although texts from both these dialects 
have occasionally also been printed in Hebrew script). 

The correct classification of the Aramaic dialects still remains 
a matter of dispute among scholars, and the following division of the 
dialects into four chronological groups follows the general schema put 
forward by J.A.Fitzrayer: 

(l) Old Aramaic : this comprises the oldest surviving texts in 
Aramaic; all are inscriptions, and among them are the famous 
Sef ire treaty texts. This period, when several different 
dialects are already discernible, is generally regarded as lasting 
; from the tenth to the end of the eighth century BC (it should be 
remembered, of course, that the dividing lines between the different 
periods are inevitably somewhat arbitrary). 

(2V Off icial Aramaic : (sometimes also known as Imperial Aramaic, or 
Reichsar-amaisch) : under the late Assyrian and Neo-Baby Ionian 
empires Aramaic came to be used more and more as a chancery 
language (see J.B.Pritchard, The Ancient Near East in Pictures 




mSm 



O P CQ 

O O 

to m *Q 

© 3 d* 



Od- O 

H> H- O 

O 3 

d- d- 

ar h h- 

O 3 

O " 



PS !T 

d-"^ © 



ca 



© 
id ■ 
o © 

t1 . H 

5* 3*. 1 
rt- d- © 

Or H 

© O < 
< © 
© 3 
H d- 



C << 



CQ w H' CO 3* 

Q • d- p © 

H, d- H. 5 

O 3* 3 *— ' © 

- H- CO P 

p. (D CD -» © H 

C *-» 3 H 

<+ »d h»- » o" *d 

O © *1 O C H 

■3 _cr 



© 



H» C 



£?*^ 




< o 

3- 1 
H- H* 
H CQ 
O 



s^osot-wsff 



© 3* 



CO d-. 



3 C 

St": 

© a 

p IH* 



3* Hi 
o CO CD 

3-^i c 
»i p 

H? H*tQ 

cn p © 



>1 3" 

3* 3 * 

O O 

3 H« H> 
©CO © - 

H d- CO 

§0 3* 01 C 

3 © © » 

M W d- P 

H. O P H 



*< O 

«i 1 P 

h* >a 

p 3* cr 

3 o © 

H* O 

?0 Q 

CO 3 

d-^ © 
3" 

O H) H> 

P. »1 O 

o o ca 

X 3 W 

H* 



© © d- H*< ^ - M 3* 



h> p. 



PttO-C . v; S* 3 1 © 3 

d-d-CD T *-•• H* 3 Og.g D.P 
(0Od-c+3H'd-O *< H H 



rt- rt 
.. © 

to 3 

*3 

d 3 

O C 

|OIO 



© 

CO 

© 

CO 



3* < 

© d- t* 

>1 3* 3 
© CO 

©23 

&£h 
O 3 
3 



d- © © N 

3 -I 

© O 

CQ 



© rt 

3 3- 



I 

a 
© 

3 



p.^ 



d- d 

3* 3" 

© 2 



© 

i- 

p n 
d- P 



P © 
to 3 



-"2 
© o 






H- © P 

to ■ 3 

<+ a 

3 O 
O d 

s cr sr 

© © H> 3 
H> © 



H* H> 

ill 

O 3* 

to 

© 

*! 

*S © o - 

- < 

© CO P 

a *1 d H- 

H« c+ H- H» 

H) 

© 



* rt 

r h. 

IO 

- 3 

H-H, 

CQ 



C - © l- IP 
pCQ<1©©CQO 

^ <D <d (P a a ta - 

a en 3 tn tJ 3" 

3 T 3" p d-d--* H* p H- 

§£ O 3 C © o ^ 3 

© a a<< *i *3 p *< o- 

OVJO 3 *1 H* © H 1 c+ 

h- ^K h 3 - o d- a.vj -r 

fli . *1 © • 3 3 © 

rt- p g 5 o d- p 
i 5 tf ScodH) 

p <* © O <Q ©* o 

Ha »i hJ h- D" » i» g 



w a 



© d* 3* 



l§ • 



O 



cf 3" d- 
3" © © 

© T 

3 



d d- 

H'?cr 

O © ^ H« 

g 



M y— t- d O a 

■ cf © O H> H* 

hi 3* d- P 

1*3 V- «+ f+ > M 

wM © 3" >1 © 

• *i © p o 
< 3d- 

• H- ©' O H> 
d- d- CD _ 

»1 d- c+ W W 

§© h« tJ a 
, 3 CO © © 
CO © P tfl 

P *< © Hi 

d- 3 3 

ro ti o. to 

CO *< O % 

h* c © rr h 
3 to a.»i =r 

rt-. H« p 

O d C CO d- 

3S---g§ rt 

© CO © CD O 

»r to p § 

S 3 ' 

W co 

c <-* 
co o p 

I " 



- O 3 H> 

PJ H, O 4 



a 

© tv> 

co «j 

co n 

© h- 

3 P 

© ©: 



a O 
© 3 

3 



H> 
3 *1 



P 



d- 

§ !. 

© o* 
►1 © 



© d W 



-.wo 

H-- 
P ' d*. — 
3 © , C O 

■ *1**1 3 > O 

H- p. H» O 

3 d P d- - © 

O. C - 3" 3 

H> »1 © p © 

O © H- 5 *1 

p • » i.ao 

<+ H' © 

H> Q, < H> CO 

O © © CO 

3 HI 1 P 

OH- KM 

<- P) H- 

© C »1 P 

p J »0 CO 3 

H> 1 H* 

19 P 3 

O d- c+ O* 

3 © d- © 

to © *d 

d- - CO © 

p c+ 3" d- 3 

*t © © to © & 

rt- i o a © 



d 

a* ©■ 



2 P 

© a 
co o 



H to 

PC-. 

h. c h o tj 

3 rt-O ct 
to o © 

3* d- O. d-. a 
H- O H) P" 

« © 3 P 

?T: H- I— CO 

PJ wc+ P 

o to. d- 

3 3 3" 

H" p O P © 
©. 3 i-^ 

to- © P w 

H- Q* H- Hi H« 

P -3 3 d- 

to > © 

d- cr d- -o »i 

h. <o o p P 



H- 
d- 

© 

" : - - h 

p Ul P 



2H 

d- H 
P 
to O 
H- 
3 H 

*o » 



fi 



3- 

p CO 



3 ? 



H* ^ 

H" CQ 

g s 



o 

d- co 

X =r to 

h- o © 

d- ffl CO 
O H* 

•1 p p 



C* H- 
© P 

3 
P. CQ 
C 

© p 
to 
© 



^8 

p d- 

to C d- 

P 3* 

rt i- 1 to 
3 M 

© ^ g 

H*" 7T H* 

O 3 d- 

° 9 S 

M 3 P 



& 



c+ O © 

*1 O 

O H- d- 

H> "3 

rt- h- 

M H^ 3 

a O 

to y 

to Pi © 
P P 

<+ © 



1 



3 O 



6^ 



CTi 



fl O 

p=. a 

d- © 



? 1 H <+ O Hi 
3" H« O O p O 
O tQ ^J HI 



H- 
3 P 
© O 

C 



3* f>3 -- . 

C+ ^ P ©. M 

CO * 7T a H; 

- © 

© »1 



! 

3 ^ ,. . 

- O M P 

d- H H 

H* © H* Vcj 



tt<+©"**l 



W d- 
*< 3* . „ 

P > P M 



-.S 



!-: 



H- H« 

to 3 
© O 

3 S- 

*-» o 
a c 



KB (t 

© 
vO © 
ON d- 



it 



H« *t 
© 
© 



P. £ 0)*d 
POO 

a c co 

H © 

to © to 

0* d- • 

. s & K » 

© • p © : tn d 

§© d- < . ■ 
p (O 3* P c+ 

h- 5 to © a 3* 

< - 3 ,$.». 

" P ©PO- 

PS > d- *-* H- 
O. tf H> p 

■-■ lOH-H 

01 H* 3 CO" © 
S I- -. . o 
H - o « d- 

H- M> rt- 

SH« H* to 



3 "3 O 
H* »1 3 
CO H« M 
to 3 X- 
H- t+ 
O H« H- 
3 3 3 
- to 

d- 
d -3 3* 
3 *1 © 
P © 
d- to 3 

to H« 
P 3 

P © 
>1 rt- d- 
© . © 
PC© 

-•3 3- 



3 O 

© *-* © 

co a c. 

8 3 - 

. w < 
a © h- 

H- N d 

S.ft.- 3 ' 

rt- S - ©" 
O. -w 

© 

d cr » 

3i*< d- 

e. 

i+ cr 

3* H» 



ca © 

§ ; 

© h* 

3 H< 

<+ © 

© CO 

© d- 

^ d- 

© CO 

Ik. 



It 

a 3 

O 
O t» 

H* 

«•■-& 

3" t- 

© 

O H- 

to O 




14 



15 



new script is sorto (literally 'a scratch, character' ), but in European 
works it is often designated 'Jacobite' , since it became the normal script 
employed by the 'Jacobites' (i.e. Syrian Orthodox); it is in fact also 
used by the Maronites as well. A few centuries later, among the East 
Syrians, we see the gradual emergence from estrangelo of the other distinctive 
Syriac scriptj today employed by Chaldeans and 'Assyrians 1 ; it is generally 
called the 'Ncstorian' or 'Chaldean' script by European writers. 



The study of Syriac palaeography is still in its infancy, and 
the dating of manuscripts on the basis of the hand alone can be a matter 
of great uncertainty. The only guidance available is the excellent 
photography in W.H.P.Hatch's An Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts (Boston, 
1946). 



The early centuries of Arab rule witnessed the emergence of 
various vocalization systems to assist the reading and pronunciation 
of the unvowelled Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac scripts. For Syriac we 
know that one of the early experimenters in this field was the great 
Syrian Orthodox scholar Jacob of Edossa (died ?08), fragments of whose 
grammar, setting out his suggestions, survive. What finally emerged 
were two different systems, one used by Syrian Orthodox and Maronites 
(the so-called Jacobite vowel signs), and the other employed by East 
Syrians (the so-called Nestorian vowel signs); the former consist of 
symbols derived from Greek letters, the latter of different combinations 
of dots. In practice to-day West Syrian scribes (using Serto) rarely 
bother to insert the vowel signs, while East Syrian ones quite frequently 
give them. 



Many Syriac scribes, right up to the present day (as we shall 
see, manuscripts still continue to be copied), have been very fine 
calligraphers. A few have also been illuminators, and by far the most 
famous illustrated Syriac manuscript is the so-called 'Rabbula Gospels' 
in the Laurentian Library, Florence. According to the long colophon 
the scribe Rabbula completed this magnificent work on the sixth of February 
'in the year 897 of Alexander', that is AD 586, at the Monastery of St 
John of Deth Zagba, probably somewhere in North Syria. But this is by 
no means the only illuminated Syriac manuscript to survive, as can be 
readily seen by anyone who consults Jules Leroy's Les manuscripts syriaques 
a pointures (two volumes, one of text, one of plates; Paris, 1964). 



Tools 



(a) Grammars 



These are best divided into two categories, 
reference grammars: 



elementary and 



Elementary grammars 

Until the appearance of John Healey's F i r s t Studio sin 'Syr i ac" 
accompanying the present volume, the standard work in English for begin- 
ners was T.H.Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar 



(Oxford, 4th ed. 1968), which is provided with exercises (Syriac-English, 
English-Syriac) and a two-way glossary. For a number of different 
reasons Robinson's Grammar was not a very satisfactory work, even m 
the somewhat improved later editions. In Latin a much more useful 
introductory work is L.Palacios, Grammatica Syriaca (Rome, 1954), 
which also contains exercises, as well as a short selection of texts 
in serto script. For those who read German A.Ungnad's Syrische 
Grammatik (Munich, 1913) is particularly well set out for beginners. 

It is often helpful to start on reading simple vocalized texts 
at an early stage; for such purposes the grammatical ^T**f ** * h « 
Peshitta Gospels in H-F.Whish's Clavis Syriaca (London, 18B3J will be 
especially helpful to those learning the language on their own. Much 
shorter, but similarly conceived, and with a brief introductory grammat- 
ical sketch, are the Syriac Reading Lessons , by 'The Author of The 
Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon etc. etc.', in other words 
B.Davidson (London, 1851). 

From the Middle East there come a number of elementary books 
designed for teaching Syriac to schoolchildren. One that makes u,c 
of English as well as Arabic explanations is Asmar El-Khoury s 
Companion (Beirut, 197 2 )* 

Reference grammars 

Of intermediary sized grammars there a-e German ones by E. Nestle 
(with an English translation, Berlin, 1(189 ) and by C.Brockelmann 

Leipzig, 1899 and many subsequent editions); the latter in particular 
Is ve^y handy! Both these works also contain a selection of texts and 
a" glossary- Of comparable size and coverage in French (but without 
any texts) is L.Costaz' Grammaire syriague (Beirut, 2nd ed. 1964 , 
where there is a useful typographical distinction between material meant 
for the less advanced and that reserved for the more experienced student, 

The standard reference grammars are those by R.Duval, Grammaire 
. fn ; c -iRfti} and (above all) T.NUldeke, Kuragfasst c syrische 
7 Z£i23 il k CLeipkn 2nd ed. 1898; English translation Ty J.A.Crichton, 
Son 190°-)! ^German roprintV 1 9 6G contains some supplants 
inTan index of passages quoted. Although both these varies pay 
generous attention to syntax, there is actually a great need for a 
specifically dachronic study of Syriac syntax. 

Of the older reference grammars, that by A.Mcrx, Gran^ica. 
Svriaca (Halle, 1867), in Latin, might be singled out. An intngumg 
fg^f into the earliest European grammars, produced during the 
Sance? is provided by the facsimiles in «^°£-«'' S* 
AnfUnoe dcr svri schon Studi en in Europa [GBttingen, 1971) . 



If. 

It should not be forgotten that there arc numerous grammars 
by native Syriac scholars, going back to Jacob of Edessa in the seventh 
century. The thirteenth century polymath, Barhebraeus, even wrote a 
verse grammar, as well as one in prose. Of the more recent grammars 
published in the Middle East mention should be made of the Arabic one 
by C.J.David (Mosul, l8?9; 2nd od. 1896), the learned Syrian Catholic 
metropolitan of Damascus and editor of the Mosul edition of the 
Peshitta ( 1887-91), and of the French Clef dc la langue arameenne 
(Mosul, 1905) by Alphonse Mingana, later of Birmingham fame. 

(t>) Anthologies of texts (chrestomathics J 

The chrestoraathy at the end of Brockelmann ' s Syrischc Grammatik 
offers a particularly good selection of texts (there is a slight differ- 
ence in choice of texts between the earlier and later editions), with 
samples in all three scripts, both vocalized and unvocalized. n e of 
the pieces included is part of the Teaching of Addai, the Syriac account 
of the legend concerning king Abgar's correspondence with Jesus. 
Brockelmann' s work contains a useful glossary, of which an English 
edition, with added etymological notes, has been published separately 
by M.Goshen Gottstein under the title A Syr iac Glossary (Wiesbaden, 
1970). 



R. Robert's Text us et Paradigmata Sy rjaca (Rome, 1952 ) contains 
some twenty pages of paradigms followed by an interesting selection of, 
texts, both biblical and non-biblical, in a handwritten serto. A 
glossary to this is provided in his Vocabularium Syriacum (Rome, 1956), 
to which there is a supplement in Orientalia 39 (1970), pp. 315-9- 

A very good variety of texts, in vocalized serto script, is to 
be found in L.Costaz and P.Mouterde's Anthologie syriaquc (Beirut, 1955) . 
There are brief introductory notes on the authors represented. 



Most of the older grammars contain chrestomathics at the end, 
and sometimes these will include texts not published elsewhere (e.g. 
the Syriac version of the Lives of the Prophets will be found in Nestle' 
grammar). There are also several nineteenth century chrestomathies 
without grammars attached T and again many of these contain unpublished 
texts; of these the most important are by A.Rodiger (Halle/Leipzig, 
3rd ed. 1892) and P.Zingerle (Rome, 1871-3). 









17 

These are the Kthabuna d-parthuthe , or 'Little book of scraps', 
published by the Archbishop of Canterbury's mission at Urmia in 1898, 
and J. E. Manna's Morccaux choisis dc litterature arameenne (2 volumes; 
Mosul, 1901 ; reprinted Baghdad, 1977)- Both those employ the East 
Syrian script. 



(c) Dictionaries 

Besides the glossaries attached to the various grammars and 
chrestomathies already mentioned, the beginner will also find 
U.Jenning's A Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament (Oxford, 1926) part- 
icularly useful, seeing that one of the most readily available vocalized 
Syriac texts is the British and Foreign Bible Society's edition of the 
Peshitta Now Testament. 



Of the dictionaries proper the two most easy to handle are 
Jessie Payne Smith (Mrs Margoliouth) , Compendious Syriac Dictionary 
(Oxford, 1903 and many reprints), arranged alphabetically and very good 
for idioms, and L. Costaz, Dictionnaire syriaguc-francais (Beirut, 19f»3)- 
arranged by root, and including English andArabic equivalents as well 
as French. Doth these will prove adequate for most practical purposes, 
but neither gives any references to sources; for these the two monuments 
of Syriac lexicography must be consulted, (Jessie's father) R. Payne 
Smith's Thesaurus, and C. Brockelmann ' s Lexicon . 



Brockelmann' s Lexicon Syriacum (Berlin, l6"95j much expanded 
second edition 1920) is the more convenient size to handle, and it is 
in a single volume. Arrangement is by root and the language employed 
is Latin (at the end there is a useful reverse Latin-Syriac index; the 
second edition simply gives the page reference for the Syriac equivalent, 
hut the first edition more conveniently provides the Syriac word itself), 
Lists of references, especially for rarer words, are very helpful, but 
quotations are never given, for reasons of space. 



Robert Payne Smith's Thesaurus Syriacus in two folio volumes 
(Oxford, 1879, 1901) must be one of the most splendid of the many 
dictionaries the Oxford University Press has put out: the beautiful 
headings and layout, with ample margins for annotation, are matched 
by the wealth of examples quoted. The work (which, like all diction- 
aries, draws on the fruits of many earlier dictionaries) employs Latin 
rather than English, and is arranged by root. 



From the Middle East there is a good graded series of reading 
books (serto) published in Qamishli (in eastern Syria; a modern town 
facing ancient Nisibis, now Nuseybin across the border in Turkey): 
A.N.Karabash, Her go d-qeryana , 'Reading Exercises', in eight volumes 
(vol.8, 1972). These contain several texts by contemporary Syriac 
authors. 



A Supplement to the Thesaurus of R. Payne Smith (Oxford, 
1927) was compiled subsequently by his daughter Jessie, in order to 
include those texts which had been published for the first time only 
in the intervening years. Some further additions, mainly taken from 
medical texts, will bo found in Orientalia 8 (1939), PP- 25-28. 



Two older anthologies printed in the Middle East are of 
importance since they include some texts not yet printed elsewhere- 



16 

Doth Brockelmann and Payne Smith make good use of the tenth 
century Syriac lexicographers, Oar Bahlul (edited by R.Duval, l888-9l) 
and Bar Ali (Part I edited by G. Hoffmann, 1874; part II by R.J.H. 
Gottheil, 1908). The more advanced student will find that these two 
works are sometimes worth consulting in their own right. 



Of the older European dictionaries, E.Castell's Lexicon 
Heptaglotton (London, 1669 and reprints), based on Walton's Polyglot, 
and C. Schaaf, Lexicon Syriacum Concordant! ale (Leiden, 2nd ed. 1717) 
still have their uses. Schaaf cavers only the New Testament, but 
effectively acts as a concordance to this. 



Thero are also some Syriac disctionaries published in the 
Middle East; of these the following deserve particular mention since 
they sometimes include words absent from the European dictionaries: 
G.Cardahi, Al-Lobah, sive Dictionarium Syro-Arabicum (3 volumes; 
Beirut, I887-QI); T.Audo, Dictionnair_c_ dc_ la languc chaldeenne (Syriac- 
Syriac, in 2 volumes; Mosul, l897); and J. E. Manna, Vocabulaire chaldeen- 
arabc (Mosul, 1900 ). The Syriac Academy in Baghdad is making prelim- 
inary plans for compiling a new dictionary. 



A large number of important Syriac texts have teen published 
since all these dictionaries were compiled and, since these include 
quite a number of words not yet recorded in any of them, there is 
certainly room for at least another supplement to the Thesaurus ! *■ 



(d) Main Editions of the Syriac Bible 

The beginner will find the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
edition of the Peshitta Ne\j Testament very useful for reading practice: 
it is very clearly printed and is fully vocalized (serto with West 
Syrian vowel signs). At first the Gospels were also printed separately. 
This edition also has the advantage that it contains a reliable text, 
and for the Gospels it is based on the critical edition by Pusey and 
Gwynn (l90l); the latter has a facing Latin translation and gives the 
variant readings (usually of a very minor character) from a number of 
early manuscripts. Since the original Syriac New Testament Canon did 
not contain 2 Peter, 2-3 John, Jude or Revelation, there is no 
Peshitta translation of these books available; as a result the Bible 
Society prints a later translation, probably belonging to the sixth 
century, for these particular books. 



A good way to familiarize onself with reading unvocalizcd 
texts is to read the Old Syriac Gospels alongside the Peshitta. The 
most convenient edition is that by F.C.Burkitt, Evangel ion da- 
Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904), based on the Curetonian manuscript (with 
variations of the Sinaiticus at the bottom of the page in the apparatus); 
this has a facing English translation and for the Syriac the estrangolo 
script is used (the smaller sized type in the notes is actually based 
on Burkitt's own beautiful Syriac handwriting). After reading only a 









19 

few verses it will be seen that this is a much freer translation of the 
Greek than is the Peshitta; the latter actually came into existence as 
a revision of the Old Syriac. For those interested in textual criticism 
of the New Testament it is important to use A. Lewis 1 edition of the 
Sinaiticus in conjunction with Burkitt. 



The surviving fragments of the Diatessaron in Syriac were 
collected by I, Ortiz de Urbina, Vctus Evangelium Syrorum; Diatessaron 
Tatiani, as volume VI of the Madrid Polyglot (1967)- 



The very literal seventh century translation known as the 
Harklcan (in fact a revision of earlier revisions) was published in 
two volumes by J.White under the misleading title of Versio Syriaca 
Philoxcniana (1778-I8O3). A Latin translation is provided. 



There are several English translations of the Peshitta New 
Testament, or parts of it: by J.Murdock (1851), W.Norton (1890), and 
G.M.Lamsa (1933)- 

In the absence of a printed concordance, Schaaf 1 s New Testament 
lexicon (listed under V(c) Dictionaries) is still useful. There exists 
a handwritten concordance, made by A. Bonus, which is now in the possession 
of the Department of Middle Eastern Studies, Melbourne. 

F Dr the Peshitta Old Testament there are convenient and good 
editions of the Pentateuch (estrangelo) and Psalms (serto) published 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society. At the present time there 
is a large-scale new edition of the Peshitta Old Testament in the course 
of publication, under the general editorship of Professor P.AJI. de Boer 
(Leiden). So far the following volumes have appeared : 

Sample edition: Song of Songs, Tobit, IV Ezra (i960) 
I.l: Genesis, Exodus (1977) 
I I. 2: Judges, Samuel (1978) 
II. 4: Kings (l9?6) 

IV. 3: Apocalypse of Baruch, IV Ezra (1973) 
IV. 6: Odes, Psalms of Solomon, Apocryphal Psalms, 
Tobit, I(III) Ezra (1972). 

These are beautifully printed in estrangelo script; the edition makes 
use of all known early manuscripts as well as of many later ones. 

There are also re!t.oJ>le earlier editions of several individual 
books: Psalms (W.Barnes, 1904) ; Lamentations (B.Albrektson, 1963)5 
Wisdom of Solomon (J .A.Emcrton, 1959); and the Apocrypha (P.de Lagarde, 
1861). 



a K ^,o o 



O CO 
d P Cj> 

3 W 



H- 3 

3 T3 

M 

S 

s o 

a 

$* 

•1 ID 

o cr 

CD TO 
X sC 

P 



a m o 3 

a p to 

G* d 3 

H d d 

o w 3 H 

d d- TO ** 

— 3 ft 

3 ST 

_ tfl O 

P 3 ^ S 

TO d 3 O 

O < 

cn s* ™ a 

*4 TO TO R 



d o 

o g 

3 *J 
d P 
3* 3 
H' 
O O 
TO 3 

| s 

c o 



3 3 

M tS 

P 

to 
p 
to . 

M d W 



h d ^ 



o a 

o p. 

3 M 

d- d 

p M 

H- O 

3 3 
M 

3 <--> 

d "^ O 

3* £" 3 



tf d- (B TO to 

h S *-» q * p 

p -3 CT3 d d- « 

3 to o= s to ^ 

H- w d- & TO 

O • d Op 

HJ 3 O 3 TO 

o a o d & 

K oi TO a P 

d- o 3 d 3 * h- 

K 3 - 3- H- 3 

to o 3 

3 in w co hi 

ft c o P a" rf 

O H« 3* M 3 o n 

Hi p. ffl ^a o 
a ra 

P 3 

- 3 ft d 

*T3 TO p H- Hj p 

I1H3 3 d 3 3 

3 vro d- o o a 

d- cr\ to a 3 to 

d- ■* h- 3 a 4 d 

3 M*< 3" to 

an- to d 

to TO »-. H 

1 . Hi H 

$ M H 

TO TO ft 3 

n a q oj 

TO 



P d a 3 



TO 3 h> 



O 3" 

Hj TO 



w 

TO W 



TO 
H, 3 

d 
d- 3 

?$ 

O 3 



3 * 

O M 

3" d- 

B ' 

p p 



&1 



C 
.. 3 

d- r ~ 

M p 3 3 

_ o CO p o 

T S= CT" 3 P M £ 

H- P M H Hi 3 

►O CT M O ft 

d M to Hj ft O 

(0 3* H 
Hi TO d 

*j F- ft 3/ [+ O 

3 H- 3" d 

3 d O* W TO 3" 

3 ^ O 

O 3 

I 



o En 

3" d 

O TO 

M 3 

P O 



3 TO H 



0-3 1 

C H- 

H to P 
3 

to H H- 

d- H- 

P « >3 

§ f+i 

to o 

3 H- C 
d- 3 C 
O 
^ d- TO 
Q 3" a 
TO 
3" P 

. &"« 

™ 3" ff 
2: ^ o 
P o c* 





h p h- 

3" 3 d- 

^ r o 

* H> LO 

CT 1 
1 P 
•3 



II 



Is 

Q 

O 3 
Hi 

O 
rr 3 
3f TO 
TO 

Q 
05 "1 

3* TO 



V 3 

TO O 

to 3 

3- d- 
H- 

d- H* 

e* W 



H- 3 
d p 

3 

*: c 



* ^33- 



d- n 

d- to 

P P 

a 

TO w 

3- P 

TO 03. 

3 TO 

d- a 



o 

3 
^j in 



O P TO 

5 1 

a d- ro 

Hi O H. 

Hj o M 

TO ~ 



TO P TO 
3^3 

O O TO 

» a »i 

p 



d M O M- d- vd 



Q E 



3" < 

W TO 

TO O •-£ 

& "3 ^ 
H- d- 



H O 

S* !* 

H- EC 
3 - 

■8 

(B 

1 H- 
Ct 3 

P O 

J° 

d- 

3 3" 
O O 



H. d 





< 


d- 


d- 3 


% 


H^ M 


3" 


O r+ 


TO to 


h 


3 




P 


B 


•0- 


rr 


*r* 3 


<& 


H 


p a 


!» Hj 


'J 


c 


3* O 


3 


"i 


H- 1 




< H 


d- 


rr 


■-< 


rr 3 


c 


H- 


3 O 


rr 


P 3 


to 


-;. 


h a 


O rt- 





H 


H" 


~ 


d- 


a*3 


- 


d- 3" 


c 




3- r> 


■-3 "-S 


T 





TO "3 

to O 


"5 



O H- (Q 

3 n 
^ p 

H- d" t) 

P 3" 3* 

3 TO H. 

H- 

•g 

■^ O -i 

P to to 

in m y 2 

9 1 « 

1 to O 3 
to pi d- 

Cfi H- C H- 

*3 

S 3 (+ 3 

3 H- 

?ji O O G9 

H- Hi 3 3" 

a- o 

M d- O £ 

TO 3* Hi H* 

0. 

'— d- 
f-^ > 3" P 
CO 3 TO H 

■v] cr to 

c^ 3 to 
1 o o 

vD to < W 

^ v- o n 

§ d- 3 

3* P 

H- 

CT TO 

1 3 O 

5 s •* 

"^ 4 d- 

"^ 3- 

H- TO 

3 3 

P 3 

2 3 P 
H' 3 (3 

H- m 3 

§0 H. 

4 Hj 

— H- H- 

^ O 

d Q 

H> 3 

O d- 
•1 H, 

•0 

d- n- 3* 

3-3-0 

H- TO d- 

0) o 

13 H 

> TO H- 



H 2 O 

3* O P 



to C 3" 

TO - M 

a H- 

H« )-». O 

d- 03 
H-COff 

O -0 H- > 

3 I to 

\D ~ tfl 

£ to o a 

p *. to fi 

to 

o 3 

4 Hi • cu 

TO t-* M 

tJ 3 ■ 2 

4 an- 

H. «+ P C 

3 3- < p. 

d H- H- H* 

TO to C TO 

rr 71 P X 

e* m d- 

a to 

TO BJ»d 9 

H-^ 3 3 

>-i 4 a - 

C H- h- TO 

d- P H- & 



3 to TO H- 

O pi 
h± H 3 

\P H- CT - 

P!+ "3 

rt- 4 

P *-« — TO 

3 < TO *3 

a o p 

o c 4 

H- p O TO 

to i- 1 3 a 

H- H- 



to S 

d- o 

h- a o 

M ^" P 

1- 3 

P P 13 

< to *1 

P TO 

H- TO M 

M 3 to 

P -3 

3- M P 

M t+ 

<-< 



1 H>*3 



to H- P 



3 «< 

TO P TO 

p. - a 



m h- 

p 3 



1 

P >d 



C 3" 
H- TO 
3 P. 



to H- 
TO P 

3 

w 

P 3 
P 
3 
3 

t^ to 
" 



3 D' ^ 

d- H- H- 

H- d- p "3 

< 3- 3 d- 

TO • to 

WW s; 

p H o 

to h- > <-i 



in d- 

^ P 



33 H 

m 3- 

tO TO 

TO > 

3 

3 TO 

d 1 

p H- 

H- O 

3 P 

H' 3 

3 

«0 ^ 

d- to 

3- to 

to a* 

TO Et 

3 TO 
rr 4 
H- H' 

4 P 
TO 5 



1 I H- TO TO H- 



P P 

3 3 O P H- H- 



sO C_. TO 
H». 

Us to K 

O O 

•3 4 

3- H- 

■3 

3- d- 



d- o 

d- 3 
P 
■3 

o "I 

H" H- 

D> 3 

„ d- 

H TO 

TO P. 
to 

d- p 



TO TO 
3 & 
d- H- 
-■ d- 

H- 


Hj 3 



3 p 




-— a- H, a w c 

It 1 "^ 3 1 TO "3 

ft 1 P H- O 

h* > et « 3 3 

Di • 3" 3* (TO TO 

TO BJ TO H- 

3 P 1 O P 

- C W DO 

3 TO - TO 3 

h* to & 

O d- H* ^ 

Ul p d- f+ P TO 



H 

. T zr 
d- M & to 
P o ■ 
TO CO O 

3- 3 Hv 3 

o o ^ *-• 

O Ui 

> H- d H, ^ >-J 



3 
p 

*3 3 H 

•3 P- U3 



— ■ 

^OPti ffl V £ 
1 O 4 P TO 3 

tU ?? TO 

o to *a 
p 



- to 



n 



3 d O 

d £ 



d o 

H ' 1 
3 *r 



p 3 



1 3* • 

^ to H* O 

,- »-3 H- to 1 

3" 3- M p d 

TO M 3 H< H' 

cl 4 a ui n 
to a a 1 

d- 3 p. 

3- o to 

O M H, Q 4 



1 O 

H- p C i-J 

3 to a 3^ 

(+0 o 

p < hi 

H p O K" 

•-t to i-> 

- c- ^ — 

d- 1 H> 

H- C O 

* TO to H- 1 

Hi TO d 

Hi a 1 

1-1 o 3 o 

Q HffH, 

1 ■ H* TO 

3 D* *1 

tn p mo 

TO 3 H- 3 

3 > O O 

H- to I TO 
d- C 
H- 1 

to < 
d TO 



p o* 

H- 
d 3 
O p 
- 



H 


K- 


3 


< 


ffi 


- r 


H- P 


rr 


3 


3 


TO 


H- 3 to < 





I 


O 


T 


to to _ p 






3* ^< 


d S3 H- 


Cfl 


H* H» 






to • h- -^ 


d to 


t* 


a 


•-} c a p 

-4 O- 3 3" 


4 


to 


TO 


— 


I-- 




3 


d ^ 


<u. <! H 


p 


& 


K« 


d 


^i 


O TO P TO 





p 


TO 


TO 




Hi O H • 




d- 




4 




d - 


H H3 


(G 


O 




P< 


in to 


H- 3" 






(-«• 


TO 


9 d- 


d 




h 


3 




n ^< 


tr *3 


to *i 


P 


H' 




t* 


H- 


P TO 


3 TO 


3 


m 


rr 


P 


P CD 


1 


P 


Pi 


r+ 


Bf 


TO 


O TO 


H 3" 


d H- 




H 


i-- 


^ 


3 


H- P 


5 " 


^ 


H- 


to 




r 4 


d tJ 


• 










H- TO 


d to 


TO C 


BO 




1 




d • 


TOs 


5 


• 


IP 


TO 


sr 





3 to 


P H, 


O 




to 


TO 


n 


p d 


3 


rr 


fa 


:j 


p 


d h* 


& J 


p 


H- 


TO 


3 


d H 


3 H 


- 


rr 


O 


§i 


4 H 


d C 





TO 


d 




TO 


3- 3 


rr 


" 


• 


to 


TO 


d 


TO P 




P 




to 


to 3" 


d 


Cfl 


d- 




H q d 


^ TO 


3* TO 


r 


s 


> 


3- r p 

TO ft 3 


3 TOM 
H. C a ^ 


H- 


TO 


• 


3 p. 


P TO 


H- 


d 


3 


~ 


tn a. p 
•5 H 


P 0) 


3 3 


rr 




P 


C d 


3 


^ 


a 




1 3 & 


TO - 


TO 


4 





3 


H- - 


3 to 


P 


03 


to 


p B -— P 


p 


d 




d 


h* 3 ^ 3 


3- d 


3 


O 


P 


C0(0 P Q- 


P H- 


1 


to 


g, 


to to 


TO 


c- 


n 


P H> H- H- 


H, 




TO 


— 


d ^— to to 


d p 


to 


3 


w 


3- 3* - 4 


O 


^ 




TO H- d 


d 


4 l-l 


to 


4 to < ui p 


3 


H- 


TO 


to 4 h- 


EL ^ 


P «-< 


O 


C 3 Cl 3 


O H* 


d 


^ to 7? h- 


TO 


3 TO 


H- 


tr 1 to - to *^ 

ft H, O, 


3 


TO H- 





d "TJ 


■3 


3 


3 c s; . d 




*— N 




& 1-- * 3* 


TO d 


►D H- 





- *: (-i to 





P (TO 


3 


3 !"1 S3 


3 


4 - 




- O" H- O = 


a 


H> 


L0 


C (3 -J 


en p 


to H>> 


H 


l_i d- 3* '-^ to 


d d 


- ^O 


*1 


O d-d 


TO 


>± 


:-■ 


O0- 





K H. 


P 


O 3 to C 3 


H, H- 


SO — 


n 


-^ d 3* TO 


3 


VJ 




i 


> H- p 


% d 


>r- H 


i- 1 


H' & 


a 


3- 3 


^- to 


H- 


to P 


t/5 3 P 


P O 




rr 


d 


3- a* 


d a 


h- a 


TO 


3 TO 


O d H" 


3 


to 


4 


a 


4 -1 TO 


H" n 





P 


d 


d TO - 


to d 


0. 


d 


P 


H« 






3 

H 




5 




■n 






3- 3 

TO H- 

a 

Z P 

o 3 

H a 

FT 
to 

d 

3 
TO 

3 d 

d 3" 

H- TO 


3 to 

TO TO 

ft TO 



3"*< 



TO H- 

3 d 

ft TO 
P 

H) d 

3 
H 3 

M TO 



Hff 



d 

TO "3 
M 3 



M >■ TO 
H 3 « 3 



t P 



P - 

3 

ft M 



H< H M H- 



H 3 

3- <3 
TO 

to n 
1 



TO d 
ft 

H- 3 

d p 

TO 3 

ft C 

to 

& 

3-^3 

TO H- 

a »d 

►0 ■ d 

P £75 to 
M O • 



TO 
Hi 

1 to 

P TO 
D *3 

§ q 

to to 

H, 
H, " 

o 

d 3 
3- 

:t 

TO H- 

3 P 
to TO 



H H- 



H. £7) 

P O 

3 d 
d 

in to 

M d 

3 TO 

H- H* 



H3 

TO 

P 3 to 



TO ft TO 

3 3 

to p d 
h- to 



to Hj 

H- 3 

□ top 

3 ^ ^ d- a 

■ 13 P 3 

3 TO 3 TO 

H3 3 d 3 

3* d <+ w d 

3" P - to 

TO d 

•3 TO P P 

p 3 3 3 3 

TO TO ft TO 

*. 3" 



TO to 
3 3 

to H- 

P to to 



p 

»! 

1 4 

p 

H* O 
TO Hi 

*-* P 
O -3 
3 "3 
TO 
*3 3 
P ft 
H> H. 
TO X 
« 
d p 

H- 
3 ^ 

H- 

P 3 
3 ft 



TO 

to 

d H3 P 

H- TO 3 

3 to ft 

h- d 



O P 
3 d 

TO 



d P 

3- 3 *: 

TO TO 

TO to 

3 to d 

3 d TO 

ft 3 3 

§ g = 

£ CO > 

3 TO 3 



"3 
< 3 

P g tJ O TO 
3 3 3MM 
TO 3 TO 
W 3 *3 3 3 
< d 3- TO d 
3 TO 

i- f+ r*- 
P 3- to 

TO — ' 



3 W 

CO O 

3 

H- 

Hj »a 



M ft 

TO TO 

o 

d 



t3 M 
C vO 
O* -J 

M C* 

H- ^ 
to * 

3" 
O 
ft 

H- 

d 3 
3" < 

TO p 

M 
tl 3 

TO P 

to a- 

3" M 

H- TO 



w o 

d I-* 

3 ft 

%» 

3- TO 

3 to 

p d 



d d TO 
0= « 3 



►3 

to p 

P 3 

M TO 

TO 



d 


r 


h» 


X 


TO 


P 


H- 


SO 


• 


O 




to 


-] 


tfl 


3 


M 


d Vj 


- 


3 




^ 1 


3 


§ 


to 





- 


TO 


3 


d- 


M 




3 


TO 


H- 




e 


ta 


TO 


d 


O 


s 


TO 


to 


3 


M 


ft 


3 




rr 


ft 




Mm 


rr 


TO 




R 









H 


O 


s: 




-■ — . 


TO 


TO 


H« 


d- 


r 


w 


H 


TO 


3" 


ft 


rr 


TO 


to 


TO 


H- 


^J 


to 


3" 




ft 


3 


H- 


P 


H} 


TO 


TO 


P 


ft 





3 


3 


to 


TO 


M 


> — - 


et 


rr 


3 


H 






M- 


- 


^ 


Lt, 


^3 







i 


3 


TO 


3 


h» 


H- 




to 


CD 


■0 


3 


h^- 


3- 




-..i 


O 


O 


H- 









O 


c^- 


2 




"- 


M 


d 


• 


— 





t 


P 


~ 




O 






• 


PJ 


^1 




2 


<; 


TO 


■j: 




1 


H- 


TO 






3 


3 


H 







3 


rr 


TO 


H 




to 


TO 


v: 






TO 


3 


H- 


d 




4 




P 


3" 




:-■ 




01 


(II 




TJ 


P 


d 






d 


TO 


*3 




to 


H- 
ft 


■j: 


TO 
to 




£ 


TO 


**-* 


3- 




- 


3 


*: 


M- 




to 


"* 


■ 


d 



The standard reference work, however, is A. Baumstark' s 
great Geschichte der syrischen Litcratur (Bonn, 1922; reprinted Berlin 
1968), and this still remains indispensable for the serious student of 
Syriae literature. Unfortunately Baumst ark's German style is notor- 
iously difficult and this is hardly a work to be read from cover to 
cover. Besides editions, Baumstark notes all manuscripts of each 
individual work in so far as they were known to him (of the catalogues 
of major collections of Syriae manuscripts in European libraries only 
Mingana's Catalogue of the Mingana Collection of Manuscripts (Birmingham) 
has appeared subsequently). 



Another, much older, reference work which is still of great 
value to the specialist is J.S. Asseniani *s Bibliotheca Orientalis , in 
three large volumes (Rome, 1719-28), where a volume each is devoted 
to 'Orthodox', 'Monophysite' and 'Ncstorian' writers. Generous excerpt: 
from manuscripts in the Vatican library are given throughout. At the 
beginning of volume III is printed the important medieval catalogue of 
Syriae authors and their writings, compiled by Abdisho, the East Syrian 
metropolitan of Nisibis who died in 13 18. 



Thanks to recent manuscript finds (especially by Professor 
Arthur VOobus in the Middle East) and the publication of important 
new texts there is now a great need for an updated large-scale history 
of Syriae literature. Such a volume has indeed been promised by 
VtJUbus himself (announced at the first 'Symposium Syriacum', held in 
Rome 1965). 



Almost all the above histories of Syriae literature give 
the impression that Syriae literature died out after the Mongol invasion: 
Only Baumstark gives a few subsequent writers. This impression is 
actually a totally false one, for classical Syriae has continued to 
be an important literary language right up to the present day. The 
extent of this more recent literature was almost totally unknown to 
European scholars until the publication of R.Macuch's Geschichte der 
split- und neusyrischen Litoratur (Berlin, 197&), which covers both 
literature in classical Syriae and that in Modern Syriae (first written 
down in the seventeenth century). (For some addenda and corrections 
see the review in the Journal of Semitic Studies 23 (1978), pp. 129-38). 



Finally three important histories of Syriae literature pub- 
lished in the Middle East should be mentioned. The late Syrian Ortho- 
dox Patriarch Ephrem Barsaum published a history of Syriae literature 
in Arabic in 1943 under the title The Book of Unstrung Pearls in the 
History of Syriae Literature and Sciences . An enlarged second edition 
appeared in 1956, and of this a Syriae translation was made by the late 
metropolitan of Mardin (SE Turkey), Mar Iuhannon Philoxenos Dolobani, 
himself a considerable Syriae scholar; this was published at Qamishli 
(Syria) in 19«7- A partial English translation, by M.I.Moosa, was 
made for an American doctoral dissertation in 1965 (University Micro- 
films no 66-6949). Barsaum 1 s work has information on several authors 
not included in Baumstark, but it excludes all writers belonging to the 
Church of the East. 






23 

Albert Abuna's Adab al-lugha al-aramiyya ('Aramean literature' 
Beirut, 1970), also in Arabic, is a good general history of Syriae 
literature. Until recently the author taught in the seminary at Mosul. 

P.Sarmas's Tash it a d-sipraytita at or eta (History of Assyrian, 
i.e. Syriae literature; Teheran, 1969-70) is in modern Syriae and covers 
East Syrian writers. Dr Sarmas, who died in 1972, was one of the fore- 
most authorities on Syriae in Iran. 



All these throe works have been well exploited by Macuch in 
his book mentioned above. 



For those interested in seeing what Syriae scholars, both 
western and Middle Eastern, actually look like, the collection of photo- 
graphs in Abrohom Nouro's My Tour in the Parishes of the Syrian Church 
in Syria and Lebanon (Beirut, 1967) is to be recommended. The author, 
whose family comes from Edcssa, is a real enthusiast for the Syriae 
language and one whose energy and dynamism know no bounds; both he and 
his immediate relations speak Classical Syriae at home. * 



(f) The Historical Background 

Since Syriae literature spans a wide area both in time and 
in space there is no single work that covers the historical background. 
For the home of Syriae, Edcssa, an eminently readable work is J. B. Segal'; 
Edessa, the Blessed City (Oxford, I97l); the author is an authority 
on the early pagan inscriptions and mosaics from the area, and he has 
explored some fascinating byways of local literary history in the 
course of writing this book. 



For the early history of the Church of the East as it existed 
under the Sasanid empire (roughly modern Iraq and Iran) there are two 
English works: tf.A*Wigram, An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian 
Church , 100-640 A.D. (London, 1910), and W.G.Young, Patriarch, Shall and 
Prophet (Rawalpindi, 1974). Wigram was a member of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury's mission to the Church of the East and he did a great deal 
to bring knowledge of that Church's plight to the English-reading 
public. For the period of the origins of Christianity in Mesopotamia 
(where legends abound) neither of these two works is sufficiently 
critical, and a more reliable account will be found in J.M.Fiey's 
Jalons pour unc histoire do 1'eglise on Iraq (Louvain, 1970), which 
covers up to the seventh century. A more detailed history spanning 
the same period is J.Labourt's Le christianisme dans 1' empire perse 

* I first had the pleasure of meeting Malfono (= Teacher) Abrohom Nouro 
early one morning at the Syrian Catholic Patriarchate in Charfet 
(Lebanon) where I was staying the night: having heard rumours that 
a European mestaryono ( 'syriae isant ' ) was at large, he had taken a 
taxi out from Beirut at once and turned up only shortly after dawn. 



24 

(Paris, 1904), a solid work which still retains its value. For 
this Church's flourishing history under the early Abbasid caliphs, 
besides Young's book, there is a recent work by H.Putman, L'Eglise et 
1' Islam sous Timothys I (78O-823) (Beirut, 1975). The Mongol period 
(l3th-l4th century) is well covered in the short book by J.M.Fiey, 
Chretiens syriaques sous los Mongols (Louvain, 1975). The bast over- 
all survey of the history of the Church of the East is by the late 
Cardinal E.Tisserant, in the article 'Nestorienne, e'glise' in the 
Dictionnaire de Thoologie Catholique . 



The period of the emergence of the Syrian Orthodox Church 
as a separate entity, in the 5th-6th century, is covered by W.H.C. Frond 1 
The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge, 1972) and V. A.Wigram' s 
The Separation of the Monophysitcs (London, 1923); the latter is 
especially valuable for the sixth century, being based on little ex- 
ploited Syriac sources. For the Arab period the only works available 
are in German: W.Hage, Die syrisch-jakohitische Kirchc in fruhlislam.- 
ischer Zoit (Wiesbaden, 1966), and P.Kaworau, Die jakobitische Kirchc 
im Zeitaltcr der syrischen Renaissance (Berlin, 2nd ed. i960); the 
latter deals with the 12th-13th century. 



Two authors in particular have made great contributions to 
the historical geography of the Syrian churches, E.Honigmann, covering 
the Mediterranean litoral in his Eveques et Eveches monophysites 
d'Asic Antcricurc au vi ' siecle (Louvain, 195 1) and his Le Couvcnt de 
Bgrsauma et le Patriarcnt Jacobite d'Antioche et de Syric (Louvain, 
195'±); ^"d J.M.Fiey, covering an area further east (roughly modern 
Iraq) in his As syric chretienne (3 volumes, Beirut, 1965-8) and his 
Nisibe (Louvain, 1977)- 



Of interest too for Syriac Christianity is J.Spencer 
Triminghom's Christianity among the Arabs in Pre-lslamic Times (London, 
1979)- ■ --- --- 



(g) Bibliographical Aids 

For individual authors the handiest source of information on 
secondary literature is Ortiz de Urbina's Patroloqia Syriac a (2nd ed. 
1965). Apart from this, C.Moss's Catalogue of Syriac Printed Books 
and Related Literature in the British Museum (London, 1962) provides 
the nearest thing available to a bibliography of Syriac topics; the 
work covers up to about 1959- A supplementary bibliography (but 
arranged differently), covering 1960-1970, will be found in my 'Syriac 
Studies 1960-197O: a Classified Bibliography', Parole de 1' Orient k 
(l973)i PP- 393-465; a second supplement, to cover 1971-1980, is in 
preparation. 



I 






25 

A great deal of information, in succinct form, will be found 
in J.Assfalg - P.KrUgcr, KIcincs WBrterbuch des Christ lichen Orients 
(Wiesbaden, 1975)? where the entries are provided with bibliographies. 



(h) Series of Texts and Periodicals 

Pride of place is taken here by the series Scriptores Syri 
in the Corpus_Scriptorum Christ ianorum Orientalium (Corpus of oriental 
Cliristian writers), published at Louvain since 1903 ; by the end of 
19 78 a total of 174 volumes in the Syriac series had been published 
(nos. 173-4 were texts edited by the indefatigable general editor of 
the scries, Professor R.Draguet, now in his 80' s). The norma}, format 
is a separate volume each for text (estrangelo script) and translation 
(Latin, German, French or English). 



A large number of Syriac texts have also been published in 
the Patrologia Qrientalis , founded by R.Graf fin and now edited by his 
nephew F.Graf fin. By the end of 1978 a total of 39 volumes (each 
containing several fascicules) had appeared. In this series the trans- 
lation (now normally French) cither faces the text, or (in older volumes) 
is placed under it. 



R.Graf fin also started another series, Patrologia Syri acq , 
of which, however, only three volumes ever appeared (not to be confused 
with Orti?; de Urbina's history of Syriac literature under the same 
title). 



Although not in a series, the large number of Syriac writers 
edited by Lazarist Father Paul Bedjan ( 1838-1920) should not bo left 
without mention. Between 1888 and 1910 he published over fifteen 
volumes (often running to well over 500 pages each) of Syriac texts 
which were printed (by W.Drugulin of Leipzig) in a beautiful East Syrian 
script. An appreciation of Bedjan's notable contribution to Syriac 
studies was given by J.M.Voste in Orient alia Christiana Periodica II 
(1945), pp. 45-102. 



A series recently started is Gdttinger Oricntforschungcn, 
fleihe Syriac a (some 16 volumes by I97 8 )i reproduced from typescript: 
for the Syriac texts a typewriter with estrangelo script, developed 
in Holland, is employed. (This is one of the three Syriac typewriter 
faces that seem to be in existence; another, designed some time ago 
in Germany, is based on the modern East Syrian script, and was employed 
to type the Modern Syriac texts in a recent collection of these by 
R.Macuch and E.Panoussi). 



The bibliography in Nestle 's Syriac Grammar is still useful 
for its listing of early printed editions of Syriac texts. 






Syriac studies have rarely had a periodical devoted solely 
to themselves, and the following are the chief periodicals where Syriac 
texts and articles of Syriac interest are frequently published (the 
list is alphabetical): 



26 

Analecta Ool land! ana : this specializes in hagiographical texts (in 

any language) and it is published by the venerable and learned 
Society of Bollandists in Brussels. 

Journal/Bulletin of the Syriac Academy, Baghdad : the Syriac Academy 
was established in Baghdad shortly after the Iraqi Government 
had proclaimed Syriac to be a recognized cultural language of 
the country (decree of 22 April, 1972). Although most 
articles are in Arabic (with English summaries), each number 
has a short English section with contributions by western 
scholars. Volumes 2 and 3 contain particularly important 
collections of Syriac inscriptions in Iraq (P.IIaddad). 

Le Museon : many numbers contain publications of shorter Syriac texts. 
There are now two indices covering all the numbers from its 
inception (l882) up to 1931? and thence to 1973* 

Prions Christianus : this august periodical has been published since 
1901 and for a long time it was edited by A.Baumstark. 

Orientali a Christiana Periodica : published by the Pontifical Oriental 
Institute in Rome. There is a separate series of monographs 
under the title Orientalia Christiana Analecta (of which numbers 
197 «ind 205 contain the papers given at the Symposia Syriac a 
of 1972 and 1976). 

Orientalia Lovanicnsia Periodica : published since 1970 by the Flemish 
speaking Department of Oriental Studies at Leuvcn (Louvain); 
articles are in English, French and German. 

L' Orient Syr i en : this was edited from 1956 until 1967, shortly before 
his death, by Mgr Gabriel Khouri-Sarkis, Syrian Catholic Chor- 
episcopus living in Paris. The articles (all in French) are 
generally excellent examples of f haute vulgarisation', and in- 
clude many translations of Syriac texts. There is an index 
in the Memorial Mgr G. Khouri-Sarkis (Louvain, 1969). 

Parole de l 1 Orient : published by the Maronite Univcrsite" Saint Esprit 
at Kaslik in the Lebanon; articles are usually in French and 
the majority deal with Syriac topics. The first number of 
Parole de 1 T Orient (or, to use its Syriac title, Melto d-Nadnbo ) 
appeared in 197° as a successor to Melto: Rccherches oricntalos , 
which ran between 1965 and 1969 (index in Parole de 1' Orient l ). 

Revue de 1* Orient Chretien : this valuable periodical, edited by 

R.Graf fin, ran from 1896 to 1946; there are indices at the 
end of every ten volumes. 



VI Epilogue: the delights of manuscripts 

To read, as one sits in the Oriental Studies Room of the 
British Library, the words "this volume was completed in the month 
Teshri II of the year 723 in Urhay, capital of Beth Nahrin" is a moving 
experience, for at the end of this, the earliest of al} dated Syriac 



I 






27 

manuscripts {'ill of the Christian era), is also a list of names of 
Persian martyrs, almost certainly brought back from Seleucia-Ktesiphon 
only a few months previously by Marutha, bishop of Martyropolis, who 
had been serving as ambassador to the Sasanid court. It does not 
take much imagination to find oneself transported back across time and 
space to Edessa in November 4ll. 



As a. matter of fact the first Syriac manuscript I ever had 
the joy of handling was a rather scruffy and torn fragment on an under- 
graduate visit to Beirut; although it was no more than a couple of 
hundred years old at the most, my curiosity was aroused by the mention 
of the fifth century emperor Marcian. On return home I managed to 
identify the text as a fragment of the life of the fierce monk Bar soma 
who successfully scared off his theological opponents at the second 
council of Ephcsus in 449- The excitement caused me by this very minor 
discovery proved addictive, but fortunately for one's pocket one does 
not necessarily have to go to the Middle East to browse among Syriac 
manuscripts; London and Birmingham happen to possess two of the largest 
collections of Syriac manuscripts in the world. The bulk of those in 
the British Library arc exceptionally old, some belonging to the fifth 
and sixth centuries - thanks to their having been preserved until the 
mid-ninetccnth century in a Syrian monastery in the Nitrian desert, 
between Alexandria and Cairo. The manuscripts in the Mingana Collection 
of the Solly Oak Colleges Library, Birmingham, on the other hand, are 
mostly very recent (one was copied as late as 1932), but nevertheless 
contain several works not otherwise represented in western libraries; 
they were collected by Alphonse Mingana (whose grammar was mentioned 
above) during the course of two journeys to the Middle East financed 
by the generosity of Edward Cadbury. 



Syriac scribes usually follow the old tradition, already 
found in ancient Mesopotamia, of adding at the end of the text they 
are copying a colophon, giving details of the date and place of writing, 
as well as their own name; and if there was empty space still available, 
their horroijvacui might lead them to fill it with imprecations against 
anyone who borrowed the book and failed to return it. Jottings about 
some contemporary event might also find their way into empty end leaves, 
and one of the earliest, and probabljjcontemporary, accounts of the 
Arab invasion of Palestine is to be found on the fly leaf of a sixth 
century Gospel manuscript in the British Library. The scribe of a 
much more recent (late nineteenth century) Mingana manuscript has left 
us with a moving narrative of several pages describing the massacre 
just suffered by the Syrian Orthodox communities of SE Turkey in 1895-6. 



Habent sua fata libclli . Later owners, as well as the 
original scribes, were apt to add their names to manuscripts, sometimes 
even adding the price they paid for it. One such owner, to whom Syriac 
scholarship owes an inestimable debt, was Moses of Nisibis, abbot of 
the Syrian monastery in Egypt. Shortly after 926 he went to Baghdad 
to petition the Caliph on the matter of the tax problems faced by his 
own and other Egyptian monasteries. On his way there and back (93 2 ) 



d p 

3" O 

a o 
4 

c 

o 

- 
3 



e+ 3 
(5 
O 

Hj 0) 

ft 
5- S 

F< 3 



in 4 

K o 

tn 3 

d 

ft d 

3 3 

p o 
d- 

H- F> 

o o 

3 

o <a 

M ft 



3 H 

5 f- 

d tn 

F- d 


3 O 

H> 
O 

Hg HJ 

4 

d O 

3- h> 

CO ft 

7 to 

(S to 
o 

O ►I 



F" < 

M c= 

CD 0= 

o D* 

d C 

F- Ml 

O - 



d ft 
3- O 

ft < 

i 

O 



ft 

4 

O ft 
ft 
CO P 

a i 

F- 
d d- M 

3-^3 

ft - 

d 
H) d- 3* 
F« 3* ft 
4 ft 
to 

d- g pa 
3 5 
*3 ft O 

h a - 

P o o 



O CD 3" ^ 

ft pF- 4 

co H n I* 

O* H d- 

h-^; a d- 
3 on 

o a pj 3 



a a 

ft O 



PHP 

d- 3% 01 

p d- 

d << CD 

4 to 4 

O 3 
a M 

to 4 H 

C Q F- 

>"S to 3" 

© © 4 

W 3 P 

d- 4 

P F' 

4 *-* ft 

(I Hj to 

4 - 
oi o 

d < Hi 

F- H- O 

1- ft. 4 

H ID ^ 

d 3* 

O O F- 

3 O 

C O 3- 
CO 

n o 

Hi p p 

O 3 d- 
3 p 

3 (2 H 

& ft a 

d- ca 

3 
o 

to. 



d 3 
rr rr 

^1 
F- 4 

3 F* 
F- 

Q 



P n 

P 

3 rt- 

P p 

3 H 
C O 
(n o 
O C 

4 ro 
h" p. 
^ - 




ft IE 


M 


> 


t 


py 


■= 


a 


3 H- 








P 




3 3 


3 






§ 


= 


§ ^ 


ft 


ft 


ft 




d 3 





^; 


a 


3 4 




rr 


H 


'< 




F- H- 


■/- 







H' 


2 


s 


3 ^ 




H 






4 3 


- 


1 


^ 


3 2 


:■-. 





Ifl O 


* 


ft 


fr 




o 




pi 


- 


Stj 


ft 


c 


ft W 


H- 


ft 


o 






H 




m 


H 


3 


1 « 


rr 


ct 


ft 




Of o 


Q 







P d- 


.— 


ft 


F- P- 


5* 


H- 






o o 


P 


H) 


ef 


B ^ 


-3 




HJ D- 







e+ 




O 3 


5 




ff 


rr 


w 


d H 


EC 


ft 


ft 




" to 


C 


< 


ft 


P H- 




H* 


Cfl ft 


ft 




HJ 


V 


» C 


tD 


P 




3 3 


ft 


3 




H> 


rr 


H^ 





fi 




g 


<i 


a a) 





P 


K ct 


EB 


3" 


H- 


ft. 


a 


H- 


a 


ft 


■^^- 


- 


H- 


H o 


•j; 


ft 


s 


ft 


ra 


3 


H< 


3 


se- 


<rr 


.. 





a 


ft 


DO 


ft 


C3 3 




3 


a 


H- 


p 




= 3 


^ 


ft 




3 


C n 


P. 


to 


f» 


M d 


r-- 




P> 


7. 




ft 




d- 


.-■ 


.. 


>- 


P O 


a 


□ 


^ et 




H' 


ft 


ft 


& 


Hj 




.. 


3 a 


g« 


3 


3- ft 


Hj 


{Q 


-■ 


^ 


d- ■< 


H^ 






— p 


3 


ft 


H- 


w . 




ft. 


3 


3" 


ft 


CO 




^< 


to 




ft d- 


ft 


!» 


ft 


~ 


F« 


►1 


c 


^f 






T? 


- 3 


3 




3 


ft 


IE 


to 


O 


~ 


a 


rt- 


P 


ft 




^ 


ft 


W 


3 


a 


— 




s: h- 


3" 


H- 


d- 3 


ft 


ft 


ft 


■" 


F- ft 


d 




3^ 


p <; 


ft 


4 


3- 


3" 


3 






« 




n 


C 


*3 H- 






ft 3 


: 


ft 


Z 


o 


d 


H 


^~ 


3 


■a a 


^> 





"^ HJ 


H' 


"3 


— 


ft 


■g b 


M> 


p 


a 


H> ft 


a 


H 




•f 








§ 3 


— 


3 


~ 


m a 


t 




^ 1 




C 


P 


rr 


^ 


CI 


d-^ 


'■■■ 


H 


ft 


4 


Hj 




3" 


d- ft 


q 


ft 




c 


■n 


ft 


4 P 


H- 




| 


ft 






P 


H-TJ 




p 


ft ct 


a 


tfl 


P 




O 


.-■ 


- 


H> 


d- 


D 


< 




3" 


H- 




ft 


Hi o 


ft 


H* 


H 


D* 


Hi 


ft 


ct H 


ct 


3 


3 


d 


3 


10 


V: 




H- O 




•/- 


P ft 
S" P 


Hj {ft 


tfi 


" 


d- ft 




ft 


rr 


W d- 


r^ 




3 


H 


O 


ft 


3* 


o 


O 


3" 


$ 


3" 


H" 


ft Ul 


H 


ft 


ft 


ft 


CO ft 


a 


«J 





n o 


ft 


3 


3 d 






H- 




O 


~ 


^ 


y. 


ft ft 




3. 




^* 


h- *3 


- 


F> 




^ 


CO 


H 3 


■s. 


ft 


I H 


C 


ft 


Ct 





P p. 


3- 


H- 




Ct 


ft 


ft 


K*. 


5 





-• 


3 


IB 3 


P 


" 


N 


p a 


1 


^- 


P ^ 


ft 


< 


111 


ft- 


< 


< 


M 


4 


H- H- 


^ 




P^ 


-* 


ft 




-• 


F- 







P 


3 4 


3 


•3 




(a 


ft 




3 H 







(ft 


3 


rr 


1 


P 


- 




ft 


a 


P < 


3 


Hi 


3 


d H- 


3" 


O 


P d 


ft 


o 


I-- 





d CO 


3 




ffi 


3- 3 




-t 


d- H> 


P. 


H, Cft 


= 


H- 


B 


— 


3 


P a 


ft 


" 


< 






H- 


ft 


3 


H 


a 


ct 


d 3" 


ft 


3 


W ft 


H- 


ft 


3 


d- 


3 CO 


•o 

- 


§ 


in 


gl 


— 


d* 


d- M 


3 


= 




H- 
3 


O F- 


n 


4 


H 


d- - 


s 


o 


O' 


to 


H 




ft 


Hj 3 


d- 


H- 


4 






p 


ft 


-^ 




w 




co 


P 


C- 


% in^ 


- 


d 1 


< 




H 




d rt- 


a o 


2 


3 ct 




ft 


3* 


ft 


= 


3 


H 1 


3- 3- 




s 




M »1 


B 




P S 


H 


p 




H- 


CO O 


g 


■/. 


P 


P 


■3 


HJ 


4 H- 


p 


3 


Ef 


- 




3 


— 




3 tn 


tc 


P 


H- d- 


H 


3 


3 


ft 


J4 


p 




^J 


O ES 


rr 


1 


3 3* 




tfl 


^ 






cc 


S 


d C 


H- 


rr 


ft 


ft 


ft 




rr 


H- 


d- 


"0 


O 


ft 




- d- 


P 


ft 


^ 





!- d- 


H< 


c+ 


H- 


S 3 







01 3* 


u 


H- 


H- 




ffi H- 


3 


s: 


[a 


H- R 


Cfl 


-, 


ft 


ft 


HJ 


3 


ft 


3 


ft 


CO 




3 tQ 


3- 




B 


M 


Ct so 


3 


EC ca 


i 


ft 


a 


[Q - 


» 


o 




01 


P 


M 


3 


ft 


3 


o 


P 


E 




3 4 


H* 




ft 


H- 


tn 


O 




p 


a 


3 


3 


p H- 


d 


ft 


P 


r^- 


H- H, 


a 




M 


p 


3 


3 


01 O 




ft 




ft 


3 






9 




P 


M« 


d f. 




rr 




ft 


O P 






-; 






£ 


ft 3 








ft 


W 3 
tfi 












3 

ft 


4 P 








ri- 
ft 



ft- 


d- a 


5 


- 


3 CT 




p 


3* S 


ft 


3 


g JL 




to 


ft 4 


3 


ft 






F* 


P 


fl 


3 F- 




d 


Z 3 


yj 


3 


01 ft 




3- 


F- O 


d 




ft < 




ft 


3 


ft 


ct 


4 ft 






d ri- 


ft 


~ 


F- 




" 


ft 3*^ 


p 


HJ Ct 




ft 


4 ft 


"* 


ft 


d 3 1 
u p 


> 


n 


ft d* 


H 


a 


d 


M 




F, ^ 





ft 


d- 


d 


to 


O 


ft 


< 


3- d 


ft" 


3 


H 


>T 


ft 


P J 


2 


ft 


^ft < 


ft 


3 


d- ft 


3 


ft 


-O F- 


ft- 


p 


^ 


^: 


ft 


C3 W 




HJ 


3- 


Ef 


■Ji 


\F- 


P 




P 3- 




V. 


\ft rt- 


:■. 


ft. 


a p 


ct 


H; 


0> 


P 





p. 


3 


3 


»r> 


'< 


N 


a* 


ft 


H- 


ft d 




ft 


ft rj- 




H 


3 


ct 


3 


ft O 


P 


^ 


ft 







3 C 


3 




d- 


3- 


ft 


(Q 


d 


ft 


ft 3* 


s 


H- 


FJ 5" 


3" 


FJ 


3 ft 


•^ 


P. 


ft d- 





3 


& 






H, 


ft 


3. 


ft H 


H- 


CO 


d- B 


H- 


ft 


& ft 


3 


'< 


HJ 


d 


ft- 


3 




ft 


3* 


u. 




F- O 


rr 


H- 


S F, 


ft 


3 


3 d- 


3" 


P 


4 


a 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


PJ o 




• 


P 






r- 3 







P. 


to 


3 


H- 


Hi 




[ft ft 


ft 


P 


p d- 






P t» 


~> 


3 


En ftr 


d 




3 ft 


ft 


3 


ft 


ftr 




a 4 




Cfl 


3> 


ft 




W ci- 


K 


ft 


tfl 3 






d- 


ft 


ft 


Ui o 


a 




O 3 


ft 


F- 


ft 3 


ft 




hj o 


w 


3 


3 p 


H« 




3 3 


H- 


ct 


P 01 


rr 




-w- C) 


3 


oa 


3 d- 


H- 




71 


03 




F- O 


T. 




ct ct 




Efl 


4 


~ 




3" ft 


ft 


cr 


F-S 






ft 1 


- 


pJ- 


3 


-?• 




"< 




F- 


P 


c 




P 


rH 


H 


F* F* 


Vi 




tf d 


3 




-O FJ 


ft 




ef 3" 


ft 


ft 


o 


1 




O p 




ft 


^J 4 




d- d- 


P 


— 


- ft 






■* 


ft" 


P 


3 


3 




M 


ft- 


H- 


(-.. pj 


ft 




^ 


ft 


3 


d- F> 


ft 




3 3 


ft 




3 


■ft 




o p 




F- 


F- F- 






& 


7 


3 


w 3 


M 




P ft 






<Q 







h- 


ft 


ct 


3 


a 




O F- 


ft 


~ 


O I>1 






3 3 


H 


ft 


K M 


rt 




ft 


HJ 




4 


o 



w 


X 4 


H- 


3 


F- p 


ft 


3 3" 


ft 
ft 


• ft 


a 


'A 


3 3 
& 



H 


§ D 


d 


< o 


c 


" 


d 


F^ 


C < 


F- 


ft 3 




In 


3 ct 


ft 


tn f- 


fil 


F< W 


ct 




ft 3" 


ft 


o » 




I 3 


^ 


ft 


ft 


ft 


4 F> 


»^^ 


ft 


H) 


< 


F- 


N« d 


2 






P 13 


ft 


-3 ft 


ft 


5^ 


k; 


» 


Ct H, 


ft 


rt a 


^ 


H- 




F- F- 




to 




F- ft 


FJ 


3 


O ft 





< 


K 


d- & 


ft 


F- 


p F- 


~ 


-ft P 


ft 


ft - 


v_^ 


7j 


3 tc 




3 4 


4 




• 


3* 


- 3" 


ct 


ft H- 


_?T 


H- 




PJ 




ft 


4 




3 3 




•0 


O H- 


rt 


ft C 
< M 


h* 


3* d- 


H 


~ 


C a* 


D9 


ft 


vft 


F- 5* 




ft 


to n 




4 2 


10 


M ft 


ft 




d- 4 


1 


ft 


U3 






d 




3" 0) 


> ■ 


F3 3* 


ft 


3 


«< 


« 


ft 


• 


3 P 


C 


ft 


F' 


3- 


HJ 




ft a 


3 




3 3- 


H- 







H- 


ft 


Lj. 





O 


ft 




K W 


ft 


o 


d- M 


3" 


C P 




F- 


ft 


= 


3" P, 




F 3 




tn o 


d 


ft F- 


ri- 


P F' 




Ct Fi 


w 


3 


3 


ft 


- P 




O 




ft 


ft tc 


-^ 


3 




H £ 





^ 


p in 


P 


rf to 




H, 




4 


■< 


3-3 CD 




to 




ft 


F- 




3 







s: 


ft 


^ F, 


— 


tn 3 




hi <: 


3 









p 




*R 


7; 

ft 


ft 


ft C/l 
F-^ 


3 


p tt 
n d 




3- F- 


11: 


S 


<o 4 




n ft 




ft O 


— 


ft 


3* H- 


rr 


3 4 




„ C 




■* 


d- p 


~r 


3 F« 




S tn 


Si 




ft 


ft 


3 ft 







3 


* 


ft 




H 0> 




3 3 


•d 


3 


a 3 


3 


ft - 




P 


ft 


ft 


d p 


ft 


d 




tn ct 


4 


3 


3" 3 


ft 


F- cr 




d- ft 


OF 




C 


H 


3 3 




ft m 




P 


o tn 


ft 


(ft ^ 




M 


F- 




ft n 


ft 


F- 




F- O 


F- 


1- 


3 4 


W 


P 3 




ft Hj 


zr 





ct F- 




a 




01 


4 


p 


RU 





3 




o 


5 


ft. 


HI 


P C 




2,1 




J" ffl 




a *a 




^ 


O 




ft* 


lo 




ft 




Fi 


^-^> 


ft 




H 4 


3" 




tn 0! 


d 


Fi FJ 




F> 01 


P 


Ct 


d- 


XT 


f* a 




d- 3f 


3 


3" 


F- 3 




n 




4 F- 


ft 


ft 


F- ft 


rr 


ft w 




F- HJ 




3 


H 


rr 


a s 




P - 


3 







ft 


d 4 






ft 


*\ 


O* Hi 




F- 




P tf 


?. 


o 


ft 


-ft 


p 




3 *< 




H 


P ft 


- 


3 




P. 


zr 
ft 
ft 

3 


^ 


4 3" 
O 
d- 01 
3" ft 
ft 


r*- 
F> 

B 

3 





ct ft 


■.-. tn 


fts& 


•-5 


o ^ -a 


7; 




O 3" 


o ft 


3 ft 


ft 


3* 4 


ft 




ft 


3 V 


F- P 


ft 


FJ F- F' 


4 




01 


ft o 


J ft 




3 


F» 




d- -3 


o 


4 O 


rr 


ft" 3 d -3 




C 4 


+i F" 


ftv3 


ftr 


P F- 


d 




P, F* 


O 


tn 


S 


a ft a 


7 




^ < 


O 3 


til - 




F- 3 O 






F- 


P 


■^ 


ft 


- ft 


P 




cn H 


3 OJ 


4 ^ 


7. 


P 


ft 




^ ft 


p d 


F* 4 


ft 


3 M 4 


ft . 


M 


4 (Q 


3 ft 


P H- 




tn P ft 




d 


F- ft 


3 4 


3 CO 


ft 


ft ct 


tn 




P 


W 


tn 


-i 


a ft 4 


ft 


^ 


o o 


F- 


O d 




P 


F- 


F- 


Hi 


4 3 


4 01 


ft 


Hj tyi i 


FJ 


M 


F- 


F- 


d- 


j 


O ^ ft 


H 


H 


v. 3 


HJ (+ 


3" O 


ft 


4 4- 






ft 


ct 3* 


O 4 




F- 


ft" 


ft 


d ft 


M ft 


0> 


M *3 - 


ft 


ft 


O d 




3 





3 3 3 


F- 


3 


t* 


a* tn 


X 


ft 


Bf Cl 


3 


ft 


01 3 


<«, 3 


y & 


EP 


H 9 ^ 


to 




ct m 


P 


M 


F- 4 ft 




P 


c 


Ct F* 


c tn 




tn ct &> 


n 


7 


Pj tn 


3* F 1 




S 


3 d 3" ft 


o 




^ 3 


ft 


g**** 


3 


F« O 


^ 


ft 





ct 


H 


ft 


3 P, *3 


F- 




P 3" 


d 


■^ 


K 


(3 4 


Ct 


■7. 




tra 


(_r. p 


H- 


M F- 


3. 


ft 


d- hj 


3 ft 


'i 


tva 3 




4 


P 


o 


3* 


— 


S 3 ft 


r- 


-ft 


o 


O ft 




4 ft F- 


3 


4 


a -a 


3- H^ 


ft 4 


ft 


H< rt 3 




F' 


F« F* 


ft' 


1 D 


ft 


P 4 eft 


rt 


tn 


ct ft 


2 


5 


ft o 


3* 


ft 


F* - 


S F- 


P 3 


75 


3 hj 


ft 




ft 


-j a 


a ct -a 


d O 4 




ri- 


3 O 


0) ^ 


^ 4 


p 


ft H" ft 


-.-* 


ft 


3 


P 


- c 


■ft 


X r. Kl 


H* 




K ft 


d d 


" 01 




ft ct v. 


ft- 


3 


ff 


3" 


< 


4 


tfl. P - 


C 


P 


F- fi 


F. F' 


3" O 


.► 


- 3 


H 


3 


o 3 


d D 


CO 




a 


.T 


v; 


3- F- 


3 P 




3- O 






O 


^ £ 


3 




p Fi 3 
01 P 


C=l 


rr 


F- " 




Mrft 


H 


ft 


o 


01 F *4 1- 


*» 




E ft 


7, 




^J 


ft 


Hi 


ft 


3 p O 


d 


H 


tn 


£5 & 


F- 3 




O 4 a 


» 


ft 


ct 3- 


4 o 


7 


< 0. . 




g 


F- ft 


tn p. 


to *: 


ft 


F- Cf 




F- O 


F' 


d- 


ft 


O" 3 *< 




3 


H 


3 


p 


K- 


ft - 


HJ 




3 


j_i - 


3 


ft 1 


ft jO 


ft 


ct 


< ft 


a 


ft HJ 


ft 


a s: c 


n 


ft" 


ro tn 


• 3" 


ft >1 


7 


5 ft 


F- 


P 


4 


P 


H- 




ct 4 ft 


M 


ft 


i< p 


C- 


K ft 


15 


p 3 


ft- 




s: 




3- 01 


% ^! 


Ct 


-/l 


1 ES 


S3 


ft d 


ft 


ft 3 < 


F- 


l < 


3 




3 -3 F- 


ft 


ft 


O ft 


F- 


d 


3 


P 


to 


'-■ 


3" 


ft 


3 O 


O 


3d 




P 


d 


3 d 


ft 


4 


< 3 O 


H 


ft 


P 3 


ft ft 


d- 


g 


ft O 4 


ft 




H p 


a 


^ 3- 


P 


4 3 F- 


4 


3 


F- d 


3* 


p ft 


H 


P 




P 


< 


ft 


0) 


H 


<• 




3 


ft 


U5 




^ 






3 



F- 


-3 


v; 


d 3* *: p; 


ft 2 M S O 


— 


O o 


— 


•3 


3 


ft 4 


fr 


F- 


ft 


PP ft 3- ft 


ft 3 ft O p 


P 


4 .2 


F- 


3* 


ft 


3- ft 




ft 


3 


Q P Cl h*i 


4 0: p p to- 


Q, 


d C 


7. 


ft 


7. 


3 P 


F' 


ft 


ft 


P 3 ft 


rt F 1 4 4 4 




3" F- 


rr 


3 


d 


4 M 


tn 


ft 


F- 


4 


pp. U H' 


ft 


O < 





7f 




ft F" 






d 


3 ft N 


F' 3 ft ft 


ft 


P. P 


ft 




•ft 


3" << 


<n 


ft 




4 ft 


3 tfl h, p h-> 


— ■ 


O F- ^ 


ft 


s 




ft 


Fj 


3 


tfl - 


a 


N ft 


• 


F> 


4 


^ o 


ft 




ft ft *—• 


OJ Hj (+ 


-■ 


3 






d 


F- F» 


p 


ft ft 


3 3" -3 P 


3 4 3* P d- 


3 


3 d 




<+ 




F- &; 


ft 


p 0' 


ft 4 F" 


tr o o zr 


ft 







3 d hj 


M H. 


FJ 


P HJ 


p ft tn 


as 4ft 


r^ 


3 


> 


ft 


4 


3 d 


*< 


F 1 F- 


3 3 01 


ft W ft 3 


F* 


P Hj 


3 


7 


F* 


3*- P 




F- ft 


P. ft 


p d- it tn 


=< 


tn 




ft 


3 


p 3 F- 


o 


(3 ft. 


3 3 F- 


O 3 C 4 




d p 


^ 




d 


< C 01 


3 


4 


4 P rt 3 


O ft 4 M ft 


D* 


G ^ 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft tn 


ft 


P Hi 


ft 01 


3 ft. d ft 


ft 


^ 3 


ft 


BJ 


a 


ft 3 


ft 


HJ 


P d P i-3 


3 - ft 


7 


7 


ft 




p 4 tn 


F- 


3" 4 


& F- G* fi 


a o o a 


3 


tn 


ft" 




- 


F' 3 


CO 


S 


ft CT 4 


ft 3 F' Hj (+ 




O d 


ft 


ft 


o 


01 HJ P 


tor 


^^ £ 


d- o 


P 3 M 


^ 


H, ft 


H 


- 


o 


3 d F» 


-■ 




3* 01 d- > 


4 tn < *< 


ft 


„ 4 


i- 1 


ct 


^r 


p tn F* 


^ 


3" ft 


ft o C 


eft d F" p 


.— 


3 3 


*< 


ft 


01 


M << 




P 


3* O Pi 


co ft o 4 a 


d 


P 




3 




M p 




0! O 


Hj F- 


- 4 ft F- ft 
•^ p O TJ 


d- 


4 Of 


M 




p 


4 O 




3 


3 


ft 


4 


ft 


w 


4 


ft ft 3 




3 3 


|_. h. 2 w 


§•" -65 


3 


O ft 


3 


4 


ft 


O F* 




O 4 


8 *f- 




Of F- 


Lft 


O 




H 3 "^ 




K ft 


ft ct 3 


— . 




<! 


3 


H O 




3 1 


3* 3- ^ 


< 1 TJ F 


3 


4 P 


ft 


ft 





O X H- 




Q- « 


O ft 61 3" 


d O p f- p 




fi 


ft 




ri- 


° ^ 3 




ft 


3 4 P O 


3 d 3 ft- H d- 


r* 


H 


ft 




d (+ 




ft P 


*« ft D* 4 


ft d H- F" ft 


Co 


F* *—' 


ft 


ft 


ft 


F- d 




3 3 


- 4 ft 


3 3 d- p & 


^j 




HJ 




ED 


o zr 




P. 


^ Hr 


p h- a 


t» 


H " £. 


3" 


ft' 


ft 


3 C ft 




4 


ft 3 CD F- 


a f- o a p 




3 3 





ft 


ft, 


ft 




ft tn 


3 P H d 


O H 3 in H) 


rr 


F- 


ft 






F» 




rt 


ft F* - 


3 <-4 - . n- ^ 


Hj 




ft 


F* 


h H,f3 




C 


•< Fj 3* 


p ft 




d 3- 


F- 


3 


3 


O 4 




4 d 


o a p 

S s 1° 


d ct F- 4 


P 


4 


3 






F* 3 (O 




3 rr 


ft O ft 




FI 




ft 


ft 


F- 3 ft 




ft ft 


q, m i* 


3 


> 


P 


3 


ft- 


d p, 4 




a. 


4 tf 4 


0* 3- 4 d 


ft 


O* 4 




ft 


ft 


C - 




3 


P H p ft 


F- ft P ft 


< 


P. ft 


"^j 


>' 


ft 


4 CO 




d p 


3 01 3 3 


ct a cr 3 


.--■ 


F- ft 


ft 


ftj 


ft 


IQ tft) 




3 


O P P 


3 P P 


ft 


3 ft 


ft 


s 


3' 


F- 3 F* 




c 


ft W F. 


d o c 3" a 


ft 


3 


ft: 


ft 




ft d 7 




F* 01 


Qj CD P 3 


O 3 ft M 




d d 


F- 


ft 


7J 


P 




ct O 


C3 3 ft 


a to •< h 


ft 


w 


d 


ft 


ft 


F" P 




tfl 4 


d F- C P. 


d 3- 3 P 


P 


HH 


~ 


ft. 


4J 


-, t/ ^ 




F- 


O O ft 


ftT rt h>- H- 


HJ 


a 


•ft 




< 


3 3 P 




O "3 


P F> 3 


O (+ 3 3 


FJ 


01 




y. 


H- 


P ft F 1 




4 ft 


3* 3 3 


cr p 


™ 


3" P 


, — - 





ft 


3 en 




F- 


p - > d 


< p s" i-^ a 


3. 


2 < 


d 


8 


ft 


3 d F* 




CQ O 


? *V H. 


F- ft ft O ft 




^ 


3* 


7 


tfl F- 




F. F, 


ft 3" ct M 


h> ?r 3 h* a 


N 


p 


CO 


ft 




O ft & 




3 


P P 


f- ^n o 


a 


d d 




ft 


« 


4 < 4 




P -- 


p « tn <; 


p H- P - F" 


r ^ 


3* 


p 






H' co a 




Hft3 3 3" ft 


a a oi p 


rr 


ft d 


•ft 


H) 




TO 4 4 




VJ 


ft - ft 


ft n ct 


ft 


3* 


■3 







rt- ^ H- 




3 1 03 


ft 3 << 


f* *n p o 


ft 


3 ft 


4 


ft 


H 


tfl ft 




O 


3" ft p 


\ft M F* 




P 


ft 




3" 


< to 




3 <— 


ft ft. 3 4 


3" tO 3 F Fi 


ft 


3 V) 


X 


r- 1 


ft 


*>*> F> 




ft P 


4 P. ft 


3 vft 3 ft ft 


d 


C ^ 


F- 


ft 




Hi F d- 






d- ft 


4 p. a 4 




01 4 


= 


ft 


ft 


O H- 3* 




*. HJ 


O d ft 


h o 


r^ 


ft F- 


P 


» 


ft 


4 p P 




3- F- 


3 3 


3- ^J -( - h* 


p 


4 P 


d 


H 


F" 


eft d 




ft 3 


<! ft d 


d tO 


ft 


rJ. 3 


ft 







d ft 




4 ft 


F> h 


P 3* 3- O 




HJ 






1 


a- 




ft 




tn % 


H, ^ ft 




d 








ft 



3 d d <tJ 


3" 


l: 


ft 




ft 3" O 


ft 


3 


F- 


ft 




ft 


m 


'n 


ft 


4 




d d 


n 


ft 


rr 


ft 




o hj pr 


p 




p 


U 




p ft 


ft 


ct 


ft 


to 




*: ct 


F' 


Z 


FJ 






O 4 W 


C 







P 




4 F-^ 


3 




ct 






?r g 4 


7 


< 


~ 


ft 




4 F- 


F> 





ft 


o 


Q 


F- p 


"^ 


H 




ri- 


3 


3 p* 3 




3 


w 


ft 


ft 







5 


M 






ft O 


ft 


ft 


4 


or 


ft 








7~- 


-< 


N 


ft F' d 


p 


ft 


ft 




o 


01 3" 




ft 


3 


d 


F- 


F* 


ft- 


H 




rr 


rr 


K» 3 d 


F- 


M 




ft 


F- 


a - o o 


3 


ft 


rr 




3 


4 F- M 


H- 


ft 





13 


GQ 


QJ p. 


3 


ft 




ft 




4 3 4J3 


F< 


d 





3 


l ^i ft P 


rr 





3 


ft 


ft 


to d 


H- 


3 


ft 


Ct 


3 


f- to 4 


< 








ft 


d F- 


ft 


ft 


ft 


d 


3 


oi a p 
q 5 4 

F' 4 n 




H, 


F> 


lj 


d 


ft 




«) 


ft 




ft 


:— 


ft 


H 


F< 


fj or 


H, 


F- 


ft 


H> 


ft 


- Fl 


H> 


*^ 


ft 


ft 




Cft F- 


ft 


ft 




~ 


3 


t 3 3 


ft 


7 


d 




^ 


P 






rr 


ft 




P d O 


ft 





P 


ft 


O 


M F- g 


P 


-ft 


rr 


3 


1 


3 3 1 


of 






ft 


to B 


H 


rr 


-■ 


p 




W 01 


ft 


3" 


ct 


3 


ft 


d K o 




ft 




i 


EL c 


F- 




*: 




p gr oi 


3 


7 


I 


-3 


ft 


a a t 




P 


P 


4 


c 


d 


F- 




— 


F 


In 


— 


ft 


3 


ft 


ft 


ft 


d 


ft 


H- 


3 


cr h/-* 




n 




ft 


O 


e hi o 


O 




£ 


ft 


ft 


4-3 


ft 


g, 


zr 


O 






H; 







rr 


Jt 


P < P 


F- 


F- 






ft 


W ft 


ft 


fi 


zr 


P> 


to 


4 to 


ft 


rr 


ft 


- 




3> H c 






p. 


3. 


X 


ft ^ o" 





Fi 






3 


>r w 


H, 




o 


o 


ft 


4 F- ft 




3 


ft 


y 


ft 


H- 3 tO 


tt 


P 


ftj 


4 




ft & C 


3 


P 


F- 


ft 


i— 


3* H* ft 


ft 




ft 


3 




ft ^ 3 




HJ 


& 


F- 


ft 


01 d 


7 


ft 




ft 


§ 


EQ p 


ft 


4 


d 


^ 


ft F- < 


ft 


n 


3- 


P 


ft 


— F 1 F- 


4 


zr 


C 


4 




^ O to 


ft 


ft 








. ^ F- 


ct 


ft- 








ft d 


P 










a 


ft 











3- 3* 



3 O 




4 




3 P 




4 HJ 




- 3* 




**( 




4 




3 O 




3 Hi 




01 




3" 




d F- 




O 0) 




Hj 




< 3 




ft 3 




4 F- 




F- 




Ul o 




O P 




d 




3 F. 




ft 




3 3 




O 01 


M 


Q - 


o 


4 




P (3 




3 F< 




3* < 




01 ft 




3 












a f. 




P. 3 





O ft 

P H( 

4 ft 

d <n 

F- ft 

ft 3 

F" d 
ft 



y) 



APPENDIX: The Syrian Churches 



Syriac literature is closely tied to church history, and the 
variety of names in use for the various Syrian churches, coupled with 
the popular misconceptions which are current (even in otherwise rcliablt 
modern works) about their theological position, combine to increase the 
bewilderment of the outsider and the newcomer to the subject. 



First of all it will be helpful to clarify the confusing 
terminology by means of a table: 



Official name 



Syrian Orthodox 

Church 

Church of the 
East 

(more recently 
j 'Assyrian 
! Church of the 
! East') 



Also known 1 Oth or ( Euro pean ) 
as sobriquets 



Vest Syrians 



East Syrians 



Uniate counter- 



part (in commun- 
ion with Rome) 



Monophysites, Jacobites I Syrian Catholics 



Nestorians, Assyrians i Chaldeans 



The terms 'Nestorian 1 and 'Monophysitc' were originally 
devised as opprobrious epithets, and imply the holding of heretical 
opinions; as such they are misleading and should be avoided. 
'Jacobite' derives from Jacob Baradaeus who re-organised the Syrian 
Orthodox Church in the mid sixth century at a time when the emperor 
Justinian was trying to suppress its hierarchy. 'Assyrian*, very 
popular to-day in the Middle East and emigre communities (since it 
provides a much sought for 'national 1 identity) seems to originate, 
as far as its present day connotations are concerned, with the con- 
jecture of some nineteenth century archaeologists and missionaries 
that the modern Christian population of North Iraq (mostly East Syrians) 
ore descendants of the ancient Assyrians- For nationalist reasons 
some Syrian Orthodox laity now also like to call themselves Assyrian, 
to add to the confusion (popular names to give children nowadays include 
Sargon, Hammurabi etc*). 



In their essentials the divisions that exist to-day between 
the various eastern churches originate in the different stands taken 
over the christological controversies of the fifth century- Convenient 
touchstones are provided by the two main councils of that century: the 
Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon in k51* The 
mainstream of Christian tradition represented to-day by the Eastern 
Orthodox Churches (Greek, Russian etc), the Maronite and the Roman 
Catholic Church, and the various derived western Churches, accept both 
councils, whereas the Church of the East rejects Ephesus and accepts 
Chalcedon, and the Syrian Orthodox Church (along with the other 'Oriental 
Orthodox' Churches, Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopic) accepts Ephesus but 
rejects Chalcedon. 









31 

Looked at theologically, the Church of the East represents 
one end of the theological spectrum, making a sharp distinction between 
the divine and human natures in Christ (with the consequence that they 
do not allow Mary the title of Theotokos, "bearer of God', but only 
Christotokos) ; the mainstream Christian tradition stands more in the 
middle, but still makes a real, albeit lesser, distinction between the 
two natures; while the Syrian Orthodox represent the other end of the 
spectrum (but by no means the extreme end), for they see only one 
nature in the incarnate Christ, 'composed 1 out of two: to them, the 
presence of any duality in the incarnate Christ would vitiate the full 
reality of the incarnation- Ironically the 1 Chalcedonian definition 
of faith, which ended up by declaring that the' incarnate Christ existed 
' in two natures', had in the text of its earlier draft ' out of two 
natures' - a formula which is perfectly acceptable to the Oriental 
Orthodox Churches. Here it should be emphatically stressed that, con- 
trary to widespread western opinion, the Syrian Orthodox do not hold 
that the one nature in Christ is only the divine, having 'swallowed up' 
the human: this is the Eutychian position, which the Syrian Orthodox 
have always condemned as completely heretical. Thus the term 'Heno- 
physite 1 , rather than 'Monophysitc 1 , would be a much more appropriate 
one by which to describe the Oriental Orthodox Churches in contrast to 
the 'Dyophysite' Churches which accept Chalcedon. 



A few words should be said about each of the throe Churches 
which belong to the Syriac cultural world. 

The Syrian Orthodox Church 

The Syrian Orthodox Church only gradually became separated 
from the mainstream church in the course of the late fifth and the 
sixth century, and it was not until the first half of the sixth century 
that a separate hierarchy developed as a result of the deposition, by 
the emperor Justin, of the anti-Chalcedonian patriarch of Antioch, 
Severus. Since then their patriarch (one of five patriarchs of 
Antioch to-day) has never resided at Antioch; the present patriarch, 
Mis Holiness Mar Ignatius Yakub III, lives in Damascus. Syrian Ortho- 
dox communities are now chiefly to be found in Syria, Lebanon, Turkey 
(Tur Abdin in the SE, and Istanbul), Iraq and India (Kerala); there 
is also a sizable diaspora in western Europe (Germany, Holland, Sweden) 
and the Americas (the present Syrian Orthodox Archbishop of America, 
Mar Athanasius Yes hue Samuel, was one of the first owners of the famous 
Isaiah scroll from Qumran; he gives a fascinating account of this 
episode in his life in his Treasure of Qumran: My Story of_thc Dead Sea 
Scrolls (London, 1968). 



The Uniate Syrian Catholic Church, with its own Patriarch (in 
Beirut), has its origins in the late 18th century. 



The twentieth century has witnessed two great scholar patriarchs, 
the Syrian Catholic Ephrem Rahmani (died 1929), and the Syrian Orthodox 
Ephrem Barsom (died 1957)- 



32 



The Church of the East 



This Church was based in the Sasanid empire and so its history 
has always been distinct from that of the churches within the Roman 
Empire. It is indicative of the poor communication between Christians 
in the two empires that it was only in 4l0 that the Council of Nicaea 
(325) became known to and was officially accepted by the Church of the 
East. Whereas martyrdom was effectively brought to an end in the 
Roman Empire by the conversion of Constantine, it was only in the mid 
fourth century that Persian Christians experienced their first serious 
bout of persecution from the Zoroastrian authorities; persecution was 
to continue intermittently right up to the collapse of the Sasanid 
empire in the seventh century. A remarkable feature of the history 
of this Church is its missionary expansion across Asia, reaching China 
by 635 - an event recorded on a bilingual Syriac-Chineso stele erected 
in 78 1, and discovered at Sian-fu in l625; one unexpected bye-product 
of this missionary enterprise has come down to us in the form of a diary 
of a thirteenth century East Syrian monk from Peking, Rabban Sawma, who 
travelled to Europe as an emissary of the Mongols (there is an English 
translation by E. A. W. Budge, The Monks of Kublal Khan: The History, and 
Travels of Rabban Sawma (London, 1928)). 



Although European writers have derogatively called this Church 
'Nestorian', its connections with Nestorius arc rather tenuous: only 
in the sixth century did any of Nestorius' writings get translated into 
Syriac. As a matter of fact, beside their own great theologian, Babai 
(died 628), the East Syrian Church's main source of theological inspira- 
tion was provided by the writings of the Greek Theodore of Mopsuostia 
(died 42fl ). 

The Patriarch (or Catholicos, as he is more frequently called) 
has always had as his titular see Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the Sasanid winter 
capital, known to the Arabs as the 'twin cities' (al-Mada'in), to the 
south of Baghdad. In the last hundred years or so their history has 
been a particularly tragic one; their previous Patriarch, Mar Shiman, 
was a refugee from Iraq, and lived in America (where there is a con- 
siderable emigre community). The present Patriarch, Mar Dinkha (who 
was consecrated in St Barnabas' Church, Ealing on October l?th, 197&) 
for the moment lives in Tehran, but hopes to be able to move his perma- 
nent residence to Baghdad. His flock are chiefly to be found in Syria, 
Lebanon, Iraq, Iran and south India (Kerala). As well as in the United 
States there is also a small emigre' community in London. 



The vigorous uniate Chaldean Church goes back to 1550? its 
Patriarch resides in Baghdad, 

The Maronite Church 

The origins of the Maronites as a separate church are obscure, 
although they are evidently tied up somehow with the monothelete/dyo- 
thelete controversy of the seventh and early eighth century. The 



33 

Maronite Church has accepted the authority of Rome since the time of 
the Crusades and their Patriarch Jeremiah II assisted at the Fourth 
Lateran Council in 1215- The Maronite Patriarch (one of the five 
Patriarchs of Antioch - the remaining two being the (Chalcedonian) 
Orthodox and Uniate Melkite Patriarchs) now resides outside Beirut; 
over the last century or so, in particular, the Maronite patriarchate 
has played an important role in Lebanese politics. 



At Kaslik, just south of Jounioh in the Lebanon, there is 
a Maronite university, L'Univcrsite Saint Esprit, which produces a 
valuable periodical largely devoted to Syriac studies, Parole de 
1' Orient. 



Maronites have played an important role in the history of 
Syriac scholarship in Europe ever since the establishment in Rome, in 
158^, of a Maronite College. In the seventeenth century it was a 
Maronite, Gabriel Sionita, who was largely responsible for the Syriac 
text in the great Paris Polyglot Bible, while in the eighteenth century 
the Assemani family produced a notable succession of Syriac scholars, 
chief among whom was Joseph Simon Assemani (died 1768): his Biblio- 
th eca Orient alis , a survey of Syriac literature based on the riches of 
the Vatican Library, in three fat volumes (Rome, 1719-28), is still an 
important work of reference for the Syriac scholar, (a photographic 
reprint was published in 1975)* 



Some literature 

A recent historical survey of the various oriental churches 
is given in A.S.Atiya, A History of Eastern Christianity (London, 1968). 
For the modern situation D.Attwater's The Christian Churches of the East 
(2 volumes; London, 1968) gives information on ecclesiastical matters, 
while R.B.Bctts 1 Christians in the Arab East (London, 1979) is concerned 
more with demography and politics. 



A particularly fascinating account of the Syrian Orthodox 
Church at the end of the nineteenth century is given by O.H. Parry, Six 
Months in a Syrian Monastery (London, 1895) " the monastery was Deir 
ez Zafaran, on the edge of Tur Abdin in SE Turkey; at that time it was 
the seat of the patriarch. 



Thanks to the Anglican educational missions to the Church of 

the East there are several readable accounts of this Church and its 
people, notably A.J.Maclean and W.H.Browne, The Cathol icos of the East 
and his People (London, 1892), and W.A.Vigram, The Assyria ns and their 
Neighbours (London, 1929). The older work by G.P.Badger, The ttestorians 
and their Rituals (two volumes; London, 1852) has become something of a 
classic. A scholarly account of the traumatic history of the Church of 
the East in the nineteenth and twentieth century is provided by J.Joseph, 
The NoKtorians and their Muslim Neighbours (Princeton, 1961). 



34 

EPHREM AS POET 
by Peter Robson 



What distinguishes a poet from a prose writer is his ability 
to use words and ideas which are charged with a variety of meanings 
all implied in the poem but not expressed there. As literature 
progresses and knowledge widens the mine of ideas becomes more exten- 
sive and the culmination is a poem equipped with notes, like T.S. 
Eliot's 'The Waste Land', or one whose full understanding is limited 
to the poet himself. No-one else can add the notes, for anyone 
attempting to do so is introducing a second subjective element which 
can distort the poet's original intentions. Such notes can only be 
introduced as an indication of what the reader should look for- If 
I were to add notes to the first line of Longfellow 1 s 'Evangeline 1 , 
for instance ; 

This is the forest primeval, the whispering pines and 

the hemlocks 

I might draw attention to the hexameter lino reminiscent of Vergil, 
to the inversion of the fourth and fifth words for purposes of avoid- 
ing prosiness, to the use of 'primeval' as an unusual and evocative; 
word, to the secrecy implied by 'whispering 1 and, to judicial execution, 
like Socrates', by 'hemlock', some or all or none of which thoughts 
might have been in the poet's mind. Or there may be other implica- 
tions which the limits of my education and intelligence hide from my 
sight* 



The same is true for a translator, and translation of poetry 
is an art so refined as to be almost impossible, for the stresses and 
above-mentioned implications of words vary so much from language to 
language that something must inevitably be lost. 



Ephrcm the Syrian (306? - 373) was not only a very great 
poet and theologian, he was the foremost wielder of an involved and 
allusive Syriac which will not translate without a host of explanatory 
notes. However, adding notes to his whole poetic corpus would be a 
thankless task for several lifetimes, and even then the work would 
fall beneath the strictures of subjectivity and ignorance mentioned 
above. 



Of Ephrem 1 s severely ascetic life there is no need to treat 
here, and what I propose to do is to subject some strophes from his 
•Hymns against Julian and the Jews' to a close examination. I have 
not chosen the Julian Hymns because they are intrinsically the best, 
but because I know them best and they can be examined without a study 
of Ephrem 1 s theology which, like his poetry, is deep and allusive. 



Briefly, Julian was Roman Emperor from 36 1 to 3^3- 



35 

Christianity had become the state religion of the Empire in 312 
under Constantine and he and his son Constantius had maintained the 
faith, but Julian attempted in a reign of only twenty months to 
return the pagan gods to Rome. He was killed in battle against 
the Persians and when his body was brought to Nisibis Ephrem stood 
and gloated over it, as he says in the third hymn. Ephrem's literary 
background was largely scriptural, and biblical allusions abound, 
as I have indicated. But please remember the caveats with which 
this article opened. Much fuller treatment of Ephrem both as poet 
and theologian will be found in Robert Murray's wonderful book 
S ymbols of Church and Kingdom (Cambridge 1975), and there is a fine 
introduction and translation of twelve poems in S.P, Brock's The Harp 
of the Spirit (Studies Supplementary to Sobornost no. 4). Otherwise 
the only satisfactory translation of Ephrem that I know is that by 
R.Lavenant S.J. with notes by F.Graf fin S.J. : Hymnes sur le Pargdis 
(Sources Chrctienncs Paris 1968). All I try to do in this short 
article is to whet an appetite, with an insistence that the only way 
to study Ephrem properly is in Syriac. 



An admirable and brief analysis of Ephrem's prosody is given 
by Professor John Gwyan in his eighty-year old introduction to Ephrem 
in Series II Vol 13 of the Nicene and Post Niceno Fathers. I re- 
produce a part of it (pp 1/10-9) : 



The Syriac ilymnody is constructed on the Hebrew principle of 
parallelism, in which thought answers to thought in clauses 
of repetitive or antithetical balance : but, unlike the 
Hebrew, its clauses are further regulated by strict equiv- 
alence of syllabic measure. But though in this latter res- 
pect it seems to approach to the forms of Western verse, 
ancient or modern, yet the resemblance is but superficial : 
Syriac verse is not measured by feet, whether determined by 
syllabic quantity as in Greek and Latin, or by accent, as in 
English and other modern languages, Thus the metre of 
Syriac poetry is substantially the 'thought-metre 1 (as it has 
been well called) of Hebrew, reduced to regularity of form by 
the rule that each of the lines into which the balanced 
clauses fall, shall consist of a fixed number of syllables. 
There is no systematic rhyme; but the nature of the language, 
which by reason of its uniformity of etymological structure 
abounds in words of like terminations, often causes corres- 
pondences of sound amounting to rhyme, or at least to asson- 
ance. The lines are very short j not exceeding twelve 
syllables, sometimes confined to four- Ephraim, though not 
the actual inventor, was the first master of this metrical 
system, the first to develop it into system and variety. His 
favourite metres are "the five-syllabled and the seven- 
syllabled- In his more elaborate poems, such as the Nisibenc 
series, which are rather Odes than Hymns, the strophes or 
stanzas into which the lines are arranged arc often long and 
of complicated structure, each strophe consisting of many 
lines (ranging from four up to fourteen or more) of various 
lengths according to a fixed scheme rigidly adhered to through- 
out the poem - sometimes throughout a group of cognate poems. 



In other poems, especially in Hymns intended for popular or 
ecclesiastical use, where simplicity of structure is- suitable, 
the lines which compose each strophe, whatever their number, 
are of uniform length. 



And now to the Hymns against Julian. I have chosen two con- 
secutive six-line strophes from the first two of the four, and have 
added fairly full notes on the poetic features I found there - but 
please remember how subjective this is. 



1 : 12 The Kings, the sons of truth, in the figure of two 
bulls made the two testaments equal and yoked them in a 
harmonious yoke. They toiled, they adorned the earth and 
briers put on the beauty of the wheat, and the seed spread 
its colour even over the tare. In their freedom they put 
it (sc. the colour) off when they put off again the beauty, 



The labour with which the true faith was cultivated by 
Constantine and Constantius is described in allusive detail. These 
two emperors are coupled, as they are in the hymn De Ecclosia (verse 
15) where they are spoken of as 'the kings who gave shade (and) re- 
freshed us in the heat** Using the bible as their yoke of oxen 
they spread the beauty of the faith, and even the most unpromising 
thorns and tares were covered with wheat* 



The yoking of the Testaments would be congenial to Ephrem, 
as his writings show how much he depended upon the O.T, , neglected 
or misrepresented by some of the Gnostics whose work Ephrem felt 
constrained to denounce. Indeed, although the 'seed* here is, to 
maintain the Matthaean image, 'the sons of the Kingdom', its spreading 
throughout the world recalls the promise to Abraham (Gen.22. 17, 18) , 
thus 'yoking the testaments' indeed. 



Constantine also 'yoked' Church and State after his conver- 
sion, and Ephrem obviously saw this as harmonious and a light burden. 
Under the new so-called freedom, however, the thorns and tares had 
shown their true colours (cf. Carmina Nisibena 11:32), the same fate 
had befallen the world as in Jer 12.13. 



1 : 13 Some of them were thorns, some of them grains of 
wheat, some of them gold, some of them ashes- The tyrant 
was a furnace for the beauty of the true ones. Who saw a 
glorious vision where truth went in and was tried in the 
furnace of deceit? Error magnified the true ones and was 
not aware. 



In the chiastic opening of this strophe the image shifts 
from field to furnace. Ephrem appreciated that despite the ubi- 
quitous spread of the wheat under Julian's predecessors the unworthy 






37 

were lurking just below the surface, tares and dross which had been 
accepted as wheat and gold. This is another benefit unJcnowingly 
conferred by Julian in his repression. Casting them into a furnace 
as did Nebuchadnezzar (to whom explicit reference is made later in 
this Hymn) he separated the gold and dross. Despite the change in 
symbolism the idea of the beauty of holiness is maintained and a new 
scheme of images is fitted into the overall scheme. 



A new term, 'tyrant' ( J— i Y— ^ ), is used, of Julian. In 
his hymn De Paradiso 13 : 12 the same word is used of Satan. Not 
only is it derived from the Greek rtJA<xvrOs (tyrannos) and so a 
perfect term for the Hollcnising emperor, but from its resemblance 
to a word meaning flint, it can also mean contumacious or rebellious , 



The formula 'Who saw?' ( I t— o Q-LJQ ) is not an uncommon 
way of introducing a paradox with Ephrem. Here a paganising emperor 
separates true from specious Christians. Only the 'true' (or 'firm' 

) V-* yL*. can mean both) resisted the temptation to join the 
emperor's side. The vision is 'glorious' because it demonstrates 
the strength of the true in the face of a purification like that in 
Mai 3^3- The furnace metaphor is also found in the historians of 
the period, e.g. Socrates Scholasticus History 3 : 13 where, as else- 
where, I think he is in debt to Ephrem. 

'Error' ( j-* 5* a_^ ) and 'true ones' are well contrasted, 
and the irony of the doomed 'wanderers' (the root 'to err' also - 
•wander, be about to die' etc.) testing those firm in faith is more 
than a simple difference between true and false. 



2 i 7 The pagans bore about their idols and raved and the 
circumcised blew trumpets and were mad, and all sang with 
their voices and behaved disorderly. The feast was like 
the one in the desert, the Good One who chastened those 
stirred up by one calf is He who chastened many stirred up 
by one King. 



This strophe, without introducing any new ideas, draws to- 
gether features from the Hymns so far by means of imagery and vocabu- 
lary. The first line recalls Isaiah 46 and may refer to processions 
in which the idols were carried round. 



In order to reintroduce the parallel with the Golden Calf 
the 'circumcised' (Jews) are again mentioned. The circumcised here 
seem to have been won over entirely to paganism, taking a full, 
ashamedly wild part in its festival. 



Ephrem changes vocabulary to avoid repeating earlier lines 
verbatim (e.g. n < v £ for 1-J^ s , and O U) for T N 1 )- 
Again there is a characteristic climax of simple phrases, ending with 



38 

the double entendre of CuxAi 1 { 
wildly 1 or 'became contemptible'. 



which may mean either 'behaved 



Having thus established with the festival a point of contact 
between the idolatrous pagans and the Jews, the scene is set for 
fuller comparison between the Emperor and the Golden Calf. The root 

o* — ^5-*- reappearing frequently is, together with other words for 
going or driving mad, Ephrcm's favourite way of describing Julian's 
effect upon his subjects. 



2 : 8 He crushed that calf that he might cut short the 
disturbance and destroyed that crown that he might" cut off 
the madness ; as a physician lie cut off the cause of the 
disturbance. Both of them were overthrown in the south - 
by means of hard iron he destroyed that calf, and with a 
dreaded spear he destroyed that King. 



Julian's position is represented as very similar to that of 
the calf in Ex 32. As God through Moses smashed the Golden Calf T 
so did he bring down Julian, smashing the golden crown that symbolised 
his power, God excised him and with him the ' stirring-up' into pagan 
excesses as the Decalogue brought an end to the revelry of Ex. 32.15f. 



The Calf was destroyed near Sinai, but the exact place of 
Julian's fall is nowhere made plain. It was, however, near Corduone 
and Ctesiphon, and so some 350 miles south-west of Ephrem's home, 
Nisibis. 



The four verbs in lines 1 and 2 are interesting: lD-J is used 
in the Peshitta of Ex, 32.30, dXsnS^ implies both physical "cutting 
and excommunication, and t I— ^ (which appears twice) connects 
paronomastically with the 'circumcised' of the preceding strophe, 
described with the same root. 



39 

SYRIAC - A TOOL FOR THE STUDENT OF EARLY CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE 
by Frances Young 
Introduction 

South of Armenia and west of the Caspian Sea is a mountainous 
area that falls within Iran. Here in the late Nineteenth Century some 
American missionaries heard of a manuscript in the possession of the 
Nestorian Patriarch which was to have a profound effect upon the study 
of the development of Christology. It was the lost Book of Ucraclcidcs , 
one of the apologetic treatises composed by Nestorius during his long 
years of exile. In the eyes of many scholars it proved that Nestorius 
had never been a 'Nestorian', that is, he had never taught those doc- 
trines branded as Nestorian and condemned as heretical. So it was a 
sensational and controversial discovery. Unfortunately, however, 
direct access to the text was difficult for many specialists in the 
Greek patristic field - it had been preserved in Syriac translation. 
It was a number of years before the text was published in full, and 
the first appearance of the Syriac text was almost immediately followed 
by a French translation for the benefit of those unable to cope with 
Syriac. 



It has become increasingly apparent that Syriac is an indis- 
pensable tool for the study of the Christological controversies. Even 
if we confine ourselves to the period leading up to Chalcedon (as most 
undergraduate syllabuses do), the Greek originals of large quantities 
of relevant literature have been destroyed and what survives has been 
collected together from Syriac literature. Why should this be so? 



The term 'Syriac' is used to embrace all Christian Aramaic 
texts, but originally Syriac was the dialect used in Osrhoene, an area 
of which Edessa was the capital. Until 215 AD, this was an independent 
kingdom, and the local Church later boasted some colourful legends con- 
cerning the conversion of their King Abgar the Black. Clearly there 
was an 'indigenous' Church here of very ancient origin. After 215, 
when the area had been taken over by the Empire, this Church came in- 
creasingly under the influence of the Patriarch of Antioch, though it 
still liked to assert its independence, and its use of Syriac gave it 
some counterbalancing influence in all the Aramaic -speaking areas of 
the Empire. At the time of the Christological controversies, Edessa 
was still part of the Roman Empire, but Nisibis, the other important 
cultural centre, had been abandoned to the Persians. This was very 
much a border area. 



Syrian influence was very important in Antioch. The Church 
at Antioch had had a rough time during the Arian controversy, and was 
now beginning to consolidate again its ancient power and authority. 
To establish hegemony over the Syriac-spe oking area was an important 
element in its resurgence. This was not merely a matter of keeping 
close diplomatic relations with Edessa; it meant also keeping in touch 
with the local populations of Syria and Palestine. Since the time of 



40 



Alexander the Great, Syria had been dominated by the language and 
culture of Greece; Antioch watt the metropolis, under Hellenistic, 
Roman and Byzantine rulers. Still in the late Fourth Century Antioch 
was an important centre of Greek learning and culture, boasting famous 
sophists like Libanius, whose brilliant pupil John Chrysostom (the 
Golden-mouth) became the most famous preacher of the Greek Church. 
But by this time, Antioch was surrounded by increasingly influential 
pressures from the native Syrian culture. All around the capital 
city, living in disused tombs and caves, were ascetics, many of them 
Syriac-spoaking, completely unaffected by the sophisticated education 
and culture of the capital. The urban inhabitants wore not indifferent, 
The city itself was becoming culturally schizophrenic, and its wider 
influence depended on a flexible response to the resurgence of the 
native Syrian heritage. For the early Fifth Century the situation is 
well-exemplified by Theodoret. He was the child of well-to-do 
Antiochenc parents and was eventually to inherit considerable wealth. 
Ho clearly went through the Greek educational system, because he writes 
according to all the conventional literary norms, quotes the classics 
like Homer and Plato, and corresponds with contemporary sophists. His 
Greek is beautiful, marked by a perfection and simplicity of structure 
which carries the reader effortlessly with his argument. But Greek, 
it seems, was his second language, the language of his education - 
that is why it is so flawless, no doubt! His native language was 
Syriac; and his childhood and youth were marked by regular visits to 
the famous ascetics around the city - after all, one of them had cured 
his flashy socialite mother of an eye-complaint and converted her to a 
sober life, and another had eventually promised her a son if she would 
dedicate him to God as Hannah had dedicated hers. On inheriting his 
fortune, Theodoret gave it all away and joined a monastery in the 
depths of the Syrian countryside. Later he became bishop of Cyrrhus, 
a town far away in the Eastern part of the Roman province, not far 
from the Euphrates. In the day-to-day business of his diocese he 
no doubt used Syriac almost exclusively, even though Greek was his 
literary language, and he regularly preached in Greek in Antioch, 
Antiochene ascendency depended on such bilingual competence. 



The Nestor i an controversy developed quickly into a doctrinal 
contest between the Patriarchates of Antioch and Alexandria. Cyril 
of Alexandria and John of Antioch marshalled their rival forces for 
the Council at Ephesus. John was in a minority, but Cyril behaved so 
badly in attempting to hold the council before John and his 'Orientals' 
had arrived, that any hope of a settlement was excluded. The break- 
down of the council was net surprising j more remarkable is the fact 
that Cyril and John agreed to a 'Formulary of Reunion' a few years 
later. The two sides never really came together and the affair only 
broke out again with new protagonists, Domnus of Antioch supported by 
Theodoret, and Dioscorus of Alexandria. There is no need here to 
repeat the sad history of the 'Robber Synod 1 and its reversal at 
Chalcedon. The point now is that the background to these events was 
competition for influence between two great patriarchal sees, and this 
competition was played out not only among the ecclesiastical politicians 
and bishops in Council, but also in the Syriac-speaking areas of 
Palestine, Syria and the East. The allegiance of Edessa was crucial. 



4l 



From 4ll, the bishop of Edessa was Rabbula. He was an 
important figure in the development of the Syriac church. He 
probably encouraged the revised translation of the scriptures known 
as the Feshitta ; and he promoted the use of the four separate Gospels 
rather than the Diatesseron (Tatian's Harmony, which had been pre- 
dominantly used in the Syrian Church up to this date). Theodoret 
tells how he too rooted out and destroyed copies of the Diatesseron 
in the area of his diocese during his episcopate. The Syrian church 
was being brought into line with the Church of the West under Rabbula 's 
powerful hand. Hero then Edessa had an important and influential 
bishop, highly regarded for his ascetic life, but also very determined - 
indeed, regarded by some as tyrannical. 



At the Council of Ephesus, Rabbula was with the 'Orientals ' 
and signed their documents. He followed Edessa' s traditional 
allegiance to the Antiochenc Patriarchate. Almost immediately after- 
wards he switched his support to Cyril, and there is some evidence that 
his own theological views were already inclining in that direction 
before the Council. His defection to Cyril was a serious matter. 
He knew the Antiochene tradition from inside, identified as the real 
'Fathers of Nestorianism' the respected Antiochene theologians, Diodoro 
of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, and proscribed their writings 
within the area of his jurisdiction. Cyril's treatises on the true 
faith were circulated in Syriac, and Rabbula carried with him many 
Syrian monks and bishops, particularly those in Palestine, an area 
always subject to influence from Egypt anyway. Besides, the Palest- 
inians seem to have had theological leanings which would in any case 
have followed the Monophysite position- 



The Church at Edessa itself was not so wholeheartedly behind 
him, however. Rabbula died in 435, and he was succeeded by Ibas. As 
a presbyter, Ibas had opposed Rabbula 's policies, and on his succession 
to the see, he reversed the Edcsseno stance. The works of Theodore, 
the 'Interpreter', were translated into Syriac and widely circulated. 
Ibas, like Theodoret, suffered for his alleged Nestorianism during the 
ensuing outbreak of controversy, though both were exonerated at the 
Council of Chalcedon (45l). However, within a generation, the per- 
secution of 'Nostorians' in the Roman Empire led to the retreat of many 
Syrian scholars over the border to Nisibis (4-89) , and the Antiochene 
theologians and exegctos in Syriac translation became the Fathers and 
Doctors of the Persian (or Assyrian) Church - hence the surviving small 
Christian community in Iran is usually called the Nestorian Church by 
Western scholars. 



The Syrian church was divided then, not only by the boundary 
between Rome and Persia, but by theological traditions. The Nostorians 
wore separated from the Western and Byzantine tradition, and preserved 
the Antiochene theology intact; the Monophysites (or later Jacobites) 
remained within the Empire but were in opposition to one Byzantine 
government after another j claiming to preserve the theological heritage 
of Cyril. Neither side could be accommodated by the unhappy compromise 
at Chalcedon, to which, for quite different reasons, Rome and (most of 
the time) Constantinople continued to adhere. 




1 rt c 

3 3* & 

d- ft H- 

O 3 

H CO 
O O 

3 Q rt 

ft P- 3" 

to O 

So tn 

P- 3 ft 

w o 

W H- 

ft S 3 
3 P 

m n £7J 

O ?1 

3" H 9 

P P ft 

el- to 



H* Pi 


-■ 


a 




M 




■^ 3* 


-' 


to 




R/3 


- 


rt 


to 


- 


Hi 


P 


P 


• 


o* 


1 p 


«• 


rr 


C 


ft 


P 


3 < 


0" 




ft 


o ta 


EQ 


■"3 


o 


[ft 


ft 


C ft 


H- 




a 


H 




3 


o 


ft 


rr 


d- 


P> 




z 


h- n 




rt 


ft 


3 




P' C" 


H« 


> 




3 3 


'< 


i-. 


7 


< 


rt 


M Q 


rt 


H< 


« 


rt 


r. 





T 


ft 


3 


P ft 


l < 


P J 


3 


Kl to 


to 




ft 




p 


rt- 3 






o 


(A 


-3 




1 


P 


rt 


ft 


3* 


p 


T. 


S3 


rt 


rt 








Cl 3 


S 


4 





= 


ft- 




rt 


ri- 


H- 


Q 


h 


o o 




o 


H 





- 


09 






< 


=1 


n 


C 




1 


ft 


3 3 


cr 





a 


a 





o 


ft 


^ 


J2 


ft 





PL 


n rt 


ft. 


"■ 


a 


P- 




?3 


2 


3 


*■ 


3 


tB 




a 


2 


a 


9 


rr 




H* ft 


X 


r> 


- 





i 


p* o 




D 


c 






P 


i 


p- 


ro 


01 to 


W 


P- 


c 


O Hi 


^ 


c 


$ 


o 




h- ra 


O 


3 


rt 


H P' 


ro 


d 




q 


rr 


Hi 3 


1 


: 




P< 3 


h» 


-■ 




'< 


~ 


h- d 


P- 


o. 


rr 


o to 


Ul 









9 


ft o 







3* 


3 rt 


C* 3 








a a 


f 


H- 


o 


rt 




I 








i 


to 

\ 


~ 






rt 


3 


r- 


c 


I- 





c 


rt- 


5 


3 


n 


-■ C 




~ 


e* 


^ 


ifl 


cr- 


3 


3 


H- 


j' 





3 3 


~ 


ED 


H- 


a 


H- 


H- 


H 


-V 


3 


R 


ft 


i- 1 


a 





H- 


H 


Q 


3 


O 


H 








rt 




1- 


Cfl ft 


rt 


1 


H- 


Km 


W 


-j 


3 


a 


H' 


H» 


ft 


3 3 


— 




^; 








n 


IS 




o 


3 


ft 


H 




- 





a 


tn 


d- 


d- 


ft 


~ 


3 




<-+ 


H* d <□ 


ft 


a 


o 


p 


Q 


K« 


ft 


^ 


H 


a 


I* 


B) 


H 


^ 




- 


3 




Q 




o 


p 


ft 


O 


a 


ft 




tf 


- 


,-■ 


33 


3 


•rr 


3 


H 


3 


^ 


* Cj. 


c 


M- 


^ 


H- 


-3 


3 


tf 





H- 


i- 


p 


n 


3 


tj 


3 




3 


rt 


O 






3 


^ 


rt" 




7.' 


n 


rt- 


CQ 


3 


- 


< 


^ 


3 


i— 




ft 





rt- 







3 


" 


1 


" 


O 


1 


a 


a 




Hj 


(-3 H- 


35 




o 


a 


ia 




3 


a 


p 


4 






3" H> 


H 


1 


& 




i- 1 


d 


eg 


< 


d- 


P 


H) 


14 


ft 




rt 




3 







H- 


-■ 




MV< 


Cfl 


3 


n 


= 


rt 


| 


3 




3 


a 


- 





t* 


(D 


P- 







o 


rr 


3 


d-o 


'* 





3 


»d 3" 


3 


P 


3 


c 


H 




& 


3* 






3 


H- 


3 ft 


■1 


O 


rt- 


o 


rt- 


rr 





P 


7! 


rr 


2 


H 


O H- 


ft 




^ 




01 


4 




d- 


ft 


3 




1 


03 1-J 


C- 


t 





o 


« 


3 


rt 




H 





ft 


B 


i 




77 


< 


H- 




a 


3 


- 


O 




H5 


H« 


3 


B 


~ 





1 




H- 


3 


-■ 


o 


t 




pi 


< 


p 


~ 


n 


o 




rr 


= 


7: 


d 


H« 


"4 




ft 3 


rt 




a 


3 


^ 


H- 






>-•■ 


H, 




& d 


ft 


H 


H- 


H 


P 


o 


rt 


c 





rt- (£J 




H- 


", 


a 


3 


P 


3 


" 


" 


a 


3 




3 




3 3 


H- 


■-■; 


H 


rt-^! 




ft 


o 


CO 




" 


rj 


O 3 


P 


^ 


H- 


ft 




:i 




~ 




O 


ft 




rt h- 


H 


i- 1 


ai 


EL 


O 


s 


O 


»1 


-", 


ft 


3 


(0 


3 






d 




o 


•o 





H> 


r^ 


3 


d- 


r ft 


a 


H] 


'-.■" 


01 


H* 


:— ■ 


"3 


1 


3 


3 


5 




.t 


3 


3 


c 




" 


H 


a 


= 


~ 


t» 


p 


£ 




H "3 


ft 


3 


p 




r; 


H 





eg 




R 


3* 


< 


"^ O 


3 


G 


V3 


trt 


O 


ci- 


3 







^4 


1- 


ft 


a 




•O 




^ 


r^ 


Si 


—> 


< 







ft 


3 


O H* 


d 




73 


3 


.-. 


& ^ 


n 


{-J 





2" 




rt- 




•5 


(9 


H- 









*i 


r^ 


3 






B H- 


ft 


w 


< 


P 


3 


2 


P 


a 


o 


3 


W 





3J O 




H- 


o 


O 


y. 


3 


ft 




ft 


H- 


t 


ft 


M 3 


ft 


rr- 


~, 






-: 


O 


pr 


rt 


7 


ft 


r- 


ft - 




" 


3 


ft 





— 


ft 


ft 


ft 


rt- 


§ 


H 


d 


H- 


:;.• 


tn 


1 


M 


to 


^3 


h 


& 


O 


w 


ft. 


ft P 


'ft 






P 


H' 




rr 


o 




r^ 




O 


3 


i-- 


d- 





~ 


'J 


3 


r5 


rr 


Hi 





F* 


rr 


* C> 


a 


1 


H) 


tfl 


H- 


3 


3. 


>-■ 


3 


a 


ft 


H- 





p 


GO 




H- 


3 







O 


-- 




O 


3 rt- 


H 


3 


> 


P 


3 




^ 


P 


3 





IT 


^ 


PT 3* 




V! 


- 


c- 


M 


Cfl 


P 


i— 




a 


P 


7 


on ft 


ft 


M 


rt 


^ , - 


H 


H- 


rt 


-» 


rr 


H 


<; 




- S 


ft 


5_ 


H- 





^ 


a 


- 




3 




o 


ft 




3 


rt- 





3 




o 


o 




09 


ft. 




* 


0* tt 


rt- 


2 


a 


to 


« 




3 


CD 




7 


3 




C 3 


ft 




3 


*. . 


c 


i 


B 


O 


^ 


3* 


ft 


ft 


d- 


3 




j 




rt 






S 





P 


ft 


a 


w 


< 


^, J 








n 


& 


•j 


3 


c- 


3 


P 


ft 


K- 


S 


o 


— 


p| 


3 


rr 


f-i 


- 




1 


H" 3 


►t 


■/: 


d- 


2 


rt 


a 


H- 


7 


to 


& 


p 


tn < 


n 




ft 


3- Q 


3 




2 




• 


ft 





O fD 


r-- 


< 




O 


o 


O 


p 


c 







-1 


rt 


& 


- 





ta 


a 


rt 


"i 


3 


7. 


^ 




» 


7 


P 


'!, 


n 


^ 


of 


— 




rr 








,-■ 




3 H- 




77 




i 


-5 


M 


- 




p 


M 





-j 


O d- 


H» 


■n 


H) 


*i 


H- 







3 





3 


O 


H' 


ft 


■ 





H 




?r 


H 






11 


i 


3 


ft 






= 


(0 


-■ 


(9 


i 






ft 


a 




3 






5 




3 










1 






rt 





3 

3 



3 3 



Octi-ipi p 

3 3 M *3 

d- ^ -ft 

d h, o 3 

d- 3* P (3 O 

p* ft fi P 

ft d 3 O 

M - H- 3 

> H- O 

3 <+ C P d 

d ft ^ h- 
H- 3 

O p d d 

3 M 3" 3 

H* P 



d- H> H- 3 

ft d- W 



o 

& o o 

ft .0 3 

3 3 H- 
ft 3J <3 
H H> 
3 (5 3 
O rt P 
rt ft H* 



ft O C 

a £ o h- 
'Ji P. 3 C 



O 3 to & 

3ft H- 

ft p rt d 

CO 3 H- H- 

- H- 3 O 

3 ft 3 

p cfl - « 

p O rt- O 

hi rr Hi 



•a ft h* g 

ft rt- P H- 
ffl • H 3 



ft 

ft ~ 



O 

3 ft 

ft R 

in 

p o 

7. 71 
H- 

p to 

a 3j 

§ 9 

a <ft to 



p- to 
O O 
O 3 
ft. H- 
*3 

"1 

ft 



H- ft 

d > 

O 3 

m d 

O H- 

a o 
^i o 
- 3" 

ft 
crt 3 

3 ft 
d- 
rt 

rt pr 
3- ft 
ft O 
^ H 
O 

P a 

H H- 

tn p 
O 3 



rt 3 



3 3 3 

p ft ft 

p- tn H e. p 

Oft ft 

3 r^ C* rt 

M rt ft •-< ra 
p (D 3 



rt p 

5 5 



P (D 3 

tn 3 h- 

H- O (Q 

3 H- ^ ft 

w 3 3 

1 p- rt 

IC ft O fl H 

, rt O 3 S 

tee Pi 

■a 3 h- p 

p <! 3- to 

3 rt ft H- p 

3 H' in H> 



2 & 

O ft 

3 <; 

a ft 



O ft 

3 
ci 

II 

D H- 

3 

■ft 



3 O Hj W ft 

p 3 O rt H- 

rt 3 ft M 3 

JO t-« rt 

ft ■ C p 3" O 

3 rt ^ Q £ 

ft rt ft 3 

3 ft 3 

rt 3 W 

• rt • 
P* 

§ 



X 


rt 


^ 


ft € 




a 3* ft 


3 3* 




3 ft ft 


3 H' 




H- 3 


rr 




1- a 


P* 3" 




H> p. rt 


rj 




a tfl 


'O 




en 3 


C 3 




• O 3 


tn 




< 


< 


— 


ft H- 


p> H- 


r; 


q b 


o a 




rt ft 


rr 


rt 


jj 


rr 


H- 3* 


p p 


G 


3 ft 


H 






H 3* 


ft 


Cn?^ 


ft 


•5 m 



rt P 


to 

ft 


H- rt 


Ou 




p I--- 


ft 





n >- 


9! 3 


H> 


ft 


ft 









ft 3> 


h3 


t-r 


Hj 


rt 


- 




:— 


rt -J 


- 


3" 


ft 


r 7 


ft 


H< 


3 


ft 31 


a 


CO 


p- 


ft 







P J 


Hi ft 


" 




O 


ft 


3 rt 


ft 







'ft 


i- H- 


** 




n 


B 


ft ft 


jy 




ft • 


3 


ft 




3 


ft 


C 




d- 


O 3 


ft 




S 


O 


< 




3 3- 


ra 




S H) 


rt p- 


3 






ft to 


- 




ft t) 


w 






3 P 


ITT (♦ 


< 




3 


ft - 


ft 




^H rt 


Hi ft 






O H- 


3 


ft J 




pr n 


O M 


P 




3 C 


3 O 


< 


H 1 


O 


ft 


S f! 


£-^ 


ft 


a 


H- 




H* 


O P 


H, 


3- 3 


3- 3 


B 


H- 33 


B. 


g£ 


tn ft 


P 




3 


tn 


O 




O rt 3J O 







P P 


P 3 


3 




rt 3 


tn ft 


3 




ft ft 


W rt- 


i^ 




ft ft 


P H- 


ft 




g" 


3 3 


ri 




ft 3" 


ft ft 


O 




d p 


tn 






H- W 


3* 


*: 




n 


P rt 







P 3* 


to 3" 


3 




t- ft 


ft 


- 


^ 


'< 


to 






ft 







ft 


3 


cr & 


to 3 


i ^- 


> 


* 


7 


r~. 


O 


« 






-, 


ft 


Pi 3 3 


5 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


" 








H 


rt O 


ft ft 


3 


d 


Jt 


ft 


O 


~ 








3 


H« 


P3 rt 








tn 





S 


5 


to 


H 






ft 


P 


3* KJ (B 


P 


-3 






■■'. 




rt 


3 






ft 


rft 


ft ^ rt- 


P M 




t- 


H- 




O 


B 


n 






rr 


H« 


O 3 H- 


cr tn 


'^ 


-, 


m 


c*^ 


ft 


3 








H 


a p* 





7j 






O 


3 


£■ 


3 






P* 


r-- 


p 3 


< 


H- 


rt 


M 




P- 


3 






1* 


d- 


3 to 


ft p* 


ri- 


3 


ft 


~ 


i— 


C 


ft 


ft: 




to 


*4 


ft 


3 


ft 


ft 


7 


P 




*d 


rr 


ft 




•O 




- 3 3 


O »o 






rt 


1 


O 


M 


H* 


7 




d 


O 


to ft p 


3 O 


Efl 


n 


-' 


ft 


H) 


ft 


ft 


7 




r- 


■-. 


< EL 


3 


ft 


c 










3 


> 




ft 




a ft ft 


a <* 


< 


3 


ft 


ft 


> 


. — 1 


7. 


a 




■ 


rt 


3 


p. p 


ft 


3 


3 


O 


pJ Ul 


- 


ft 






3* CQ rt C* 


3 


ft 





ft. 


ft 


ft 


VI 




DO 






ft 


3 3" *< 


a ri- 


ft 


p- 




to 


M 


UJ 


< 








7. 


p ft 


ft 


7 


p- 


ft 


p. 


s 


*— ' 




Hi 


ID 




ft 


!^ r- r 


3 ft 




■• 


P 


to 


ft 


" 


3 


3 


• 






P' ft ft 


£.& 


O 




3 


ri- 


p. 




ft 


ft 






ft J 


to 


K 






ft 


3 


fi, 




3 









tn 3 


• 3 




ft 


ft 


& 


r-- 




- 




|3 




to 


rt rt 


P 


& 


ft 


ft 




ft 


ft 


to 


H 


rr 




ri- 


3 W H« 





p, 


r^ 


ft 




3 


ft 




ft 




!-■■ 


O 3 C 


rt 


rt 




*^ 


-. 


7 






ft 


ft 




H 


p tn 


U: 7 


H- 


B> 








"r 




O 


a 




•-. 


rt < 


ft 


ft 


3 


3 


ft" 


< 


-■ 


P 


CL 









p- P- O 


3 H- 


ft 





ft 


O 


ft 




'.ft 





3 




ft 


to a Hi 


ft 3 


3* 


"£ 




7 


3 


--' 


P 


3 


c 




C 


ft ft 








3 


t+ 


r*- 


ft 


-■ 


ft 






PJ 


to 01 t3 *3 rt 


g 


►3 


ft 


P- 




CD 


3 


— 


ft 




P J 


* ^ 


p rr 


P- 


3 


ft 


PJ 


vH 




7 


to 


Hi 




■ft 


P N 


to 


ft 


O 


O 


■ft 


ft 


ft 


CT- 








ft 


3 P 


to 


7 


rt 


ft 




ft 


ft 




O 


2£ 




rr 


5 


P t/j 


ft 


P 


to 


Ht 


rt 


ft 


P" 


" 


ft 




p' 


> M- d ^ 




rt 


d 


1- 


3 


ift 


~- 


3 


ft3 







u 3 p. 


3 


=c 


p< 


3 


O 


ft 


ft 


H 


H' 


to 




ft 


•d 3 


P- 


ft 


ft 


C 


3 




:: 




to 


3 




CD 


H- O 3 


P 


-; 


3 


ft 


H- 


"ft 


3 


P 


ri- 


ft 






3 3 


n 


77 


",'-, 


ri- 


H 


■<-• 


ft 


rt 


ft 


to 




O 


rt- p 


p 


to 




ft 


ft 


ft 


ft. 




H 


rr 




H> 


rt p d 


3 H 




= 


r^ 


ft 


— 




rt 





p. 






3" 3 


3 


'. 


7. 




ir^- 


ft 




~r 


to 


P 




P 


ft rt rt 


a* p- 


5, 


ft 


H 


P 


3 




ft 


p- 






k! 


ff 


ft rt- 


a 


ft 


• 


3 













rt 


ft ^ ft 


H- 


< 




ft 




3 


vr 


~ 


p 






3 


p p* 
to rt rt 


to 


H* 


~ 


3 






| 


r-- 


H 






P 


3- 3" 


< 


'-1 






ft 


3 


Pi 








ft 


O 3 P< 


ft 


ft 




P 


c 


rt- ^ 


rt 


s 






rt 


ft 3 


n S 




to 




3 






3* 






7 


O tn ft 


- c 


H« 


ft 


sr 


-. 


r-i 


2 




*1 








H, to 


tn 


3 


ft 





~ 


Hi 





» 






Bf 


O 


a 3 




- 


rt 


*i 


ft 




ft 


•si 






% 


O rt Hj 


P i 


^ 




H- 


rt- 


ft 


rt 


3 


- 






P- O 


H 


5 


3 


3 


ft- 


~ 


3 










O rt 


□ 


3 




3 


c 


ft 


r; 


TJ 






-• 


P. rt 3* 


P O 


p- 


H* 


< 


P 


3 


to 


P« 


p 






ft 


3* ro 


H- O 


P 


rt 


ft 


rt 


ft 


" 


H 


3 






ft 


3 ft 


3 Pb 


O 


ft 


3 


ft 


3 






rt 






3 


ft O 


m d 


• 


ft 


7 


~ 




< 


ft 


H- 








- Hi O 


rt K 




CO 


.— 


s 




ft 


-, 


ft 






P 


3 3 













1 


3 




ft 








rt p rt 


O i-i 




P 


3 


rt 




ft 




P- 






7 


3" ca 3 


3 tO 


i-; 


7 




~ 


-■ 






4 






3 


O 3 O 


ft P>- 


- 




ft 


P- 


ft 


2- 








cr 


ft < 


ft U1 


ft 


ri- 


H 


7. 


3 




P* 






u. 


3 ft 


7? C^ 3 


ft" 








ft 




^ 






ft 


r¥ 3 




q 


ft 


rt 






* 










ft 


n g 








^r- 






ft 




rt 






rt 








■ft 










rr 





•d n p m "^ 

3 3- tj s 3 

O 3 33 3 P 

< H- 3 P- CQ 

P- to O P ■ 

& rt p o 

000 to 

tn h> rr Hi <3> 

o o ■ 

§tft rt 3 
<< O 

H O rt 4 P3 

3 Hi 3- ft 3* 

a ft to ft 

P 3 rt 

H- P- IC M to 

to C H- H- 

rr & c 3 rt 

o Cj. tn 3 

d- 3 o . P 

3 o n < rt 

grt p- p- 

O ^ rt O 

to Pi ^ 3* 3 
M O 

P 1-9 3 rt 33 

rt p H 3" 3 

H' 3 Pl, ft O 

O to < 

« e C H-15 

3 to 

rt 



P rt 
3 O 
Pi 

to 

3 H- 
O < 

d ft 

to p 
rt 

p to 
rt rt 

p. p 
3 rt 

CQ ft 
3 

rr ra 
p- 3 

to ri- 
ft ft 



C Ln O ft 
B M *s£ p 

rt 3 3 h* 
p- ft P 

3* P 3 H 
ft O rt- a 



53 

to O 



P 3 
3 O 



O 

H ri- ft 

U O 3 O 

P3 3 ?3 

3 • ft ft H* 

C Itft » rt 3 

& p Oi 

cr rt H- 

ft s: o p- m 

3 Cfl 3 O t3 

ft 3 ra 

Pi ft 3 

Hj -J 3 O W 

- Hi S 

rt- '-^ to tr 

rr p rt- p- 

ft vo p rr Q 

cr> 3 ft 

O Oh rt w p- 

►1 w H* (S to 
C ft 

O Ui h- rt p 

P< CO ft ft 
P -J 



P O Ou 
3 H> 

a p 
o 3 

rt 3- & 
3- 3 

ft p- 3 

to ft 

p rt < 

3 O P- 
CPU 

P- P- O ft 

3 cfl tn p. 
n 3 vj 

H- O • hi- 

3 3 ^-O 

CQ to -O 

P- Ul 

^ c — 
to > 
ro tn rr 



rr 

p o 



p- p 

to 3 

rt &|^ P 



O M *-« Hi 



O P- 
3 3 
Hi (fl 



&£ 



3 - 
to o 



u> too 

h> rf> - • ^ 
3 P* H M 

tt • 3" ft 



ft 



3 

ft M S> 

3 S 3 (O 

rt ft rt O 



> a 5i 



o w p 



p 
O to 

H, 3 

ft Cf 

P- 3 ft ft 

3 ft 3 n 

P- o 

rt P to 3 

3" rt rt ft 

P- H- p 

to < rt rt 

ft ft 3- 

H> toft 

3 *■ - 

p o to 

to 3 = rt 

3 & P3 P 

ft to 3" 3 

3 ft a 

d> a p 

H"3 R 

a 3 p cu 

- to p p 

O. rt rt ft 

O P ft 

3 ft ft O 

ft M d 3 

p. h- 3 

H- 3 O rt 
to p- 

3 3 O 

P P P Hi 

rt rt rt 
rt- ft c ri- 
ft 3 rr 
3 ft ra ft 



p a 
3 3 

»i 

3 ri- 
ft 
& P 



H- O 
O 3 

3 I 
e 3 

sr 

rt 
^ o 
to 3 
rt 

P 

ft to 
Q. 
h- > 



o o rr 

lj o ft 
^ 3 

^ rt ft 

ft 3 

fOH C 

<^ rt O 



tO H- 

ro > 33 

*— rr 3 

3 o 

to p cr 

ft 3 M 

ft C ft 
3*3 
'£ 7 to 

^1 

rt p. 3 



ft 3" 



& 3 
O ft 
3 p- 



P 3 (5 

ft 3 to 

rt 3 ft 
ft tfl 

M ft Hi 

v; 3 w. 
P 

3 N to 

P- 3 3 

to o 



3 ft 3 O O. 



H- O Hi 3 P H' 

& 3 3 

ft CO to 

rr c 

O H- 

3 3 

ft O 



pop. 

3 H> ft 

h- <; 



3) 3 ft 

3 3 

ft < H* 

rt- • < 



ft rt ft c 



44 



(The Commentaries of Theodoret arc far less radical in their approach). 
Me takes the historicity of John's Gospel very seriously, sometimes 
defending it against variant versions in the Synoptics; he proceeds 
very largely by paraphrase and careful explication of the text in front 
of him; he tends not to perceive deeper or symbolic meanings in the 
Johannine material. This last point is probably a bit unfortunate - 
in his anxiety to avoid allegory, he has produced a rather pedestrian 
commentary which lacks insight into the layers of meaning surely to be 
found in this 'spiritual Gospel'. 



The Antiochene reaction against allegory did not succeed in 
producing anything very close to modern critical methods because its 
protagonists remained convinced that scripture contained all the truth 
of the Christian religion, and so read the text in terms of contemporary 
dogmatic interests. Although Theodore took a more radical line with 
respect to the Old Testament this certainly affected his approach to 
the Johannine material. He labours to insist on the distinction 
between what is said of the Man Assumed and what is said of the God- 
Logos, sometimes rather harshly breaking up the unified Christology of 
the Gospel. A notorious example is to be found in his comments on 
John 3* 13 ' no-one ascends to heaven except the one who came down from 
heaven, the Son of Man. Ascent and descent, he explains, is said of 
the Man Assumed, because it cannot apply to the divine Logos. 



Theodore's awareness of history meant that he could quite 
realistically appreciate the fact that someone like Nathaniel did not 
come to an understanding of the full truth about the incarnate Word 
during Jesus' lifetime. So when Nathaniel confesses that he is Son 
of God, and King of Israel (l.49), Theodore comments that what he meant 
was a confession of Jesus' Messiahship. Nathaniel knew nothing of 
his Sonship by divine generation; he called him Son of God in the 
same sense as men coming to God by their virtue, are called sons of God, 
Theodore did not deny the divine generation of the Logos, but he recog- 
nised that the apostles only gradually got to know it. This passage 
is a particularly important one since the controversial part, namely 
that Jesus was called Son of God only in the sense that other men are, 
was later quoted as Theodore's own view and helped to condemn him. 
Here we can see what distortion has taken place by lack of concern 
with its context. (See J.L.McKenzie, 'The Commentary of Theodore of 
Mopsuestia on John 1.46-51', Theological Studies l4 (1953) PP* 73-84). 



Thus Theodore's Commentary on John has proved an extremely 
important work in the assessment of both his exegesis and his theology, 
Without access to Syriac, the investigator would be severely hampered, 
even though the text is published with a modern Latin translation. 
Text J.M.Voste, Theodori Mopsuesteni Comment arius in Evangelium 
loannis Apostoli C.S.C.O. Script. Syr. Ser IV, t.lll (Louvain 1940). 



45 

(b) The Catechetical Homilies 

The Syriac version of the Catec fact ical Homilies was dis- 
covered by A. Mingana and first published in jfoodbrooko Studies v & vi 
(Cambridge 1932-3). Mingana provided an English translation, but it 
does not always seem to give a good rendering of the sense. More 
recently R. Tonneau produced a reproduction of the Syriac manuscript 
with French translation ( Les Homelies Catechetiques de Theodore do 
Mopsueste ST l45 Vatican 1949). ~~ ~ 



It was customary in this period for bishops to give a series 
of lecture-sermons during Lent to instruct those seeking Baptism. 
Their primary function was to explain the clauses of the baptismal 
creed which the candidate would recite at his initiation at Easter. 
The whole series of lectures therefore give a well-rounded account 
of what Christianity meant for Theodore, and his Christology is set 
in a much wider theological context than would be the case in contro- 
versial or dogmatic works devoted to those specific concerns. Another 
function was to explain the rites of baptism and eucharist - what 
happened and what it meant. In Theodore's case, there are in fact 
ten lectures on the Creed, one on the Lord's Prayer, and five explain- 
ing the sacraments. The latter are extremely important evidence for 
liturgiologists. 



It is instructive for the student of early Christian doctrine 
to see the Christological teaching of an Antiochene like Theodore in 
this wider theological context. It is so much more possible to grasp 
what motivated his position, the kind of religious concerns which 
contributed to the development of his particular view-point. One of 
the most remarkable things about these lectures is their witness to 
Theodore's eschatological interests. He has a very clear grasp of 
Paul's Gospel of the radical newness of what has happened in Christ. 
His opening words to the new converts are about the 'new song' Christians 
must sing for the 'new things' they have received; they are dealing 
with a 'now covenant' in which all old things are abolished. Every 
man who is in Christ is a new creature, and because of the new covenant 
•we receive knowledge of those mysteries so that we may put off the 
old man and put on the now man who is renewed after the image of him 
who created him'. Theodore interprets this eschatological language 
as referring to the future state in heaven, but already anticipated in 
symbol through the sacraments of the Christian church. 



This eschatological perspective explains many of Theodore's 
characteristic standpoints. He thinks of man as existing in two 
states, a mutable, mortal state, and an immutable, immortal state, 
man-in-Adam and man-in-Christ. On the basis of this, he criticised 
the current Platonic idea of man as a spiritual being trapped in flesh 
by the Fall, and he emphasised the idea that the Manhood of Christ had 
to play an active role in achieving the salvation of mankind, because 
for Theodore salvation depended upon a Christ who was the first-fruits 
of this now humanity. It also explains his attitude to the Old Testa- 
ment, another cause of scandal at his doctrines: he insisted that the 
Old Testament belonged to history and knew nothing directly of the Christ 



p p 

c 

p o 

3 3 

Q, g 

O 1 

3 P 

A O 

P. ft 

ft 

0) 4 

3 
p. 3 

S3 

2: 3 
re a 

m p. 

d 

W 

1 O 

H "d 

c 5" 

en 4 

o 

H- 3 
3 H 



2 h- 

ra en 
to 

d 3 

o o 

4 d 

S* 

a p 

H 3 
to "^ 

o 

C 3 

en re 

to p 

M. 3 

3 tfl 
Q 

< O 

6 I 

o re 
C 3 

w ra 
o 

a c 

H- tA 
K ' 
H, 
O 

re i-5 
3 5* 
ct O 



3 H- 



H* O 

<i to 

re c 



H) ^ 

3 F- p 

1 H H- 
h* a a 

to ft- 

d- p. 

o w 

H P £l 

o R c 

Hs a f+- re 

OH- tfl 

1 O H«ff 



ft) 

o 
re 
c 

g 3 

Ct < 



3 tf 



H) d 

3 

rt- p 



B o 

S"§ 

IB 

F- H> 
d O 

3* y 



P H' (+ e+ 


H 


P ^ M- H 


X 


d 4 o 

O to c 


-■ 
tfl 


d- 3 P 
d- >1 3 


re 


re H» 3: g 


=r 


re ?T a p 


El 


3 a"P 


re 


3 5 to 





tfl re> • 3 


a *d ;- 


t- 1 


ft -H 




ct& ac 


H- 


4 3 


re 


p, U 


a 


Q 




B 4 to - 


S ^ 


O ct 


a 


<+ & 


to B 


3" 3 H 3" 


re 


® ES ? 


* 3" 


a o 3- o 


*i 


"d to 3 re 


re 


4 F- H 




ID O D-H 




S 1 " to 


r+ 


re r J5 H' & 





H in 




C 3 


i^ Jl 


3*33 


."■ 


a d- to l* 


3" 3* 


a o p o 


09 


O 3* 3 


re re 


d ^ c 


» 


3 re p 


i 


Hi M H 


<< d- ™ 


w 


h- & £ & 


4 


3 4^0 


<< -3 


c re 


P 


h- re d- 3 


4 p 


4 tfl H C 


3 


d- P 3" 


H- N 


p H ra 


to 


^ a re c 


P « 


R o 


(G 


• o 4 


O M 


^ 3 CC 




4 a 


o 


f5 3 


-■ 


H, 


d" 


O 3" * 


-■ 


V- 3 


1 P 


P p d F- 


rt 


Hj 3 4 4 


p cr 


<+ <; 3- H 


h 


3* d- 


3 


p re ra h 


re 


re d- ■ p - 


tn 3 


H F- 




3* H- 


H> d- 


O C 3 3 


— 


wo a 


?i j 


a ^ o a 


H<< 


d d 


P re c+ 


re 


4 tJ H 5 


3" 


re 3 h. d* 


CD 


H- re d- p 


4 re 


0! < o 


Ft 


p 1 ^ 




-do 




re in h- 


re d 


3-4 


a 


tfl o 


M H- 


h- a re 


H- 


d 3 Hjy tt 


H, fD 3 P 


a 


hj >Q 


H H 


O 3 P. 


n 


P C M 


p re 


m re rf- 


re 


3 Hj h- H- 


H- 


H- F- 




to &■ ^ 


3 H- 


3 < P d- 

p re 3 


~ 


H Z re re 


ifl to 


H- 


p re 




<< d^ » 


:/; 


d- m n p 


d d 


— O 3 




o d- h 3 


3* 3* 


13 3 & 





►1 o n a 


p re 


P re 




1 B 

tfl H- 4 3" 


ct 


d- f- tr 


P 


B 


• ct < ffl 




C 3 - H- 


3- d 


H' 3 


3 


(D to tfl 


(D d 


<+ n o re 


^; 


Q - 3T 


4 


o 


2 


re oh- 


* - 


d p P. 3 


re 


en p S re 


p cr 


3* H K" <; 




f 1 " 3 <2 2 
to a < n 


to d 


p p. o- re 


< 


cr 


d i-l 


S 


re 3 


p H- 


P ft 


7, 


H- d- 4 H 


rt o 


s: 3 o re 




d- 3" - 3 


3 3 


f) H ct & 


D 


re ca 


P 




t, 4 d - 


3 d 


• p d 


o* p 


O 


d H O 


C 


tn P P 


Hj 


a p 


DQ 


H- (+ 3 


4 


£" ^ d- 3 "3 a & 


re 


re 3- a 


3 d- 


3 


h re 


4 


tf 3 D* 




F- o 


i o re 




3 O 









d- d d 

& 3* H- 

S* P d- 

H- d- H 

3 re 

O d 

3" d 



3- Hi h- 3 

c O 3 re 

q zr so & 

H, H- O 



9 P 3 

^ o ^ 
r p h> 

3 H 



re 

4 cr 
re S 

P 

d 3 
O 

P ^2 



co to 

■ re 



< 



= 4 
re 

P 4 

3 " 

3 



*Ej 



P 3 

to o 

3 

til 

re c 
en 
td 

p re 
N a 
P 



„ 3" a 

o re t-> 

d- 3 H- 

re to 

c a 3* 

o t 

re d- to 



d 3 

re 3 



re 



h* en 



ere re 
4 



re re 



P 



p (3 



re n" ' 






re ^ 

_ «i o 

p 4 

to *d H 

w c a 
p o* 

to H cr 

re 



& re 



1 ?T d--* d 



?: 3 re 

3" ~j 

reps 

3 tn 

3 

H- H- H 

d in H- 

H- — 

h re re 

re p h 
p a^ 

|_l H- - 

H 3 3" 

^ a o 

3 3 re 

re p <j 

p ^ re 

d 



re 

—i 
re 

4 

^ , 
re hj o 

H 3" to 

h- re 

& H- 

re d- 3 

to re 
P 
3 

P d tr) 
3 3" 3 

&, re o 

3 H" 



d tfl to 3 

d- 3- re 
h- h- re 

to i- d 

K- 4 

C P 

3 £ 3 

& 3 to 

O hj H 

4 3 P - 
CT d- d 

t+ H H- Q 

3* H- O 4 

p to 3 H- 
d- 3 d C 

re 3 m 

& p 

- ti- 
re 



to ^ 

p, re 



c+ 

5- 

o to 
h> 

re I 

» 

p 



■= c 
re ri- 
ai 3 

t*> Q 

d- to 
H- d- 


3 H- 

• 3 

►3 



4 



O *3 

cr re 

en re 

o d 



re P 
• 4 

H- 

d 

S re 

re en 
< 

re o 

4 Hi 

d- 

?$ 

H- 4 

re h- 
to p 
to o 



d- O 

M* C 

d 3 

h- cr 

< o 

re 4 

3 01 

re o 

to 3 

tn re 



o 
a 
o 
o a 4 

hi 4 re 
cd - 
3- re en 
h- ?r 
m to 

ci S*4 
p (_■ 
d- d re 



d- a re a 



re 
H p 

d 3 



■ i 

re to 
d 

cr 3 

p o 

3 d 



to a h* o 



^ P 

" d 



ire re d 

d- h> 

o 3 

hi to re 

3 to 
H 4 

3- 4 3" 

q H- H- 

a < tn 



h> re 

d P 

»?. 

^ d 

4 O 
P H- 

o en 



d- 

o re 

H) 

fi- 
- 
re 



o er 3" 

d- ^ m 

c ^ 
4 d 

re 3 to 

to re "o 
o 

H- tfl ?T 

tfl ^ re 
4 3 
re h- 
^ P 

P O Hj 

03 

(Q 4 H- 

re re d 

4 3 

p & P 

d re d 
O 4 d 

& H. p. 

3 ^re 
Cta c 
^ ■ P- 

d 

s s 

re H 



d 


rr 


H« 


d- O H- W H- to 


3 




- 


3 


P* H> 3 Hj Ifl rH 


3 


o 


4 


re 


Q < H' 4 


a 


3 


3 


re 


o h- 4 h- o 


re 


to 


3 


4 


cr 3* to H- 3 ct 


4 


o 


to 


4 


4 H- d- 


to 


M 




3 


p. h- cr - wd" 


rr- 


1 




W 


^ en h ct re 


p 


(D 


H- 


ct 


d re ct 4 P. 


3 


EB 


3 


H' 


p - 3" H* 


& H} 




re 


tr 


3 ^ re " o 


H- 3T 


• 


H, 


M 


a p h- to H- c 


3 re 




Hi 


re 


to 3 re 3 Ct 


L3 




P 




tr o ca 


re 




cr 


3 


h 3 o re H 


a co 




H 


P 


p 4 H ^1 3 


H, re 




re 


r+ 


o & 4 re 


3" 






= 


& re 3 3 4 d 


d p 




to 


•o re o 3 


3* ct 




~- 


re 


H- d- 3 p re 


re o 




■Zl 




3 3 H* ft H 

re 3 tr to H' p 


H 








to o 

p td 




to 




oh ton 




— 


— 


3 4 O P d- d 
p ct - 4 H* p 


O H* 






t 


4 re 




^ 


re 


^ p re n 4 


p p 




CD 




H H- 


3 H 






cr 


re 3 d- d* p 


re 




»d 


re 


K cr ^ 4 re in 


3 HJ 







H 13 


d re 




to 


H- 


re to 3 3 P 


to 4 




■j: 


re 


o d* to to to 


• to 




X 


<{ 


d- 3" H- Hj to 


HJ 




to 


re 


re c o i p 


a 




to 




d H 4 O 


o 






d 


o 4 re 3 cr 4 


H ct 




in 


— 


re a c ^' 


d- h- 




re 


p 


tr w p c- d- Hi 


re < 




3 


ct 


re g d _ h- 
4 a w c o 


re 




re 




re 




ft 


s+ 


o 4 o ^ re 


H p 




H- 


3" 


3* re h- 


re h 




= 


4 


p O 3 P d | 


3 to 




re 


re 


3 ct 3 to 3" 


re o 






d 


cq h- c rep 


3 




cr cq 


re O rt- c+ 3 


ct O 




re 


sr 


£- 3 P O H- SX 


tn w 




Hj 




* cr 3 


■d 







ct- 


h- h tr <; h3 


4 H 




4 


- 


d re o o tr 


re p 




re 


o 


ci- - re o re 


HJ H- 




d- 


to 


£ o p o 
d 1 <-•- 3 da 


4 3 




s 


re 


re to 






p re c re h o 


to 




^ 


to 


d d to o 4 


re H 






1 


d- H- p o 


d 3" 




ct 


H* ^ 3 


d- re 




- 


C3* 


3 re p 3 re g- 







o 





3 to o Hj o 


o & 






H 


13 4 to 


V 




►t 


to 


4 P d d d- n 
d- 4 - p 3* 4 


4 4 




re 




h- re 




p 




p ct re h re h 


to - 




H 


P 


Hp- cr 
^- tr en re 


d- to 




H 


to 






d 




p re o o to 

3 & H 


H 




H 




S 




■re 




Pi O "^ •<! r+ 


H> 




to 




H, 3" 
H 

to 


1 



% 


5 


P P 


re 


3 3 


* 


p. 


re- a 


O 


< 


d- d 


4 


re 


3" d- 


■re 


H< 


o re 


P 


H 




r^ 


re 


en s; 


H- 


a 


§ s 







3 


< 


(□ 




P 


> 


re 


X 


o ere 


'-; 


z. 


Hi Q 


ft 


>-■ 


W d 


ire- 


re. 


o 


re 




3 




d- to 


^ 


~ 


to o 


tn 


re 


3 


^ 




< re 




re 


31 -. 


h; 


< 


to 


re 


re 


d 


to 


3 


tVl 3" 


n- 


(+ 


o re 


1 


to 


H 




HJ 


re 


re 


- 4 


3 


-j 





r^ 




3 hj 


■ 


ct 


- P* 




re- 


en re 




re 


ct 

h to 




o 


o 




H 


< to 




a. 


re *a 






H} >a 




re 


o re 




to 


re 




r+ 


3 d 




3 


• O 




re 


u 




3 


re 




d 


O 3 

3 




w i 


H 







S H, 




4 






re 


H- d 




to 


3 3" 




- 


re 




s 


P H- 




& 


3 4 




re 






i 


H- 




rf- 


a§ 




5" 


H- 




re 


4 d 

re h. 



3 


ft 


O 


r^ 


— 


re 




re 


re- 


c 


re- 


ft 


3 




re 


re 


3 


re 








ct 




Hi^ 


er 


^ 




3" 


H- 


re 




re 


re 




re 


re 


-,-, 


3 


■t- 


to 




d 


re 


■--. 


p 


H- 


r* 




K- 


re 




--; 


re 


o 




to 


N 


Q 




^ 


1 




3 


4 





ft 


ft 


H- 


H 




=: 


P. 


to 


& 


3 


re- 


< 


-re 




re 




to 


re 


H- 


ct 




re 


•» 


>• 




d 


H- 


^~ 


■d 






3 


_' 


tr 


C 


re 


-• 


P 


z 




H 


H 




H 


ft 


to 


Q 


re 


s 


H) 


d 


d- 


rr 


3* 






4 




H- 




n 


CD 




re 


H- 


ct 


n 


H- 


re 


p 


2 


to 


re 





ffl 


a 


H 






re- 


re 


d- 




2 


C 


2 


re 


re 


i_i. 


n 


H> 


HK 


to 


3 


re 


re 


Q 


P 






!-• 


3 


1 




to 


re 


P 


re 


h 1 ' 




ft « 


3 


Hj CQ 


(+ 


rf- 


■^ 


re- 


d 




'-< 


~ 




ft 


re 


re 


c 1 - 




re 


re 


= 


re 


4 


it 


* 




3 


!-■ 


to 




H- 


■ 


H 


a 


re 


ft 


re- 


2 


• 


3 




ca 




ft 


ea 




P 


H" 




a 









-re 


3 


D 


re 


re 


p 




-. 


5 


re 


to 


re- 


re- 


H 




O 


re. 


P- 


re 


ci 




re 


4 




4 


to 


re 


ft 


Hi 


ct 

re 


P 


re 





d 


are 


O 


H 


re 


ct 


H-. 


ft 


C 


re 


■* 


Pi 


S> 




- 


S 


g 






P 


s 


H- 


l-H 


f - 


re 


d 


ct 


to 




p 


d 


d" 




H- 







■3 


re- 


re 


re 


H 


^ 


■- L . 


rr 




rr 


< 


ft 


re 




H- 


re 




re 




4 


2 


O* 


re 


d 


3 


re 


" 


l ^' 


H 


rt 


re- 




3 






re 




re 


tr 


a 


H- 


■re 




o 


U 


*< 




to 


| 


n 


— 


re 




m 




re 


3 




& 


d 


rr 


d 


d 


^ 


re 


H, 




re 


«• 


ere 


re- 


P 


Hj 


re 


to 




re 


re- 


ct 







ct 


3 






3* 


4 


r-- 




t-- 


ct 


re 


re 


H- 


'-■ 


-. 


d 


re- 


to 


3 


d 


^ 


H- 


r j: 


ft 


re 


P 


S3 


~ 


w 


<-' 




p 


rr 




rr 


d" 


H- 


H- 


*d 


H> 


Hj 






3 


= 


re 


to 





H- 


H« 


Q 


re 




H- 


4 


ct 


to 




'.re 


3 


re 










re 


P 


to 


<. 


d 


ct 






**J 






rr 


rer 









2 


re 


4 


p 




■— 




re- 


rr 


re 


ct 












1 



re: 


s 


. 


rere 


2 


H> 


H 


d 


re- 


* 


rr 


rt 


- 




re 


re 


to 


re 


.-■ 


P Hj 


O H> S 

H 4 


;-■ 


Hi 


_ 


re 


tJ 




re 


to 


d 




d 


O 


to 


H 


ft 


4 


4 




rr 


d 


a 


re 


re 


5'? 


I d- 3 




H 




3 







re 





re- 





re 


ro 3 d re 


«4 




re. 


to 


v. 




ct 


4 




re 




<D H« 


o re o. 


re 


re- 


H- 




re 






:-■ 


re 


re 


13 


< 


o 


p 


ft 


to 


M« 


tJ 




re- 


re 


i 


H 


re 


d re 


■^- W o 


re 




re 


3 


-- 




re 


to 




c 





3 4- 


• 3 C 


3* 


H 


d 











— 


ct 


a 


— 


Q to 


(a d- 


H- 





to 


^ 




H 


re* 




re 


re 


H 




H 


re 


re 


u 


4 


re 


rr 


a 


rr 




a 


re 


d 


H- tt 


- 


re 


!-■ 


re 


re 


re 


to 


ft 


H- 




2 


4 4 


^ to 


-■ 


-. 


re 


re_ 


r-- 






p 


re 






p re 


4 3" 






re 


r-i 





r-- 





re 


ct 


re- 


re 


3 d 


3 


P 


H> 






re 


to 


o 


3 


ft 


re 


re 


en a 


3 d re 


3 


3 


re- 


^ 


- 


to 


re 


H- 


4 


K 


2 


h re 


4 








re 


-' 


3 


d 


re 


H. 


re 


■re 


P 4 


d P E 


re 


S 


- 


4 




re 


-■ 


ere 


re 


> 


re 


d h- 


H. 3 « 


to 


re 


re 






3 


• 


4 


re 


•re- 


O d 


to tn s 


to 




■re 




S 


d- 


d 


M 


o 


4 


re 


4 a 


H t 


P 


P 


p 


4 


? 


•re 








re. 


* <■ 


O P o 


^ 


rej 


ct 


ft 


re. 


re. 




d 








S ct 
3 H- 3 




•d 




d 




re 






:-■ 


d 


^ 


fr 


« 


re 


a 


re- 


re- 


to 


C 


^ 


ft 


d" 


■-■ 


3" 


3 


to 


re 


re 


re 


re 




re 


re 


P 


P 


rr 


SS 


S; d 





re. 


H 


4 


re 


o 


re 


4 


H 


d- 


3" 


a h 


< 


p 


re 


re 


re 


to- 


g 


H 






re 


4 tr h 


H- 


M 


• 


p 






re 


^ 


rt 


~ 




Pf S S 


re, 








ft 


^ 


- 


rr 




re- 


3" 


d- h- 




re 


ct 




H- 


_ 


3 


re 


►J 


^ 


re 


I 


re q 


re ? ^ 


p 


re 




d 


-. 


5. 


re. 


ft 


H- 






re d" 






> 


d 




ct 




H 


ft 


ire- 


o 


3 H 


h. rr 


tr 


ts 







* 






re 


re- 


re 


~ 


3 H- 


< < o 


^ 


» 


re 




P 


a 




to 




~ 


ct 


H- 13 


P re 




rr 


to 


W ^ 


re 




to 


. ; -- 


re 


re 


3" 


to_4. n 


re - 


ff 


re 


^ 




^ 






rt 


a 


d 


p d 


p o 


~- 


re 


H, 


4 


.-■ 


rH 




& 


to 


rr 




H H- 


P 3 3 


to- 


d 


3 


H' 


re 


re 




re 




to 


pi 


d 


3 a h, 




re 


H 


re 




re 




re- 


< 




re 


d a 


h re 


ft 


i 




re 


J 


H> 




re 


P 


H- 


Hi 


re 


o re a 


re 


" 


a. 






c 




rf- 


H 


re 


ft 


4 d 


O en 


~ 


s- 


H- 


re 


P- 


to 




re 


C 




O 


3 rer 


d & re 


H 


to 


rd 


n 











d- 


d 


C« ft 


o tre a 


P 


re 


re 


re 


re- 


3 




re- 




rr 


^-■, 




to 


3 


4 


re 


P- 




re 




- 


re 


ft 


^ 


P O 


hj 3 





■" 


to 


< 


rt 


re 




re 


to 




ft 


4 O 


4 3 H 


4 


to 


to 


P 


: 


5 




c 




rt 




re 3 


O to 


P 




H> 


H 


r 


rt 




rF 


B 


k -i 


3 


- *e 


& r-* 


ri- 


M 


c 


re 


3 










g 


P 


H 


d 


Lh h* 


O 


rt 


d 


d 


d 


cr 




H- 


-J 


ct 


h* re 


re- 


. cl 


4 


= 




rr 


H- 


"^ 




rH 


4 


to 


§ 


d H 


re 


h3 re 


■ 


- 





J-. 


re 






to 


re 


H 


H- 




• 3 




'-< 


Hi 




p 


3 






B 


re^ 


re 


rer tt 


re 


m d 




>• 




re 


r— 


H- 




re? 


re 


ct 




H-^ 




■ H- 






rt 


H 




to 




4 


re 


H« 





en 


& d 


H 


X 


3 


C 


g 






re 


ft 


re 


Hj 


o 


&P 




re 


ft 


q 


re 


-■ 




■3 


P 


3 




re Hj 


H- 


to 


-.: 


rr 


re- 




re 


d 




d <•< 


P < H 


v. 


d 


re 


H 


re 


re 




^ 


H- 


^ 


rer 


re ct 


H- H- 3 




re 




*<; 


-re 


re 






re 


•re 


to d* 


H H- 


re 


4 


y a 




re- 






H- 


d 


re 




- o 


ft P 


c 


]-■ 


4 


p 


'< 


c 




d 






rr 




& *— 


H 


re 


re 


Hi 


v. 


Hj 




ct 





3 


re 


cr rt 


H 4 


H 


to 


3 


Hi 


H- 






re 


H, 


o 


n 


C P 


core 


re 




H 


re 


re 


rt 




4 




d 


r^- 


d to 


4 to -5 


•re- 


y 


re- 


re 


P 


re- 




I 






i 


rf 


H< CJI H< 


re 


3 


= 


d 


H 


re 












P 


d — 

3 


4 

re 
ct 

re 


re. 


to 


to 


















re 




4 













r_ 


?. 


rt 


to 


o ct cr 


p. d 


< 


— 


- 


> 3 




" 


re 


H- 


re 


h, 3-^< 


re P 


re 


re 


Hi 


3 H- 




d 


m 


d 


3 


p* 


Hj 5 


oi 


-i 


3 


p to 




re 




d 





rt- en p 


H* ft 


d- 


p 


re 


to 




re 




P« 


H 


3" 


3 O 


H 


re 




d- to 




ct 


p 


3 


P 




H- H K 


i- 1 


to 


d 




-- 


5 


C3 


to 


o p 


ct O 




re- 


re 


tn "^ 




re 


re. 




to 


H- 4 H 


H- 13 


2 


Pi 


-re 


- H 




re 




- 




3 ™ Hi 


O v; 





re 


ft 


ra 






3 


F*. 


ct 


ft 


3 - 


4 


to 


rt 


-• 


H 


re 





to 


- 


p H- O 


en 


re 


-■ 


H- 


e; h- 


3 


- 


r- 


re 


M« 


4 en 4 


, re 






d 


ft to 


re 






re 


re 


- 


K H 


re 


H> 


H- 


to 




rt 


H> 


to 


'i 


P - ct 




Hj 


to 


< 


d- o 


^ 




re 


to 




ft rt -rf 


H B 


H, 




re 


O Hi 


c 


-; 


-l 


H- 


rr 


H> 3 4 


ft H- 


-re- 


Hj 


d 


4 d- 


4 









3 


o re re 


3 d 


re 


to 


re 


h- re 


PI 


P 


K- 


3 


B 


d re 


P 


ri 


d 


to 


d d 






ct 




rt 


to 


a ct 


H- 


to 


to 


CO 


to- 


re 




re 




H- P ,D 


o re 


-^ 


Cr 




ct 


ld 


H« 


re 


H> 


'—- . 


3 cr p 


tn p. 


re 


4 





$ n 




"; 


re 




d 


d p 


ct 




P 


H 


H- 


~ ; 


re 


*. 


— 


ct H 4 


o 


H- 


ct 




to tre 


4 


d 






L3 


3 re ct 


4 O 


-. 


._. 


3 


H- 


re 




3 


re 


re 


re tn re 


H- 3 




d 


i— 


o a 


to 


C 


re 


rt 


3 


_ ct 4 


P ct 


to 


ca 


to 


4 


d 








re 


s: en 


to 4 


re 


•* 




d p 


4 


e 


re 


re 


= 


3 P • 


P 


2 




S3 


3 d 


p 


re 


re 


R 


rt 


O 3 - 


C & 


re 


« 


4 


d. 


rt 


re 


re: 


P 




H P, 


If 




re 


re 


a 


H- 


3 


p 


re 


re 


re 


■re 


s 


P 


o 


3 


• 


re 


rr 


;-' 


3 


p d 


1 


rt 


X o 


ca 




re. 


i- 1 


re 


O O Dy H- 


H- 




- 3 






re- 


^ 


ta 


Hi tfl P 


hj 


re 


to 


d 


Hj 


rt 








re: 


ft C+ 


H' 3 


4 


O 


3 


o c 


re 






^to 


re 


HJ 


h to 


ct 


2 


re 


C to 






re 


re 


4 


p *o > *< - 




ft 





3 H. 


4 




to 


to 


P 


d re d 




4 




m 


cr 3 


ft 






d- 


rr 


4 3 P 


ft P 


re- 


5 





|«i 


re 




o 


re 


re 


h- re to 


to a 


re 


to: 


p 




m 


to 


re. 


tn d- ct 


re a 


ct 


CL 


H- 


d - 






rt 


H- 




d- 4 O 


3 re 


re 




ft 


o 


■ ■ 






d 




)->■ p Ul 


re P- 


4 


•o 


P 


3 ^ 






re 


to 


a* 


d - 


K 


H- 


p 


H 


— 




re. 


■ 


re 


H 


re d 


O 


H- 




O O 


H 




re 




ct 


H 3 Hi 


P. 3 


M" 


3 


r^- 


&s 


rr 




X 


n 




F-o 


- ft 


•j 


ft 


4 








« 


rr 


d 4 




P 


re 


re 


to 


2 




,-' 


- 


re en 


5 re 




H 


P 


^& 


d 




3 


H- 


ft 


4 rt P 
P P H 


re j 


• 


ct 


to 






to 


to 


& o 


P 




H- 


p p 


d- 




to 


-■ 


re 


(+ P, H 


re 


Or 




to 


-p en 






-re 







^ * 


4 to 






re 


re d- 


3 




H- 


to- 


3 


re to 


•o 


M 


-< 


4 o 


ft 




TT 


re 


P 


re o 3 


gj 


4 


d 




to to 






ft 


ta 


to 


■ Hj p 


re 




rt 


• 


P 






H- 




d 


o ^< 


re 


g 


3 


H 


a 







re 


3 


ct ^ 


re 


re 


re 


ft 


C- 


2 




-. 


B 


re 


3 


P- H 


p. 


re 






P« 






H 


re 


O O 







H 


3) 


r — ^ y^ 


d- 




~ 




d 


S 


H- CD 


H- 


a 


P 


Hi S 


rr 




3 


t) 




O 3 d 


d h- 


ct 




X 


O H* 


re 




re 


o 


p 


« ^ re 


w n 




3 


re 


C^ i- 1 


p. 






:•: 




ct to H 


P 


re 


P 


^ 


to d 






re 


H- 


re 


d p 


H H 


H 


<; 


•—* 


rr 




o 


rr 





re a 


ft 




re 




3 


3 




d 


H« 


d 


4 ft 


3 






re 


H 


p 




1 


C 


i 


S in 


re: 




3 


-, 


ro < 


d 






re 






ft 

3" 




ft 

re 









re 


rr 


-rr 


to- 


& 


P > rr 


rt 


£ 


& re 


re 


^ 


3 


3 


re 3 3 3* 


3 


-■ 


h- <; 


to 


H- 


re 


ft 


en p tr re 


P 


rr 


to re 





to 






H 4 


ft 


rer 


re 3 






o 


d- 


^ ^i o re 






P d 


to- 


d 


•a 


4 


re to to 3 "a 


O 


to to 


to 


-■ 


re 


re- 


m H- o P 


4 


'< 


to 




re 


re 


re 


d to 4 


re 


4 


h. Z 


-a 


?. 


H« 


d 


a p o 


~ 


H- 


3 3 


d 




re 


H> 


4 a 3 re 


re 


H 


(O H- 


r>- 


3 


S3 


to 


H« h, a w 


to 


■j 


re 


ct 


re 




re 








d 3" 


re 


to 


a 




m ct >. a - 


ft 


re 


3 






H- 


P 


3 d 4 


3 


o 


re p. 


to 


3 


P 


to 


»— re 3 o 


-3 


n 


o 


ct 


O 


H 




n p p 


d 


d 


d O 


4 


rt 





I* 


• Z 3 ca 


to- 


to 


3 3 


re 




■to: 


rr 


tn o p 5" 


to 


r-' 


re re 


d 


3 


re 




• 4 to d ^ 





o & 


q 


re 


■re 


to 


o ?r h. 




13 


H 




ft 




d 


d p 


^ 




3 






H- 


P 


O *"* w ca 


o 


3 


ca h- 


:-. 


t 


to 


d 


• r p 


d 


H- 


H- 3 


d 


H* 




re- 


* ft H- 


H 


3 


ft - 


4 


rr 


re 


tfl 


to > p 3 


a 




p 


re- 


3 


o 




h> o* d to 




o 


Prf3 


re 




ct 


H- 


to 4 ca d 


re- 


H, 


P 


a 


re 




» 


• IS^ 


re 




§ a 


re 


re 


~- 




< 


P 


4 


P< 


3 


B 


m o h- 


re 




P, H- 




< 






P ^ 3 3 




to 


3 


d 


re 


H, 


re 


3" to H- - 


to 


re 


d CD 


3 


4 


P 


c 


to pr to 


3 


4 


ra 


P 


to. 


re 


2 


• H* p 


c 


:-■• 


4 H 


re 


re 


ft t3 


- a 3 


3 


re 


3 re 




H 




i-- 


to o a 


re 


H- Ct 


rt 




ct 


H 


to 


c 




to 


3 d 


re- 


P 


to- 


P 




d d d 


3 




o re 


re 


ft 


re 


Ct 


r 


d 4 3 


re 


2 


H 4 




O 




to- 


re H> p 




H- 


o to 


d 


re 


re 


re 


d 


4 3 ct 


< 


to 


ca 


to- 


-re 




re 


-i 


to ft 


i 


re 


fS 


ft 


r' 


rV 




p 


B * ct 


to 


g 





P 


3 


o 


H- 


O 3- 




P a 


H 


re 


re 


Hi 


3 


3 re 





4 


H 





re 


d 






c 


4 


;~- 


a 


;re 


ft 


rr 


rt 


H 


3 Here 


d 


P 


■3 O 


H- 


■* 


H> 


Z 


NO 


rei 3 4 


3 ca 


o 


o 




n 


o 


Oi 


re re re 





re 


H- C 


P 


(to- 






v-; 


d P 


re. 




3 3 


H 


re- 


t 


re. 


— 


H, ct 


o 


o 


ct re 




re 


re 


H- 




N H- 


N 


~ 


to 3 


re- 


d 


re 


H^ 


3 


P 4 H, 






ct 


H* 


to- 


~ 


H 


P 


Stop 


g 


c_. 


P to 


H> 


re;- 




re 


to 


d- d 


d 


d 


H) 







4 




f 3 


re- 


u? 


P 


re 


rt 


-. 


re 


to 


H- 3 re 




ct 


H- ct 


4 






3 


d 


3 P 4 


to> 


H- 


to 


re 


19 


^ 


ct o 


re tj. tn 


3 


re 


to H 


d 




re 




ca 


4 O - 


5 


ft 


r re 


re 


H 


to 


Z 


re 


4 


re 


j 


re 3 


ft 


H< 


r-- 





to 


EC S7> 


■re 




- CD 


to 


rr 





re 


rr 


ft H 4 


re 


ft 


ct 




re 


to 


K 


ft 


4 H* re 


d 


H 


RP" 


re 


4 


r-. 


to 


re. 


P ct CO 


rt 


P 


3 


| 


re 


^ 




n ft o 




H- 


to 


to 


to 




cr 


H 4 4 





3 


e* 


re 


^< 


•*• 


E 


3 


£Jj3 


H) 


H- 


to- 


4 






3 


B 




3 


re 


4 






d. 


rt 


H . ^ 




-a 


a 


re 










to 








toL 



















•',a 



God may be blessed on earth as in heaven; but as for Nestor ius, let 
him be anathema. ' He refused to appeal to Pope Leo even when he felt 
sure that his own views were being expressed in Leo's Tome ; better 
that the truth prevail than be harmed by association with his blackened 
name. In tribulation he showed a greater generosity of spirit than 
many who have received the name saint rather than heretic. 
Text Ed. R.P.Bedjan, Nostorius, Le livre d'Heraclide de Damas 

(Paris 1910) 
Translations F.Nau, Nestorius, Le livre d'Heraclide de Damas 

(Paris 1910) 
G.R. Driver and L.Hodgson, Nestorius, The Da'/aar of llcracleidcs 

(Oxford 1925) 



4. Cyril of Alexandria 

An enormous number of Cyril's writings are extant in Greek, 
either complete or in fragmentary form; so Syriac finds do not have 
quite the over -riding significance in his case which they have had 
for the lost Antiochenes, However a number of important contributions 
have been made by Syriac translations. Significant fragments arc to 
be found in Syriac authors, notably quotations preserved in the works 
of Severus of Antioch; there are also a few otherwise lost works 
available in Syriac manuscripts. 



The most important Syriac discovery is his Commentary on 
Luke. A number of Cyril's Commentaries are extant in Greek : the 
commentaries on Isaiah, on the Minor Prophets, and on John's Gospel* 
We also have a number of exegetical treatises, and considerable frag- 
ments of other commentaries in the Catenae. (Those are commentary 
'chains' pieced together from the works of the most famous Fathers? 
usually the author of each quotation is named, though not always 
accurately; a great deal of critical work still needs to be done on 
this material, but it has already proved an important source of 
exegetical fragments from many authorities,) Nevertheless, in spite 
of the existence of so much Greek material, the discovery of the 
Commentary on Luke in Syriac provided a notable addition to our know- 
ledge of Cyril's work. In form it is a series of homilies, and so 
reflects the concerns of a pastor in the pulpit; his interests are 
predominantly practical, and there is a recurrent emphasis on the 
theme of obedience and imitation of Christ. But the Christological 
issue also keeps appearing: Homily 11 on the baptism of Jesus is 
clearly framed with Nestorian exegesis in mind, and Cyril labours to 
show that their plausible conclusions are not valid. Only three of 
these homilies on Luke survive in Greek, whereas 156 appear in this 
Syriac version. Some are represented only by a paragraph - in other 
words only a quotation is given, not the complete text; but others 
clearly provide the full text of the Patriarch's sermon. 

Text J.B.Chabot, S.Cyrilli Alexandrini commentarii in Lucam I 
(Horn. 1-80) (C.S.C.O. 70 Paris and Leipzig 1912; reprint, 
Louvain 1954). 
Translation R.Tonneau, Latin (C.S.C.O. 140 Louvain 1953) 

R.Payne-Smith, A Commentary upon the Gospel according 
to St. Luke by St. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria 
(Oxford 1859) 



49 



In the early stages of the Nestorian controversy, Cyril sent 
his De Recta Fide to the Emperor. Rabbula himself translated this 
work into Syriac and circulated it in the area under his jurisdiction. 
Probably many of the other dogmatic works which have been preserved 
in Syriac originated from Rabbula 1 s effort to promote Cyril's doctrine. 
Most of the Syriac material that has been discovered already existed 
in Greek, but some new material has come to light in the Syriac 
collections. Publication of the material began with an article by 
R.Y.Ebicd and L.R.Wickham in Muscon 83 (l970) pp. 433-82, and they 
followed this in 1971 by producing an investigation into the contents 
of British Museum Codex 14557 ( J.T.S. NS 22 pp. 420-34)* They reported 
the contents as including not only Syriac versions of Cyril's Letter 
on the Nice.no Creed , his Explanation of the Twelve Anathemas , and 
other material already known in Greek, like the Quod unus sit Christus , 
but also a number of unpublished letters. Their article produced the 
text and a translation of one of these, entitled The First Letter to 
the Monks , and discussed its authenticity. In their book, A Collection 
of Unpublished Syriac Letters of Cyril of Alexandria (C.S.C.O. 359"36°i 
Louvain, 1975), the same scholars using the same manuscript published 
the Syriac text of some of the letters already known in Greek; since 
the Greek is known, these provide good evidence for evaluating the 
relationship between the Syriac translation and the underlying original, 
while also facilitating some understanding of what a native Greekless 
speaker of Syriac would have made of the originals - for they are 
important less for Cyril than for the non-Chalcedonian interpretation 
of Cyril. 



Section 13. Other Greek Patristic Literature 

1. Eusebius of Caesar ea 

Euscbius is best known for his Ecclesiastical History which 
rapidly became famous throughout the Christian world. Since he lived 
in Palestine, an Aramaic -speaking area, it is perhaps not sur prising 
that the first translation was the Syriac version, probably made as 
early as the Fourth Century. It is regarded as much superior to the 
Latin translation made by Rufinus in 403, and it antedates the extant 
Greek manuscripts. 

Text W.Wright and N.McClean, The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius 

In Syriac (Cambridge 1898) 



Eusebius also wrote a History of the Martyrs in Palestine , 
an account of the final onslaught against Christianity by the Emperor 
Diocletian and his successors in the 'East, through which Eusebius him- 
self lived. The work has survived in two versions, a short edition 
appended to the Ecclesiastical History in some Greek manuscripts 
(often place A at the end of Book VIII, but not invariably), and a 
longer version which has survived only in Syriac. This is a most 
important contemporary document. Eusebius claims to have known a 
number of the martyrs personally, and in general his work provides a 
realistic appraisal of the effects of persecution on the Christian 
population. However, for all his precise statements of date, it has 
proved an extremely difficult task to reconstruct the chronology of 



50 



the persecution on the basis of Eusebius' information, and the 
reliability of some of his facts has been called in question by 
certain inscriptions. The Syriac version of the work is largely 
in the form of individual Acta (in other words it is a collection of 
possibly independent hagiographics) ; and in spite of Eusebius' con- 
temporaneity} the stories are told in highly conventional language 
and even contain certain traditional motifs. 

Text W.Cureton, History of the Martyrs of Palestine by Eusebius 
with English translation (London l86l) 



The most important Syriac find is probably the complete text 
of the Theophania , a work which only survived in Greek in a few brief 
fragments. Eusebius was at heart an apologist, and his histories 
were written with apologetic interests. In the Theophania he makes 
a final plea for the truth of Christianity, summarising all the major 
arguments he had used earlier in his massive treatises , the Pracparatio 
Evanqelica and the Demons tr at io Ev ang I eli ca . These works had consisted 
mainly of long extracts from pagan philosophers and from the scriptures, 
carefully yet confusingly marshalled to establish the Christian case. 
In the Theophania , however, Eusebius abandons this method and expounds 
his arguments for himself. The result is a much clearer statement of 
the cases for Eusebius forcefully summarises in popular rhetorical 
form many of the well-worn proofs he had developed elsewhere on the 
basis of great erudition. This was the culmination of his life's 
work; for it also takes up themes from the Martyrs of Palestine , and 
the Life of Constantino. 



The work can be dated in the 330's when Eusebius was a very 
old man, probably in his seventies. By this time he had been through 
the trauma of the Arian controversy, and this gives his Christo logical 
statements a particular interest. Eusebius really does not seem to 
have appreciated what was at stake in the debate with Arius, and still 
he sticks to a rather naive Origenism, regarding the Logos as a sub- 
ordinate being capable of mediating the transcendent God to" the creation. 
Eusebius goes to a great deal of trouble to prove that there is only 
one God and so there can only be one Logos; but one God plus one 
divine Word, on the face of it, makes two divine beings, both of whom 
arc to receive worship. One feels that Eusebius can be charged with 
ditheism as well as subordinationism on the basis of the rhetorical 
and loose expressions of the Theophania * However, the ambiguity of 
his language is reflected in the fact that when Samuel Lee published 
the new discovery in the last century, he expressed the conviction that 
it would finally clear Eusebius of the charge of Arianism- 



Eusebius' prime interest, however, was not the niceties of 
philosophical doctrine; he was no exact metaphysician, but an apologist. 
He felt that the most compelling argument for the truth of Christianity 
was its paramount success. As Constantine had triumphed, Eusebius had 
become more and more eloquent on this theme, encouraging his readers to 
step on the bandwagon of the triumphant Church with its magnificent 
imperially-supported new buildings and multitudinous congregations. 



1 



51 



Hero he urges these considerations again. Yet the Theophania also 
shows that Christianity's early success was in Eusebius' eyes 
equally impressive: if Christianity was a massive hoax perpetrated 
by the disciples of a false magician, how could it have survived as 
a pure philosophy requiring abstemious and sacrificial behaviour 
from its adherents? How could illiterate syriac-speaking rustics 
have pulled off such a hoax on the sophisticated Graeco-Roman world? 
Why should people be prepared to die for something they knew to be 
false? Even contemporary martyrs were a powerful testimony to the 
effects of the Christian Gospel. 



Eusebius 1 major, indeed all-pervading, apologetic theme is 
an appeal to the evidence of God's providence., For him, the Logos 
is the rational and providential principle of creation. He con- 
trasts Christianity with both atheism and polytheism on the grounds 
that it provides a rational account of the universe and of human 
history. In Eusebius' eyes, monarchy and monotheism go together. 
While polytheism reigned, the world was fragmented into many kingdoms: 
but now 'two great Powers sprung fully up, t as (it were) out of one 
stream; and they gave peace to all, ...: (namely) the Roman Empire •< 
and the Power of the Saviour of all..' The coincidence of the in- 
carnation and the Pax Rom an a remained for him the most telling proof 
of God's providence, and ho saw the conversion of Constantine as the 
natural fulfilment of what had gon<> before. 



One of the most interesting aspects of the discovery of this 
work has been the question it has raised about the relationship 
between Eusebius and Athanasius. Some of the apologetic arguments 
used in the Theophania arc so close to those used by Athanasius in 
the two-volume work Contra Gcntes-Do Incarnatione that some kind of 
dependence seems necessary. Now Eusebius wrote this work as an old 
and respected scholar-bishop in the 330's; Athanasius was the brash 
young Patriarch of Alexandria who was about to be condemned for all 
manner of crimes at the Council of Tyre in 335s at which the chairman 
would be Eusebius. It seems hardly likely, then, that Eusebius would 
use the work of Athanasius, quite apart from the fact that the 
Theophania fits so well as the culmination of Eusebius' apologetic 
activities. Yet traditionally scholarship had dated Athanasius' 
Do Incarnatione to the early years of his life, believing that because 
it never mentions Arius or his doctrines, it must pre-date the Council 
of Nicaea in 325. A number of solutions have been proposed for this 
puzzle : either Athanasius had picked up Eusebius' ideas as a student 
and then -wrote them up in this form before Eusebius did himself; or 
the arguments simply belong to a common apologetic tradition, in spite 
of the prima facie impression of dependence; or we must reconsider 
the date of Athanasius' work. The last seems the most promising course. 
It seems quite plausible to suggest that Athanasius wrote his apologetic 
work while in exile In the 330's, basing his work on Eusebius, but 
showing that Eusebius* own arguments led to rather different conclusions 
about the nature of the Logos. There may be veiled criticism of the 
Arian position in some of Athanasius' turns of phrase, though he prob- 
ably felt that direct attack was unsuitable in an apologetic work, and 



52 



his hidden target may well have been Eusebius, rather than the arch- 
heretic himself. Certainly the two works, though similar, reflect 
fundamentally different soteriological presuppositions: where 
Eusebius concentrated on revelation, monotheism and morality being 
of prime importance to him, Athanasius moved on to explore ideas of 
redemption and re-creation, emphasising the theme of * deification 1 

Text S.Lee, Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, on the Thoophzjia, or Divine 
Manifestation of our Lord_and _ Saviour Jesus Christ . A 
Syriac version edited from a manuscript recently dis- 
covered. (London l842) 

Translation S.Lee, Eusebius * D ^ s h P ol Caesar ca, on the Theophania , 
etc. translated into English with notes (Cambridge l843) 



2. Athanasius 

Athanasius' Festal Letters , or at least an index to them and 
the text of about twenty, were discovered during the last century in 
the same Syriac collection as the Theophania . It had become the 
custom for the Patriarch of Alexandria to write tohis suffragans in- 
forming them each year of the correct date to celebrate Easter, The 
index ahows that Athanasius did so for almost every year of his 
episcopate, the few exceptions being during his periods of exile. 
Prior to their discovery, the existence of these letters was known 
from Jerome, and from a few quotations which survived in Greek. How- 
ever, the extensive Syriac evidence was an important new source of 
information, chiefly because it provided reliable chronological data 
concerning Athanasius" life. The letters themselves showed that the 
Lent fast was only beginning to become usual in Egypt during this 
period, and they were a useful addition to our knowledge of Athanasius* 
pastoral style. They cover a variety of topics : the celebration 
of festivals, the meaning of the Christian Passover, fasting and 
observances, ethics, warnings against heretics, and so on, all backed 
up with scriptural texts. This Syriac corpus breaks off well before 
the famous Letter 39 concerning the canon of scriptures; a long 
Syriac fragment was found elsewhere, but it was already known in a 
Greek fragment, and the fullest version has been discovered in Coptic. 
More recently, Coptic versions of further letters have been published, 
(Ed. L.Th.Lefort, C.S.C.O. 1^0, Louvain 1955). 

Text W.Cureton, The Festal Letters of Athanasius (London l848) 

Translation Library of Nicenc and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series, 

Vol. IV 

A Syriac Sixth Century manuscript in the Vatican is one of 
the few witnesses to the Short Recension of the De Incarnatione . The 
puzzling existence of two different versions of Athanasius 1 most 
famous work was first noticed by J.Lebon, and subsequently R-P.Casey 
studied the textual tradition of the less-known Short Recension: see 
G.J.Ryan and R.P.Casey, The Be Incarnatione of Athanasius 2 vols. 
Studies and Documents l4 (London and Philadelphia 19^5" 6 )* 












53 



Most investigators have concluded that Athanasius, or one of his 
immediate circle, was responsible for abbreviating the originally 
longer text, but the question of priority is still far from settled, 



There has been considerable controversy over Athanasius' 
work On Virginity , many regarding the Greek treatise under that title 
as spurious. However, British Museum Codex 14607 contains a large 
Syriac fragment of a treatise on this subject, and also a letter to 
'virgins who went to Jerusalem to pray and returned', both attributed 
to Athanasius. It is likely that both are genuine. See J.Lebon, 
'Athanasiana Syriaca I', Museon 40 (192?) 209-218, & II, Museon 4l 
(1928) 170-88. He gives the Syriac text and a French translation. 



Among the Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum has appeared 
a whole corpus of Athanasius' writings, his most important treatises 
grouped together with several Pscudo-Athanasian works, including 
certain notorious Apollinarian forgeries (see note below). This 
collection forms the basis of a new Syriac version of Athanasius' 
work being published by C.S.C.O. (though other manuscripts are also 
used to make the collection as complete as possible ), Since a good 
critical edition of Athanasius' works in Greek is not yet available 
for the vast majority of his works, this will probably make a valuable 
contribution to the whole matter of establishing the text of Athanasius* 
writings. Caution will be necessary, however; for the editor, R.W. 
Thomson, drew attention in 1963 to the fact that the Syriac Athanasian 
Corpus is found in a Chalcedonian manuscript (British Museum Oriental 
8G06) in which deliberate alterations of a tendentious and dogmatic 
nature have been made. His study of the manuscript is particularly 
interesting (in Biblical and Patristic Studies for R.P.Casey, ed. J.N. 
Birdsall and R, W. Thomson) . He noted that the ten works were not all 
translated by the same scribe, and had been taken from originals 
(either separate or already collected together) found in the Cathedral 
treasury in Edessa in 723 AD by the scribe Gabriel. The manuscripts 
he used were then regarded as 'old'. Now in the early seventh century 
the cathedral had been in the hands of the Jacobites - they were dis- 
possessed by Heraclius in 629- It was clearly in the subsequent 
period that phrases of a Chalcedonian tendency were added to these 
texts, either by Gabriel himself, though this seems unlikely, or by 
one of his fellow-Melkites (the nickname for the Chalcedonian supporters 
of the Byzantine Emperor). 



Text and translation R.W.Thomsoi 



Note on Apollinarian Forgeries 



Athanasiana Syriaca I-IV (Louvain 
1965--67,"72,-77) 






The Apollinarians circulated a number of treatises under false 
names, and took in many influential people. Treatises under the name of 
Athanasius were actually the source of several famous Monophysite slogans 
which were first given currency by Cyril of Alexandria. Most of the 
forgeries found in Syriac are also known in Greek, but it may be of 
interest to note that the Syriac texts were collected and published by 
J.Flemming and H.Lietzmann, Apollinaristische Schrjften Syrisch (Berlin 
1904). 





^ W 3 '"re- 
ft H- !-> 
X 1 CO P 

rt to 3 d ere- 
ct r+ r> 


r 




*~* Z, O Co rt 


^ Ci p-s *3 P 3* P 


P & P 


— v. 


CD P 


c 


CO 


& 


? St 


< 




CO 


j: 


a 













H 3* 1 ft O 


tc 1 1 w c 3 p a" 


- -• 


H> 3 


3 


re 


1 H- 


p re 7 


re 




r "*■ P 
1 CO 


e- 












3* K» Q P 


1 QOd-d-^drriH 


1 Q 


ft, P- 


:-■ 


re 


rt 


W ft 


H' 




re- 








a 




p« P to "£ 


c+^aao cH-H-re 


rt 3 


2 


rt 


rt 


X H" 


1 


■re 




"d 2 


re 













to 3* rt ft 3 


3-0 ^dC3■pl3- 


3* Ul 


N p. 


IT. 


H- 


P ft 


re re 


— 




1 ft to 


H 








3 [ 


s to 


c 




3 3 3 


^0>d*3H-^OQ 


ft 


5L 1 




O 


3 





rt 




H* & 3 


**«; 








D 3- . 


a 




01 "J 1 CO 3* 


?r a mc- tti ri-i d- 


3 H- 


C* r*- 





re 


JL (-1. 


3 -C 


V. 




tn r> n 










►1 




Sore 

3 *3 LO 1 


OiTfp^H- ftH-d-ft 


3 


*-> 1 


Hi 




O" Cfi 


•d re 






H- p 3* 


re 








pi 




Hi 3 3C403-H-O 


v; 










1 


P 




3 ft 


re 








9 


TJ 


Pi 


O* 1 h 0! 


ft s; h- re ft h 


H- rt W 


• Q, 


a 


". 


p 


01 re 


3 


w 


O < rt 


re 


H 






3 d 


rr 


O ft . *"» "— ' 


ftH>r+-p-cD03 p. 


< 3" "d 


c 


re 




?r 


ra 


& v; 


P 3* 


re- 


re- 






P 

5 

Cn 
H 
P 
rt t 


o or h- 

S ra 3 
— ' re re 


P< 


ft 


»-■ w '■ W <+ - 


H 03 "1 Hj h* < 3 


ft ft H- 


ft 


p 


rt 


- rt 


a *d 




T 


rt h* p 




re 






O 




P* O « 3" 


Gd- apft Wft(3 


en "d 


rr 


v: 


3 


1 


w 


^: 


re- 


3" rt 


H* 








b 


]_> 


tfl 3 ft ft Hs 


&3*t-<ft u: 0) rt rt 1 


rt 3* 


H' 


3 


re 


rt H' 


H- ft 


re 


re 


ft C3 


re 


& 






O 3 o 

a 

3 H. Fl 


;~i 


p 


3 d- ?r 


H. ft P 1 W3--cnp 


P ft P 





1 




3" Hi 


3 3 


P 


re 


1 ft O 




H- 








CO 


*•*< c 


rt O K ^ H- ft H- rt 


3*3 


3 


re 


re- 


H 1 


rt 


i 




ft Co O. 


rt 


CO 






5 


rr 


M, d" ft O 1 


000 3* a 


rt H- 


01 




re 


C re 


V..: < 


■I 


re 


Hi c+ C). 


re-. 


re 






p* 


3 tJ 
• d- h- 


ft 




O 3* H P . 
>1ft R 4 


l-a'Oft3Sft3i-' 


H- - 3 


" 


p 


5, 


co 


sft 


re 


O H* 


re 


5 







3 


J~j 


ft&- H) 3 to tu in ra 


3 » 




re 


^ 


3" 3 


CO 





re 


1 P -C 








a 1 1 3* 

& Q 2 

rt t& 3 


ri- 


c 


f_i - H- 


M Hj >-l ft 3 


rt H- 


zr 


& 




H« 


H, 


id 


V: 


ft 1 O 


G 


01 


ikt- 




ft 


R 


cf H * < 


^hSrt 3-rt?f40C0 


13 3" 







H" 


rt OJ 


pj »** 


2 


H- 1 


i 


^ : - 


• 




f"j 


3* O V-T Hj ft 


pft3-0ftP« H-M>rt 

3 W ft 3 X C* 3" 


a ft 


t 


£ 


CO 


3" M 


rt O 


re 


rt ft yr 


< 




C_| 


CO 


C'r 


re c ^- 1 


a h- 


- 


re 




Q ft 


rt 


< 


W 01 


H* 


ft 






rt- H' 




O 


R 3 a 


BO rt rt ft ft H- > 


COM- 


< 


"-'■ 


rr 


P 


O 3* rt 


re 




IB 




t-i 


• 


It) t Ji 3 




4 


H> ^1 


p. p re 3 >d rt 


O P 3 


re 


U3 


re- 


3 & 


O ft 3* 


■/j 


H) H 


rt 


1 


« 




1— < 




C*) H- 


03 to 333:033* 


rt rt tn 


H 


P" 


re 


p H' 


3 1ft 




h- n h- 


H- 


H« 


a 

ft 


H 1 





3 d- ^ C 


3ft d- 1 -o ft h- re 


H- H- 


— 


rt 




rt 3 


03 


rr- 


3 P ~ 
& 3 ft 


P 


H- 


TJ 


'„- 


P) 


ft & V P et 


-■ 3 W 3- ft rt H 


ft O U - 






-j 


r^ CQ 


rt Oi O 


^ 


3 


rt 


P" 


p 


H' P 


rt 




•3 d- 


rtOft33rtOT&M 


3 3 VJ 


■-■ 


re 


re 


ft -■ 


p H- 1 


~ 


ft 




H' 


P 


3 


CO 


■-■ 


rt 


O ft 1^ O 


*- rr rt O ~ a rt 


01 


■2 


j: 


re 


4 


3 3 H- 




O rt 


^ 


3 


re 




1 O* 


a 


3" 


M O 3" Hi 


rt rt W CB 01 ft O 


rt re 


n 


re 


y; 




rt h- tre 


z 


1 rt 3 1 


G 





H- 




ft d- O 


L2 


CD 


E0 Iff 3 (8 


3" ft CO rt 3 


~ P 1 


£3 


1 


a 


rt 


3" H- 


H- H H* 


3 


H- ft 


re 


W 


re 


M 


£ 






>o «• R a &d 


ft 1 rt 


ft 3 *< 


re 




H- 


O rt 


3 P 3 


i- 1 


ft 




M 




01 


-. 


3 1 


P 


r 


rs & 


4 ■* 0J K " O 0J 


X & 


rt H 


P 


H- 







O 1 p 


S 


3 to- 


S3 


D. 







% 


H" 


O 3" 3 


3 





H 2 Hi O O 


ft ^ O P H) rt 


p O 


3" 13 P 


■.,: 


3 


re 


K" H- 


■d M 




rt ft 


3* 


J 


Hi 




tfl 


d 


■< ft 


re_ 


re 


W P P H> 3 


O O 4 rt p 


■J WH 


ft 3 H- 


T 






ft CO 


H -? 


Hj 


P 


"-' 








a 


3* 


n P 






d- O - 


« C h, ?r rt 4 


M l < 


3 3 




rr 





ft 


re rt 


re 


H 1 P 


ts 


8 


rt 




S 


H ' to 3 


,-> 




£ d- ft rt 


re R m d- 3- rt 1 


P 3 rt 


St CJ H- 


rt 


r 


h> *d - 


1 ft 


H 


rt 


H- 


re 


3* 




a ra pi 





ft 


P 3" ^ 3- H) 


1 - rt 3-ft{fl-33- 


re rt 3 


" 


ft 




CO ft 


h, ?r H 
M rt 


-J 


< e!" 


O 


a 


H< 




■T. 


p. 


3; 


g 


3 


01 re - 00 


re 3- re Pft 


< 3 (2 


? 







P 




ft 1 


M 




CO 






C 


ft 3 a" 


3 


re 


s; = 


P- ft Hs M H ft 


ft P 




^ 





1 M 


H 


< 


1 H- 





rer 






*—■ 


to 


re, 73 re 


(9 


3 


ft - 3 3 1 


Hj to 3BK->ff"sl 


1 rt rt 


'/, 


-■ 


re 


ft M 


. rlt ? 


re 


to O" 


re 


H« 


re 




o 




H- 


3 


Id 


3 p H< 


3"oop«i-'Cro 


P H- 3* 


'; 


r 


re 


< **< 


p 3 P 


re 


H> C 


re 


U 


re 




— 




P 3 d 3 

w re od 


rt 




4 31 3 Q |2 


c ti 1 a n d- h m ^ 

IBCTftH-ftH' -rt 


w ft 


C 


H 


re 


ft 


o> 


/- 


O rt 


•■: 




re 




J3« 


1-5 


p. 


Hj 


IP- 3* 3 


3 


ti 


re 





1 P 


T3 O 


H- 


3ft- 


re 


CO 




o 


1 


P 3" 


" 


H 


ft 4 d- P 


O 4 p 3 3 4 


O - ■"■ 


It 


■ 


t~ 


a- 


ft 1 *d 


re 


01 re, 


ft 


re 




P 


fit 


H- <! rt to 





3 W H - 4 


Q-rtft d- t» p Q Hi & P 


3 *§ 








h- ?r 


1 ft 1 


re 


rt -d 


re 




■J2 


P 


H' H* 




3 


d- - H- rt- 


O 3 d C H- 3 3 3 


3 




re 


3 H- 


to ft 




O rt 3* 


« 


<l 




z 


•T H C 







P ft 


Oft Oit&^rtO-tfl 


ft 3* H- 


H, 




_re 


CO 3 


V- X G" 


re 


H) 


rr^ 


P 






H' 


re *-< "d 


3 


;r 


H« f 3 3 T 


^ 4 P 3 ft 3" M 


?T re 




k 


re 


re- 


P ■ P 


H3 




p 


— 




h- 


CO 






ra 


33-* aw 


SO H - M !n H. h d- p 


3 


ri 


re 


i— 


rt 


3 O* 




3 3* »d 


rt 


- j - 




vC 


Q 


lTd D- M- 


rt 


:-■ 


?r 


M "d [0 O 1ft to 3 d rt 


rt O Ui 


3" 


5 


< 





M 


~ 


to H- 1 

3 3 H- 


1* 


< 




UJ 




3 ft 3 


3* a 


3 ft O H) 


H- H- 3" rt 3 3* OO 


1 of 


re 


re 


P 


Hi T3 •< 


H- 


C 


ft 




Ul 





01 "d 


ft 


. 


re M O Ha 


30p3*Hrertrtd , -( 


P ft n 




1 


H 


H- 


1 H 


V. 


t< . 3 


re 








re 


O ft »Td 




ft 


a a 3 


30*ore wpom 


3 H O 


t 





re 


3 td 


H- rer m 




n 




M] 








C 3 P 


3 


Cfl 


H. 3 P 1 f+ 


rt H- ft Dfi p FT" 3* 


a c 3 





3 


re 


H- 


ft ft 


rt 


ft H- 


s? 


P 






a; 


H- C H 1 


re 




p C- 3 3* 


3* H; rt CO rt 1 D O 


H to < 


1 


CO 


rt 


rt ff 


51 _*. 5i 


re 


h, to 





re 






re 


3 ft ft 


§ 


P 


ft a » » 


»*-*■*• N 9 (t 3 tt 1 H 


p ft 


~ 




to 


rr h 


rt rt rt 


re 


M P 


re 


p 






P- 


(A 3 Ul 


re 


B 


< t-< ^d 


h- a 3 


rt p 3 




re. 




ft ft 


• 1 


P 


^c+H 




rr- 






:3 


- rt d- 


to 


CL 


p O H- ^ 


>■ P p Q - (D 3 rt 
133 3 3'^P3* 


H. 3 rt 


< 


H« 


Hj 




ft & 


rt 


» p. 


M 


"H- 






3* 


H 






MffM fl 


& H« 


re 


O 


re 


n a 


P ft 


H- 


tVl H- 01 


re 


re 






d- 


O 3 3 





£ 


3 O H- 1 


?TrtC3PH-ft 1ft 


3 O 


^ 


-1 


re 


re h 


rt O 


ca 


01 


p 








m 


3 O 


rt 


ft 


p • 1-* d- H 


3 3 rt P P & 


■fl P 3 


'< 


re 




3 O 


M H- P 


(9 


H zr re. 


re 


^ 








rt - 




P 


1 re 3 a 


-^3rt h SCft'J5CreH« 


Cfi P 




:<: 


rt 


rr rr 


rt Oi 3 


IS 


re 


re 






p 


3 


re' 


g 


d- - p - 


033-p C03X 
ftlftrt iCrtM 


P rt M 





■;: 


re- 


4 H J 


0) ft 01 


(-" p o 

rt 1 ft 


H> 


re 






a 


t) O r+ 


f- 1 


i 


— - 1- 


<* re 





H 


re 


p O 


ft 


3 


re 






a 


to 3 3 d 


a* 


H) 


3 3" H' ft rt - 


P 1 


3 







H 3 






M- ft. 


to 








d- H 


H 


S 





ft 01 


H- H- 


1 


3 




E 






2 i' 










H* CO 


P 


n 


3 


OJ 1 3 


i-> to 




s 




h 






(ft »<{ 










O 


O 




4 


h- v: 


1 FT 








*< 






CO 













3 


P 






'J! 




















• 











. 



J. P a B" f 






-1-t u°-f 

? 9 -t g -t - 

9 tlllTt* 



rt 3 rt 
ft 1 ft 



2 H- Crt 

P 3 S 

1 P 1 

rt pH H- 

K M P 

3 o 
o 

rt rt 

ft re 



H 1 ri- 
ft 3* 

CO ft 



re ?. 

P 

Hj W 

o 

c res 
1 3 

rt — 
3* i- 



H- ft 
H- ft- 

*°s 

c* P 
O rt 

& re 
ft ft 

rt & 
3 d H- 

re to 

o 

rt o 

ft < 

ft 

O Cu 
H> 
rt 

rer 

■re 



H* h3 
3 rr 
rt ft 
re 

1 3 
ft P 
01 3 
ti- 3 
-*• en 
n 
1 

P H- 

3 *d 
& rt 

d- n 

3 d 
ft 3 

ri- 
ft P 
3 H* 
Cb 3 

H* 
^ 3 

p ca 

3 3* 

0! 01 

u; 
p« "% 

3 O 
(ft 1 
■ ~ 

ft 

O 

M 3 

rt rt 



re 1 



S 3 
ft P 



< & 

ft ft 

3 M 

rt H- 
C 

P 



3* d 
rt O 

a C 
p 

rt 3 

O tf 
1 

H H 

h- a 

3 O 

ft- re 



3 W 
P ^ 

a" 1 

j_i H - 

re p 
* n 

"" 3 
P 
3 
H 3 
3* 0! 
ft ft 
to 1 

ft H* 

■d 
t rt 

ft VI 

re - 



H, ^ 

O H3 

3 3* 

3 ft 

P. 

00 H- 

O 01 

3 rt 

ft O 

o 

ft o 

£L H, 



P HJ 

3 c 



EB W 

3 a 

1 <o g 

HJ to -3 

rt O <ri- 

3* 03 01 

ft ft rt H} 



01 

3 Hi 
3* 

01 p 

Q) 

1 01 



H- O 

o re 

3 

rt 
O 3" 

H, ft 



i-i- H 



Co 3 



O 3 
3 [ft 



•OOP 



1 ft 

o 

3 d o 

P H 

i 

re ^ 

p. rr 

p. 

H) ft 

1 3* 
O 

3 S 

ft 
O 

3 
re 
re 



3 

c re 

w p 

n 3 

1 rt 

H- CO 

•d 

fr 3^ 

OI P 



3" tJ 
H- 3 

CO 1 

HJ 
- re 

1 01 

H- ft 
*? H> ft 

P 3 3 O 

01 a hj 
a to 

3" ft TJ 

ft H) p 1 

PI o 

Pi P 03 O 
O *< C C 

pi h* a 1 1 



ut *d 
vft 1 



3 
re* to 



01 H- 

3 

1 a 



p 3* TJ o 
ft rt O 



o 

ft 

M 

1 ft 



H--d 

O rt 



p p 



3 ^ 

tc to 



rt O <D 

tr P 

ft ?! rt 

O ft 
CP 1 

T ff rt 



h- re h- 

to 1 
3" 'O 

3 ft 

S D- O 

3 H 3 

C/l H- rt 

ft td ft 
3 3-3 

3 rt 



rt ft 

ft H 

re rt 



p o 
c 3 

H- 
1 O 



ft & 
3 
ft - 



rt P 

ft ft 

h» p 

re 3 

01 pi 



H- O ft tO 

o h> rt n 

3 re 

rt o h»« 

o 3 d 3 *d 

n h » 

Jre o < 

U C o • 

O 3 rt » 
O & - 

ft > 

a" 1 ^ rt 
■^ rt o 

& re <* 

-co & 3* 

rt re 

ft- 



re re 
1 

c^ rt 

p O 
H- 

3 S" 



P 1 

rt P 



h> a o 

H, H, 

< o 



H- 
< 3 
ft CO 

1 - 



p. 3- 
- o 
re- 
re H 

tO 3" 



a re m ft 3 

13 3 

ft 3 

Co & 



ft rj 
H- H 
rt H> 



rt Hi 

ft O 

re 1 

ft 3* 

tfi ft 

O Hj 

Hj H- 



ft rt 

O H- 

< 3 

ft ft 



q 


H' 


3 


? 




re 


P 


■a 


p 




rt 


d 


re 


rt 


H- 


tfi 




re- 


O 


re 




ft 


3 


re 


P 






H' 


re 


5E 


H- 


■a 


>Q 


H- 


3 


rr 


re 


3 






r-. 


re 


re 





H- ft p 

rt ft P. 

H- 3 H- 

O rt 3 

3 3 d CO 

O O rt 

B ft 3T 

3 3ft 

rt 

re- 3 re? 

°3 3 



p o 

ft ft 

ft ^ to 

a 1 

* O rt 

3 O 

rt Z 

3 d O 

ft 1 

3 ?T 



ft c 


3" 


rt 


rt 


H- 


P 





H 





si rr 






re S 


P 


re 


re- 


3 


re 


Hi 


h- 


rt 


3* P 




< 


ft 


ts 


-re 


CD 




fi- 


„ 


P < 




re 




c 




> 


re 


re 


rt ft 




p 




re 


cn 


re 


re- 


rr_ 


re 


re 






1 X 


-re 


p 


L ^ 


rr 


re 


— ■ 


&> 




3 d a- 




H< 3 


re 


H 


re 


p 


<ri- 


P 


rt 


p 


p ft 




■< * 


re 




H- 


3 




3 


^ 


re 


0J ft 






h J3 


re 


P 


re 


1 


P 


re 


3 






re 


1 


re 


ft 


re 


7: 


re 


p 


re- 


XA 


O 


re 


.-■ 






•d 


r>- 






ft h^ ^ 


3- Oi 


< 


r- 


O 


re 


re 


re 





Z 


ft 


re 


1 ^ 


re 


H. 


pf 


Hi 


ft 


en 


rt 


Pr 


3 C 


!-■ 


H- 1 


a 


O 


"i 




as 


■■ 




re 


3 


P 


01 H- 






rt 


re 




P 


re 


10 C. 


O 


rt p 


CB 








re- 


3 


r 


03 


re 


3 - 




H- n 


re 


H) 


r^ 


ft 


cr 


H- 


n 




1 


< 


P 


3 




j . 


H- 


P 


Hi 





•j. 


< re- 


re 


p re- 


CD 


rt 




re 


rt 


re 


rt •< 


ft c 


re 


ft, ff- 


^ 


ft 


rt 





< 





H* 

re 


re 


3 rt 

n 


01 





O 




3" 


?■ 


ft 


rt 


H- 


re 


P, rt 


re 


ft ri- 


re 


a 


ft 


3 






to 





~ 


re 


rt 3 d 


<■< 


re 


•< 







> 


3 




H- ft 


to 


re 3 


a 


re 




P 


-. 


re 




3 


CO 




H- CO 




ft 


P 


en 




r- 


P 


p 


< 


O 


3 


^ 


77 


M 




p 


re- 


re 


rt 


^ p 


H> 




ft P" 


re- 




r/i 


re 




re 


re. 


ft 


C tO 




O 


- ft 


H* 


rej 


O 


<! 


r- 


re 




re 


H- rt 


3 


re 


ft 


O 


P 




r^- 


P 


"51 


rt 


H« 


rt 


P 


re 


H- O 


rr 


rt "d 


re- 


re 




re- 


P 


ft 3 


3 


re 


H< 3 




1 


re 


re 


-re 




re 


H 


P 


^ 


r- 


rt ft 


^ 


H' 


O 


re 


re 


re 






to u 




- 


3 





w 


< 


■re 




re 


3 


H- 


3 O 


3 


■J. 


1 P 


re 


rt 


P . 


re- 


Hi 


re- 


O 


W 


Hi >-{ 


O 


r- 


§ 3 


H 


H- 


re, 




H- 




3 




H> H- 


re 


D 


re- 


re 


ft 


re 


re 


re 


P 


re- 


H- rt 


re 


re 


H- 








■re 


i- 1 


Hi 


V: 


4 


s 




P 3 


re 


3 


H- 




re. 




ri- 


H> 


p« 


3 a 


rt 


P 


3 


rt 


• 


rr 


H- 


rt 


ft P 


3 


a h. 


ZT 


rt "d 


re- 




re- 


re 


.-■ 


3 1 


re- 


01 


re 


re 


a 


re 




re 




O 


rt ft 


re 


3" V 


3 


re 


1 








3 


re 




re 


H- ft 


H- 


(4 


H* 


H 


5 


O 


H- 


H> ~ 


d- 


CO 3 


H- 


p 


P 


re 




< 


P 


O 3 


fS 


rt m 


QQ 


:— 


3 


rr 


ft 


re 


re 


1 


1 O 


re 


p 


re 


,. 


rt 


■re 




7: 


3 


M 


K 


H- 


3? 








re 


rt 


-x 


re 


^ 


P 3 




cr 




CD 


re 


1 




re 




3 


HJ 


• re 


re 


O* 


<; 


c: 


pj 





ri- 


H- 


P« 


P 






re 


H- 


n- 


re 


H 


.. 


3 


p. 3 


rt 


rt 


re 


rr 


re- 


to 


0: 






tJ 


3 


1 


re 


3 




CD 




H 


rre 




re 


rt rt 


H- 





rt 


p 


re 


P 


P 


< 


M 


re 


1 3" 


CO 


■-• 


H> 


rer 


re 


3 


rt 


P 


S 


— 


O ft 


<n 




1 





ft 


P 


H- 


ere 


-. 


=; 


a 


H- 


H> 


ft 


A 






O 


re 


H- 


re 


c 


O 


O 


H- 


re 


H) 


re 


3 


H- 


P 


r 1 ' 


1 




re 


^ 




O 


re 


CO 


re 


re 




rt P- 


s| 






^ 


1 


i— 




CO 




H- 


h. a 


ri- 


rt 


t-j 




rt 


re- 




< 


CO 


O H- 


H- 


- 


re 


H- 


rt 


R 


re 





re 




3 3 


rt 


ft 


01 


-• 


re" 


< 


H, 


re 


rt 


• p 


H- 




rt 




re 


0) 


O 




01 


re- 


rt" 


3 


GO 




rt 








TJ 


H' 


re 


- 


CO 


rt 


P 


re- 









O 


O 






OS 


re 


3 


re 




Hi 


- 


re 


3 




H p 




re- 


& *< 








rt 


to 




3- 3 




re 












re 






ft & 




3 












01 










c* 

























56 



"7 



"Sew, my brethren, if the latter part of this ancient hook 
hoH been cut off, and has perished together with that (with) 
which its writer closed and completed it; it was thus 
written at its end, viz. that 'This book was written in the 
city of Edessa of Mesopotamia, by the hands of a man named 
Jacob, in the year seven hundred and twenty and three, (and) 
was completed in the month of the latter Teshrin.' And, 
just as that which was written there, I have also written 
here without addition. And the things which are here, I 
wrote in the year 1398, in the era of the Greeks." 

Lee calculated that the note was written in AD 1086, and the original 
manuscript in AD 4ll, a mere 70-80 years after Eusebius composed the 
work. He realised that many would regard as preposterous the claim 
that the manuscript was then 1432 years old, and he went to great 
length in the preface to argue its plausibility. When the manuscript 
reached the British Museum, Cureton was able to confirm its ancient 
date on the basis of scientific study of all the codices. 



That fact we learn from Cureton f s preface to his edition of 
Athanasius' Festal Letters , whore the sequel to Leo's story can be 
found. Among Xattom's manuscripts Cureton had discovered the Festal 
Letters , sadly incomplete, but he was preparing them for publication 
assuming that, according to the terms of the deal, the entire library 
had been sold to Tattam by the monks. However, Tat t am had dealt 
through unreliable intermediaries, and had in fact been deceived. 
Dy chance, Cureton obtained the services of a certain M. Pacho, an 
Alexandrian who was returning home from London, and quite innocent of 
the real situation with regard to the library of the Syrian monastery, 
commissioned him to obtain any further manuscripts of interest. In 
July l8'i7, Cureton received a letter announcing the acquisition of 200 
volumes, plus fragments and loose leaves, from the same monastery. 
Pacho, it seems, had soon unravelled the true state of affairs, settled 
in the monastery himself for about six weeks, and having gained the 
trust of the monks, was eventually shown the library. He subsequently 
made sure that this time the whole lot was I landed over, by withholding 
payment until he was certain, and even getting the Superior 'to publish 
a s ante nee of excommunication against anyone of the Brethren who should 
have withholden any part of this Syriac collection, and did not immed- 
iately deliver it over to the person to whom they had consigned all 
their interest in these manuscripts.' 



Cureton 's delight can be imagined, though bad moments were 
still in store for him : 'Another letter, dated from Malta, following 
a few weeks later, gave me some apprehension. I learnt thereby that 
M. Pacho, instead of proceeding immediately to England, had determined 
upon passing through France, and taking Paris in his route; and I was 
too well acquainted with the zeal of the learned Orientalists of that 
metropolis, and of the keepers of the Royal Library, not to fear that 
they might manifest some eagerness to partake in the honour and advantage 
of possessing a share in one of the most remarkable and important collections 






of the writings of antiquity which had even been transported from 
the east to the west. This diversion of M. Pacho 's journey certainly 
cost me much anxiety: probably it also cost Her Majesty's Treasury 
some additional pounds sterling.' Still, the manuscripts eventually 
went to the British Museum. 



Cureton quite quickly found more of the Festal Letters , but 
the manuscripts were in considerable confusion. The monies had clearly 
not used them much or even cared for thorn very well, for many genera- 
tions. 'In the whole collection now in the British Museum, containing 
portions of considerably more than a thousand distinct volumes, certain- 
ly not fifty were found in a complete state upon their arrival; al- 
though much labour has subsequently succeeded in collecting and arrang- 
ing the disjointed and scattered parts of many more.' What Cureton 
hoped he might discover was the missing bit of the volume containing 
the Thcophania . Let him tell the rest of the story himself : 

One by one I untied the bundles, and diligently and eagerly 
examined their contents. As I opened the fourth I was 
delighted at recognising two pieces belonging to one of the 
leaves of this precious book; in the next I found a third. 
And now, Reader, if thou hast any love for the records of 
antiquity; if thou feelcst any kindred enthusiasm in such 
pursuits as these; if thou ha£t ever known the satisfaction 
of having a dim expectation gradually brightened into real- 
ity, and an anxious research rewarded with success - things 
that but rarely happen to us in this world of disappointment - 
I leave it to thine own imagination to paint the sensations 
which I experienced at that moment when loosing the cord of 
the seventh bundle disclosed to my sight a small fragment of 
beautiful vellum, in a well-known hand, upon which I read 
the following words : 

■ , U'^o ..-^n\so ^2o^ ]bJ-±L 1-3&5 Ijct ]ZL»mi^) aic'^fif ^|] 

O O o o o o 

yi^>^o ,_=iy!^r:o \ac\ \mjq-q> ^aj-^o jj-^-o 1_=P |^-^oa 

o o a o c c 

|^[ii]3_A hi* v*r~l ^±1 u-* f *3 ]}<n 1-it^ais A !ifi V* *j 

'There are completed in this volume three books - Titus, and 

Clement, and He of Caesar ca. 

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, 

now and at all times, and for ever. Amen and Amen, 

This volume was completed in the month Tishrin the Latter, in 

the year seven hundred and twenty-three, at Orrhoa, a city of 

Mesopotamia ' 

No more, indeed, of this inscription remains; but this 
was enough to repay me for the labour of my research, and to 
confirm and verify the facts connected with it .... 



58 



Among all the curiosities of literature, I know of none 
more remarkable than the fate of this matchless volume. 
Written in the country which was the birth-place of Abraham 
the Father of the Faithful, and the city whose king was 
the first sovereign that embraced Christianity (he refers 
of course to Abgar the Black), in the year of our Lord 4ll, 
it was, at a subsequent period, transported to the Valley 
of the Ascetics in Egypt, probably in AD 931, when two 
hundred and fifty volumes were collected by Moses of Nisibxs 
during a visit to Bagdad, and presented by him, upon his 
return, to the monastery of St. Mary Dei para, over which he 
presided. 

In AD 1086 some person, with careful foresight, 
fearing lest the memorial of the transcription of so valuable, 
beautiful, and, even at that remote period, so 'ancient a book 1 
should be lost, in order to secure its preservation took the 
precaution to copy it into the body of the volume. At how 
much earlier a period the fears which he had anticipated 
became realized I have no means of ascertaining 5 but in 
AD l837 'the end of the volume had been torn off 1 , arid in 
that state, in AD l039, it was transferred from the solitude 
of the African desert to the most frequented city in the 
world. Three years later, two of its fragments followed 
the volume to England; and in 184-7 I had the gratification 
of recovering almost all that had been lost, and of restoring 
to its place in this ancient book the transcriber's own 
record of the termination of his labours, which, after 
various fortunes, in Asia, Africa and Europe, has already 
survived a period of ONE THOUSAND, FOUR HUNDRED, AND THIRTY - 
SIX YEARS. 









SYR I AC HAGIOGRAPHY: AN EMPORIUM OF CULTURAL INFLUENCES 
by Susan Ashbrook 



But the blessed Sergius went out, and arrived at the city 
on the holy day of Sunday, at dawn. He then went straight 
to the church; and as the whole city was sitting there 
after the morning hymns. . .suddenly at the door of the church 
there appeared a strange and shocking sight, and all were 
stunned, seeing an appearance not their own: a hermit was 
entering, wearing rags patched together from sackcloth and 
carrying his cross on his shoulder. And he went right in, 
going straight to the middle of the church without a 
question, neither speaking nor turning to either side; and 
as the preacher was standing and speaking he stopped, while 
astonishment fell upon the crowd, and they looked to see 
what was the matter. But the holy man, as soon as he 
reached the chancel, struck his cross upon the step and began 
to mount. And when he had climbed one or two steps in 
silence, everyone thought that he was getting ready either 
to say something or to make a petition to the city or to the 
bishop. But when he reached the third step where the 
preacher stood, he flung out his hand, grabbed him by the 
neck, held him fast and said to him, "Wicked evil man, our 
Lord commands, 'Do not give what is holy to dogs nor pearls 
before swine 1 ; why do you speak the words of God before 
those who deny Him?" And he swung his hand round, punched 
him, twisted his mouth awry, seized him and throw him down* 

(Lives of the Eastern Saints, V) 



However unsuspecting one may bo, one enters the world of 
Syriac hagiography to learn two things very quickly. First, the 
Syrian saint is only too likely to do what one would least expect of 
a saint; and second, the appearance or form of a 'Saint's Life', the 
written story called hagiography, has all too often been seen in an 
oversimplified light. 



Take the above passage, for example, from the Life of a 
certain holy man, Sergius. It was written in the mid-sixth century 
by a Syrian bishop, John of Ephesus - an ardent Monophysite writing in 
the midst of severe persecution against the Syrian Monophysites by the 
Chalcedonian Byzantine government, ruled at that time by the groat 
emperor Justinian I and his wife Theodora. John continues the above 
narrative with breathless zest, to tell how the blessed Sergius, a 
champion of the Monophyndte cause and a hermit of severe ascetic 
practice, proceeded on this occasion to rouse the congregation into 
a full riot. The perfidious (so John tells us) Chalcedonian bishop 
Abraham of Amida manages to trick Sergius into a back room of the 
building, whore his private thugs (- to be a bishop was no easy matter 
in these times) succeed in subduing the saint with a thorough beating, 
before carting him off to a concentration camp in Armenia, run by 



rt 


2 


^ 





o 


Z 


r-- 




ft 
£3 


-) 


3 

a 


Hi 


rt 
P 


H> 


rr 
09 




rt- 


rt 


ft 


rt tJ 


on 









3" 


a 


3" 


_~ 


ra 


•z 




3 


3 




3 


H« 


rt 


u 






tn 


Ch 




CO 


na 


•I, 




Cl 


ft 





- 


to 


rt- 


■s. 




H) 




3 


P 




q 


H- 






y> 


a 


•7 


C-i 


to 







£ 


rt 




rr 







" 


- 


O 


- 


7 


- 


P 


ir 


^ 


.— 


- 


rt- 


rt 


3 


3 


rr 




2- 


1* 


| 


- 




& 


3 


^ 


P 


ft 


Q 











- 


-* 


7 


c 


Eft 


rt 


pr a 


K 






H 


P 




H- 


1 




P 


o 


Hj 


:-■ 


N 


09 


'0 


O 









3 


w 




{+ 


H) 


w 




S" 


rt 




3 


P! 




H 


3 


3 


Q9 


ft 


- 


CO 


H- 


o 


o 


ft 


«■• 


■>: 


i 


o 


K- 


3 


Hi 


* 




z 


e+ 


a 


M 


rt 


9 






a 


^ 


H- 


c 


rt- 




c 


rt 




n 


Ul 


CO 


CD 


'X 


4 


" 


r> 




rt- 


rt- 


S 


-^ 




ft 


o 


^ 




n 




rt 


3 




H 


H- 


^ 


Pfl 


ft 


>-■ 


p 


< 


rt- 


S 


3 


(+ 


rt- 


P 


o. 


o 


O 


o 


p. 


H- 


rt 


.-3 




rt 


3 


o 




C 


l < 




s 


X 


s+ 


p 


C 


a 




P 


CD 




o 












7 


rr 





ra- 


H- 


< 




H 


ft 









■J! 


o 


t-" 




it 


H- 


3 


cf 




e* 


^ 


rt 


t+ 


3 


a 








c 


re 


- 


-■ 




H« 


23 


= 


a 




ra 


ra 


rt 


EB 


3 


t 




Z 




EB 


rr 


rr 


rt 




u 


:■-: 


c= 




o 


01 


3 





c 




V! 


H 






n 


Hi 


cr 


1 


N 


rt'- 


n 





rt 




s* 


o 


1 


<J 





.-v 




P 


o 


c+ 


2 


rt- 


= 




e 




►1 


r 


rr 


- 


VI 


^ 


a 


« 


1 


3 


2? 


■■i. 




D8 


2, 


i 




a 


CD 


H< 




to 


4 


C 




C+ 




3 





rt- 




ffi 







-: 




Hi 


O 


{* 


4 


-^ 




2 







rt 


^T 




3 


o 


■c 


1 


5* 


H- 


a 


Q 




z 


H< 




H- 


ft 




H, 


H 


H 


'1 


P 


tn 


to 


rt 




SD 




m 


1 






H- 


to 


n 







2 


D 





rt 


— 


** ^ 




2 


fl 


- 


h- 


c 




ra 


3 


a 




ft 


~! 




3 


o 


& 


(5 


5 




et 


rr 


P- 


H 




n 


ft 


H 




~ 


3 


rr 


R 


3 


3" 


c 





CQ 




3" 






3 


H- 






rt 


to 




P 




3 


cn 


V. 









3 


r 


1 


rr 


rr 






* 


ft 


H- 







z 


rt 






<3 




H 


-1 


3- 




.'d 




ft 




'< 


'-' 



3 


9 


r- 


p^- 


*C 


= 


£3 


p 


— 


,— 


rt- 


-■ 


-■ 


> 


pj 


2; 


a 


- 


H' 


tJ 




p 




r:. 


a 


M 


£ 


rr 




5 


J; 


3 


3 


3 


3 


','. 


^ 


- 


^ 


rt 


3 




rt- 


t 


-i 


o 


O 


3 





2 


3 


2 


a 


H) 


3 


2 




:•; 


ft 


7 


to 


4 




s 





•a 


t 


< 


v; 




■3 


1 


a 




H 


rt 


- 


2 


:- 


2_ 






cr- 




u 


a 


a: 


H- 




tji 


3, 





2 


— . 


2 


!-' 


to 


3 


2 


P5 


'/; 


■3 


:-■ 




r: 


:— 


-i 




& 


n 


'< 


H- 


*; 


P 


H' 


~ 


rr 


w 




rt 




7 


ft 


O 






rf 


c-r 


B 


ft 


2 


3 


rj 




a 


i 


3 


2 


■ 


H» 


•-■ 


— 


< 


3 


2 






~ 




3 




i- 1 


H' 


§ 


H> 


i 


ti 


rt 




3 


2 


-■ 


O 


-- 


rt- 




?: 




H- 


a 


P 


rt- 


P 




3 




i- 


r> 


rt- 




2. 


7 


rt 


2 


G 


% 




£ 


(* 


3 






2 


ft 


•a 


3 


< 


^ 




2 




2 




3 


rt 


2- 




M 


3 




H» 


« 


rt 


1 


3 


^ 


■-• 




Hs 


2 


EM TJ 


7 


3 


2" 




■— 


EM 






rr 





O 


a 


to 


- 




~ 


'-3 


rt 


to 


rt- 


(3 


j: 


2 




2 


*< 


s 


m 


n 


'-■ 


h 


3 


V. 


•a 


rr 


D 


n 


rt 






1 


3 




rt 


O 


2 




1 




c 


■■< 


= 


rt- 


■» 


3 


H- 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


3. 


-■ 


2 


7 


(3. 


3" 


_. 


to 


H « 


GO 


P> 




i 


■3 







— 




tn 


2 


3 


rt 


3 


2 


3 


7 


p 


fl 


t+ 


rr 




3 


S 


- 


c 


ED 


r^- 


2 


= 




C2 


2 


(S 


7 


rt 


rt 


H; 


ft 


- 


£ 


-• 


er 


3 


o 


P. 


H 


?;- 






p 


— 


rr 


rt- 






= 




2 




o 




o 


P 


H* 


2 


2 




C 


q 


3 


" 


3" 






Z: 


S3 


3 


~ 


4 


(D 


— - 


<+ 


M 


3 


Q 


2 


rt- 


~_ r 


•- 


*■„ 


-; 


2 


K 


- 


rt- 


3 


7 


p 


- 




C 


< 




rt 




;— ■ 




rt 








3 


C 


^ 


- 


O 


a 




CQ 




EB 


*, 


CD 


H 


tt 


^ 


^ 


J-< 


~ 


1— 


7. 


M 


2 


(— 


4 




to 


2 


rt 


«. 


o 


to 


a 


O 


H 


rt- 


O 




H- 




2 


3 


l < 


£L 


rt 


rt- 


*■ 




3 


~ 





ta 




< 


3 





3 


*1 


to 


rt 


rt- 




2 


rt 




2 


P 


~ 


> 




r 


tc 


tt 


H- 


(9 




^ 


a 


H 


"Z. 


3 


rt 


H- 


"l 


H> 


& 


3 


3 


": 


• 


P 




rt 


c 


rt- 


n 


< 




0, 


3. 


-■ 


-1 


■I. 


— 


r. 


P 


^ 


P 






d 


2 


> 


P 


n 






-' 


2 




■» 


~ 


B 




7. 


- 


O 




— 


2 


P 




Pi 


rt 


~z 


!-"■ 


« 




H 


Hj 


P 




EB 


3 


z 




DE 




rt* 




O 


H 


^_- 




2 


~ 


ii 


C 


rr 


H- 




21 


i— 


& K 


z 


O 




2 


3" 


^ 


2 


H 


• 


ft 


r 


Mj 


H 


z 


~ 





CL 




^ 






2 


g 


I 





3 


3 


3 


J 




:.<; 






M 


M 


a 


z 


rt- 


H- 


H< 


rt 


Hj 








P 






rr 


3! 




■3 


o 


m 


■< 


& 




•J. 


< 


3 


3 








HJ 




r. 




o 


H- 


~ 


ft 




7 


2 


rt 






09 




a 


rt- 


-3 




1 


z 


i 


- 


ft 


X 


2 


~ 


T 


o 


3 


3 


2 


| 


O* ^< 


o 


1 


n 




H* 


G 


*i 


3 


- 


~ 


H- 


r 


.— 


< 


< 


rt- 


2* 


2 


3 


o 


1 


3 


:/- 


rt 


to 


rr 


2' 


3 


P 


2 


•^ 


y 




7 


P 


7 


2 


3 


2, 





g 


>--• 


J- 


O 


3 


rt) 


EB. 


rt 


ft 


.— 


77 




rt 


/- s 


7, 


Efl 


3 


H 


3 




3 


*i 


^) 


rt- 




P 


o 






w> 


~ 




P 


2 


rt 


to 


H< 


7: 


H 


to 


rt- 


2 


c 


- 


2 


to 


H* 


r2 


3 


M 




■ 


2 


rt 


2 


3" 




< 


" 


«^ 


rr 


2 


3^ 


< 




4 







3 


§ 


-j 






1 




2 


^. 


^ 


7 


2 








H 




=- 


.t 


■3- 


< 


3 




- 






" 


2 


En 


a 




- 


B 


-- 


P 







^ 


'/: 


H- 


M- 


•a 




~ 


^r 




2 


2. 






c 


tTl 





^ 


~ 








H 


» 


P 


rt 


3- 


H 




C 


~i 


rt 


Q 


Z 


4 


H 


3 


*j 


N 




7T 


rr 




r- 1 




M 


P 


rt- 


rt" 


3* 


V. 


O 


2- 


:/: 


Hi 


3 


3- 


3 


a 


2 


rt 


2 


c 


31 


^L- 




j 


(-> 


3 


3 


P 


■* 




3 


■r. 




2 




7 


3, 


3 


2F 


'■'; 




^ 








H. 


3 


"3 






— 


rt 


3 


If) 


H* 


3 


ft 




rr 


2 


rt- 


ED 


r j: 


o 


C 


"J 


rt 


■— 


C 


~- 


Hj 


2 


t 


■» 


2 


2- 


2 





2' 


-■ 




H- 


2 


.-■ 





3 


3 


'< 


M 


rt- 


2 


O 




rt- 




3 




rt 


1 


<< 


3 


"/, 


-■ 


O 





c 


H 


M 




'-< 


Ec 


'2; 


rt 


tfl 


tc 


rt- 


2" 


2" 




~ 




ft 


3 


3 


- 


CQ 


^ 


r-- 


rt' 


rt 




rt 


3 




rj 


S 


rt 




3 


3^ 





rt 




< 


3 




T 


a 


Pf to 


3" 


P 


H- 


3 


2 


rt 






2 


33 


7 


= 


3* 


3 


ft 




P 


BJ 




o 


rt- 


BJ 


rt- 


O 


■d 


1- 


ft 


i 


3 


2 


■a 




2 


7 


2 


H, 




*o 







O 


■n 






-■ 


1 


j 




3 


:l 


2 


_x 


3 




— 


rt 


rt- 


c 




Hj 


H> 


3 




el- 


P 


'-: 




2. 


2 


2 




c 




37 


7 


2* 


7 


7. 


^ 


^ 


rt- 


IA 


* 


s' 


3 




■d 


V. 




r- 


2 




7 





3 






2r 





*• 


c 


U 


» 


3 


3 


2- 


P 


H 


1 


K< 


3- 


H* 


H 


l— 


z 


7 


• — 


3 




t 




4 






P 






3 


3 


rt^ 




p 


P 


H 


rt^ 


rt 


rt 


3 


t 




■y 




o 


tt 


3- 


3 


H 


3- 


- 


rt- 


" 


P 


Cf 


rt 


o 


■rr 


C 


3" 


2 


~- 




^ 


2 


2 


2 


:— 


rt 


:-■ 






P 




J- 1 


:— 


O 


3, 


2 


:2 


7 


rr- 


rt 






2 


" 


2. 


!t 


3 


rt 


£ 


H* 


O 


"/ 


\-"< 


1 




1 


2 




3 


- 




h- 


rr 


cf 




2, 


ID 


3 


a 


rt 




rt 


O 






2 


O 


rt 


H, 


rt 






rr 




:-■ 


q 




T. 


i-j 


- 




* 


H- 


t 


2T 




3 




r-' 


O 


^ 


t: 




U 


P 


ft 


rt- 


*! 


3 




ft 


P 


H 




3 


P 




3 


■'- 


£ 




2 






5 




rt- 


rt 


O 


4 


H- 


O 


Efl 


H 


.-• 


3 


P 


to 


Hj 


7 


rt 




y. 




4 




n 


rt- 




3 


rt 


3 






rr 


O 


3. 


c 






rt 


2. 


Eg 




* 


■^ 


2 


tA 


rt 


- 






i— 


2 


3 


[fl 


= 


~ 


~ 


— 


3 




rt 


-■ 




q 


i 


c 


c*- 


O 


a 


1 


P 


3. 




a 


2 


T 


3- 


~ 


- 




" 




(6 


3 


H- 






M 






~ 


r^ 


P 




2 







rt 


rt- 


s* 






i 


1 


ft 







.-!- 








3 


Hj 




rt 


ft 






o 


3 


i-- 






rt- 








Mi 


V. 








H< 

3 




H 

2 


3- 

7 


2- 








(fl 


H« 

rr 
H- 

7 

ta 



37 


3 


2 


- 


7. 


2" 2. 


"r 


2 


£ 




a 


3 


3- 


3 


ft 


C rt- 


~ 


—. 


_ 




h-- 


a 


c~ 


^L 


7 


rt h, 


rt 




ft 




■jz 




P 




3 


S* Hi 


rt 


H» 


- 




2 


i- 1 


rt- 


rr 






z; - 


3 


2" 




2 


H< 


2 


— 


cfr 


2 rt 


- 


ft 


3 




3 


rr 


P 


7 


2 


O ft 


rt 


rr 


rt 




rt 


3 


- 


5 




a 3 


3 










3 


rt- 


P 


■J. 


rt rt 


3 


P 


rt 




s. 


P 


2 


rt 


P 


ft 


rt 


3 


P 




z 


rt 




H. ^ 


3 77 


7 


2. 


- 


z 


zr 


2 


- 


ft 




<rt H- 


-* 




7 


3 


rt 


3 


3 




P 


3 




H 




' 


H 


ft 


2 


•a 


3 


P 2. 


rr 


ft 






3 




B 


2 


& 


3 X 


p 


CQ 


3" 


2T 


rr 


3- 




rt 






•-2 


ft 


H- 


P 


*< 


P 


rr 


rt 


d 




rt- 


3 


to 


23 




V5 


2T 


2 


3 


!fl p 





3. 


rt 


rt- 


:-: 


7 


7 


3 


■ 


rt 2! 


23 


■* 


3 


■3 


rt- 


3, 








S 2- 


3 




rt 


a 


rt 











M 


pa 


rt- 


H- 


rt 


2- 


2 


H, 


3 




ft to 


3v 


rt 


ft 


p 




•d 


Hj 


H) 


72 


3 


rr 




P 


« 


3 


7 


H- 


rt 


2 


1 ft 


'< 


i— 


H 


3 1 




2 


ft 


7 


rt 


3 




;-: 


H 


<^ 


2 




+ ■ 


2 




rt EB 


^ 




^ 




rt- 




P 







2J" 


7 


pj 




5" 


S 


to 


rt- 


n 


2 


P rt 


2 


3 


C 


3 


13 


rt- 




c 




rt O 


G, 




rt 


to 


M ^ 


4 


2 


fl 




7; 


2" 






c 


■— i 


ft 


rt- 


H 


H- 1 




-■ 


H 


P 




rt- 


2 


3 


O 


to ft 


rr 


to 


H- 




p 


EC 


o 


rt- 


7. 


- rt- 


O 


rr 


rt- 


«: 


3 


rH 


rt 


3 


ft 


^ 




O 


3 


3 


& 


H- 


& 




3 


rt 


ft 


rt 


rt 


^J 




ft 


tn 


P 




3* O 


2 


rt- 


1? 


to 


to 








rt- 


ft 3 


^ 


ft 


3 




3 


Hj 


& 


HJ 


2 


H 


7 


P 


t^ 


HJ 




o 


2 


3 


:/; 


o ■& 




h- ^ 


rt 


3 


rt 







'a 


rt 


rr 




« 


ft 


7 


5 




Hi 


ft 


P P 


2- 


7. 




yj 


^. 


2 


2. 





ft 


R 3 


rt- 


o 




o 


3 


H 





2 


rt 


ft a 


O 


2 




3 


H 


P 


3 


2 


rt- 


p 


~ 


rt 


> 


rt 




ft 


3 


2. 





W T 


rt- 


O 


3 


ft 


3 




= 


•* 


a 


rt C *< 


7 




a 


to 


3 


7 






P 






H- 




o 


B 


3 


a 




3 H, 


2 


O 


2 


p 




rt 


ft 


o 


Cv O 


H, 


r- 




2 




y. 


2 


2 


'A 1 


2 




3 


Hj 


Hj 


2 




7 


7 


3: 


ft 


rt- 


1 




- 


o 


rt 




e, q 


- 


H" 


3 


2 


i- 1 


rt 


Hj 


3 


— , 


H 


3 


q 


P 


5 


3 


3 




P 


H- 


rt P 


a 


;/;■ 


rt 


rr 


3 


3 


P 


rt 


3 


2f rt- 


3" 


H- 


ft 


rt 


a 






rt- 


3- 


rt- n 


< 


H< 


P 


2 


P 


13 


2 


tn 


3 




tu 


s 


rt 


3 


7 


H- 


l3 




ta tj 


rt 






:-■ 


'J 


~" 


<; 




^ 


Efl p 


2T 


ft 


^ 


3 


7 


H- 


3 


rt 


Q" 


rt 


! 


3- 





to 


• 


EB 


3 


*1 


2- 


rt rt 


fl 


< 






* 




2 


rt- 


3- ft 


7 





rt: 




7 


•a 


rt 




P 4 


CO 


3 


2 


rt 






7 


~ 


rt- 


rt 




3 




3 




2 


3 




O 


to 





rt- 


3- 


r 






H* 


z 


(Q 


to 


Hj 


3 


H 


H 






O 


2 


3 


P Hj 




rt 


3 


ft 






3- 


1 


a 


H- Q 




■ 


3 


2 










3- 


3 rt 
rt 

v. 






a 





P 


2T 


rt- 


N 


3 


cr 


~. 


2 


rt 


2 


P) 


7. 


■7 


ft 


^< 


P 


Efl 


l < 


3- 


•27 




P 


rr 




ri- 




rt 


H- 


rt- 


rt 


Hi 


2 


rt- 


ft 


rt 


» 


ft 


3 


z 


■- 


rt 


rt- 




■ — 


3 


3 


CO 






3 


V. 


rt 


P 


3 


3 


3 


V, 


3- 


to 




i" 


rt 


-■ 


2 


P 


p 


P 




O 


P 




ft 


<» 


33 


^ 


rr 


rt 


< 


2 


M< 


3 




DC 




rr 





ft 




2 


H 


a 


3 




r- 




rt 


3 


73 




3 


rt 


rr 


rt- 


" 


to 


2 


3 


n 


2 




27 


2 


p. 


ft 


3 


rt- 




(-■ 




3 


■■- 


3 


3 


-. 


EA 


p 


7. 


3 








rt 


rt- 


C 


rt- 


H- 


2 


^ 


ft 


3 


Efl 


3 




3 


a 


3 


O 


O 


3 


• 


7 


ri 


ft 


12 


- 


2 


P 


rt 




n 


7 


2. 




M 


3 


7. 


--■ 




7 


3 


2 


rt ^ 


-2 


ft 


-x 






r- 


3 


2T 




LT 


H 


c 


37 


rt 




rt- 


ft 





^ 


7 




2 




H- 


3 




K 


to 


71 


H- 


rt 


rt 


3 


2 


7. 


"i 


:-- 


tn 


3 




3 




Efl 


2 


7 


rt 


:~~ 


3 


rt- 




rt 




1* 


m 


3 


K 


2, 


3* 


r- 


— 


Hi 


2 


u 






■* 


3 


~ 


ft 


o 


rr 




ft 


P 






rt- 




rt 




3 


P 


'3) 


rt 


a 


7. 


Q. 




P 


37 


Z 


P 


3 


p 




ft 


3 


3 




7 j" 


.-■ 






7 


ft 


p- 


2. 


~ 


3 


3 


Hj 


3 


37 


33 


7, 




rt- 


i ■ 


7: 


r- 


rt 


2 


a 


3- 


•3 


■x 


• 


rt 


3 


rt- 


rt 


to 


3 


H 








H- 


ft 


- 


rt 


3* 


O 


H« 




rr 


7. 


U3 






P 


3 


2 




2" 


" 


7. 


r. 





< 


r- 


E0 


- 


ft 






Z 


H, 


.-- 


H, 


*3 


3 




EX 


tn 






2 


'-1 


H- 


3" 


ft 


H- 


ft 


■z. 


2- 


n 


H- 


rt 


3 


3 


[" 


rt 


rt 


C 




3 


rt- 




ft 




CQ 


rt- 


2 


a 


•3 


2 


C 


3 


rt-' 


H- 


3 


:ft 


2 




(O 


Hj 


rt- 


l— 


2 




3 


2 


Q 






3 


- 


j: 


< 


3 


O 


3 


to 


- 


7. 


: 




7 


3 


a 


2, 


rt Hj 






•o 


rt 


tfl 


■f 


• 





~ 





■-: 


2 


ft 






5 


ft 


H) 


rt- 


rt- 




f: 


to 




7- 




rt 


3 


r^- 





rt- 






3 


rt 


Sf 


?i 


~ 


2 


rr 




rt 


Efl 


23 




H 


ft 


rt- 


7 




8 


"* 


ft 


ft 

3T 


^< 


rr 


a 


7. 

• 




2T 


rt- 


H 


P 


■:7 


C 


■3- 






K. 


3 


rt 


rt 


CQ 


3 


3 






CQ 


P- 


2 


2 


3 


r* 










7 


ft 


ft 


P 


2 


P 


t- 




P 


ft 




rt rtj 


3 




z_ 




rt 


a 


■=3 


ft 


ft 


ft 


:r 






rt 




P 


rt 


Efl 


tn 


ft 


3 




3 


2 


rt- 


H- 






rt- 






3 




rt 


7. 


P 


7 


cf 


rt 




rr 


3* 


3" 


rt- 


2 


X 


7 


G 




rt- 


C 




H- 


2. 


7 


rt 


H- 




rt 


3 


^— - 


3 




ft 




f-- 




Q 


- 
rt^ 
ft 


rt 

3T 

p 

rt 






2 
rt 
7 
3. 




w 



- 



rt- 


*tj a ft 


rt- H- 


a -^ 


rt pr 


3 


3 




2 


ft cs* 3 


3 3 


rt H- 


3* _P 


- 








1 H hj 


HJ 


P O 




3 


a 




rr 


tO H- H- 


ft H" 


ft rt 


H- 


rt- 


H- 




3- 


H- <- 4 


< H- 


ft d 


a o 


C 


3 




rt- 


p rt- o 
3 0- 


H- ft 


O rt 


O CO 


rt 


rt 




W 


a p 


1 ft 


O rt 


'-< 


ft 






to C 


ft rt 


» 


rt p 




rt- 




73 


to p 


3 H- 


O ft 


a 


t 


3 




7 


P - 3 


ft 


3 3 


^ a 


O 


25 




rt 


to Cu 


rt 3 


P ft 


H-^ 


rt 




o 


rt- 


rt 


< to 


3 H 


<* 


M TJ 


2 


Q 


3 O H« 




[Q 


3* a 


P- 


3 




3. 


ft 3 





O ft 


o 




^ 


rt 


-* • 


H" H- 


Hj 


c to 


a ra 


I 


rr 


3" 




H rt to 


h3 


H 


H- to 




rt 


3 




to 


3" H* 


rt O 


to 


", 


3 




> 


P 3 


CD 3 


S M 


S.I 


O 


rt- 





a 


trl Td ft 


tn a 


rt 


rt 


rt 


3 


O 


ft ft 


ft p 


Hj rt 








ft 


Cd $ hj 


1 




H- ft 


-■ 


2 


7 


3 


"^ C h- 


< H- 


O to 


ft 


--- 


H, 


rt 


H- 


N rt p 


I* p 


H, O 


a ft 








P 


p . ft 


H H" 


ft 


o 


O 


O 


3T 


3 


3 ft 


H 


Cd H- 


B.I 


Hj 


rt 


P 


tfl 


rt 09 


p a 


^ ft 


H| 


2. 


2 




rt- 


to ft 


N f* 


r- C 


rt- 


H> 


2. 


2 


2 ^ ^ 


ft o 


P ^i 


H- 3 


o 


3 




3 


ft Q ft 


to H 


3 


3 rt- 


H- 


3 




C 


CO rt. H 


ft 


rt P 


H-^ 


P 


5 


P 




- Efl ft 


H, O 


H- 3 


rt 


H 


2 


" 


o 


ft tfl 


C Qv;tj 






2. 


■- 


P ft tn 


M „ 


3 


• ft 


2T 


M 




'< 


3 3ft 


rt 


- ft 


^ 


rt- 


rt- 


*e 


72 


& rt 


H- 


C 


rr 


to 


Hj 


ra 


rr 


H- 


3 p 


cr h 


rt 


rt 


7 


rt 


rt- 


CT rt; 


o -: 


q rt 


H P 







3 


P 


P 3 ft 

rt i b 


to 


rt g 


3 ^ 


rt 


rt. 


P 


3 


1- ** 


rt 




H- 


2 


33 


CQ 


c o 


o 


^, ° 


C* rt 


p 




GO 




p s: rt ^ p 




3" 


3 


P 




O 


*i ft ft 


P 3 


ft ra 


2T ft 


tn 




3 


Hi 


H- 1 


M P. 


rt « 


3 




rt 


3 


Hi 


P ft P 


rt 


ft to 


- H 


•n 


3 


rt 


ft 


5 tn 


^ a 


ft 


09 H- 


i 


:; 


3 


rt 


H- R rt 


o 


rt 3 


Hj 


2 




ft 


O H- 


pr rt 


H- 3 


7 


rr 


H- 


pi 


3 Q O 


1 H- 


ft H- 


H- 


H 


3 


3 




-1 q 


o 


P 


< 


■■■< 




TJ 


» 


p to cr 


p H- 


rt rt- 


ft Hj 




q 


O 


a 


Hj ft 


ft M 


to 


2 


rt 


rt- 


H- rt 


Hj tfi 


P ^ 


rt 


- 


c& 


rt 


3 


O H- 


ft 


H> 


p 3* 


rt, 


2 


3 


K> 


3 P 3 


O P 


C 


ft 


ft 




2 


rt 


w to a 


rt rt 


3 3 


< 


rt 





rt 


3 


P H' 


H- O 


ft rt 


ft a 




-*] 


r^ 


3 


P H- Hj 


O 


§ g 


i q 


7 




'< 


H 


h- h 


3 ft 


%4 rj 


3 


ri- 






7. 7. ft 


< 


H- O 


CO 


:-_ 


- 




ft 


O rt 4 


Hj ft 


3 2T 


H- 5 




ft 


'- 





^ ra 


o n 


CQ ft 






Q 


G 


rt rt 3 


*- 21 


oj a 


to rt 


pg 


tn 


3- 


rt 


3* rt 


^ s. 




rt 




rt- 


2 


p 


O (D * 


rt 3* 


P C 


rt- p 


'2 


H 




P. 


" 3 


3- ft 


3 ^< 


3 3 


-■ 


rt 


3 


A 


ft 


CD rt 


3, 


ft C 


ft 


7T 


Hj 


rt 


a a < 


ft 


rt 


rt 


rt 




H* 


S 


H" »< ft 




3- 


O 


fl 




ft 


■j* 


P 3 




2 


Hj 




rt 













7 




7! 




3 








«• 









< 


O O rt 


p 


3 


ft 


3 


2 


P 


3 




O 


P 


I 3* O 


2 


2 


P 


3 


ft 


rr 


7 




rt 


H 


P 


ft 


P. 


Efl 


ft 


2 




-1 




rt 


2 


O H rt- 


0i 




rr 


to 


ri- 


rt 


2 




3" 


P 


rt 3* 




P 


ft 


ft 


ft 


3- 


rt 




3 


3 


pr a ft 


CQ 


3 


rt 


3 


rt 


ft 


H- 




2- 


— 


o p. 


2 




3 


rt •< 




2 




2 


7 


rt o < 




rt- 




rt- 




:' 


2 




M 




s: - h- 


Hj 


2 


•a 


3 


t3 


o 


P 




— 


H« 


H« H- O 


rt 


to 





CO 


'--: 


rt 


N 






3 


to P ai 
ft 3 to 





H- 


w 




tJ 


^1 




2 


3* 




5 


2- 


rt- 


ft 


3 




: 




rt 


tfl 


> — 




7 


3 


3 


3 


p 


:-, 


rt- 


2 


7 


• O rt 


rt 




H- 


3 


rt 


7, 


7 


— 


3- 


rt 


rt i 


p? 


33 


3 


rr 


rt. 








» 


< 


rt P 


7 


:-■ 


tfl 


ft 


2 


P 


ft 






rt- 


3 P- 




ft 




3 


ft 




rt- 


rt- 




3 


33 H- 


< 


ri- 


O 


'3 




*! 


7. 


2 




Efl 


rt- & rt 


3 


ft 


rt-, 


2 


6-1 


3- 


7 








to O rt- 


2 


rt 




4 


3 


2 


3 


-■ 




rt- 
3 


>$ § 


rt 

2 


ft 


rt 

2- 


fl 


3 

-- 


rt^ 
7 


H- 


< 

rt- 






rt p 


(ft 





2 


-3 


3 




3 


2. 




P 


rt *—* M 


■3 


Hj 






ft 


rt 




2 




3, 


H- H 






27 


ft 




3* 


rr- 


2 




C 


rt 3 ^ 


w 


rt ^ 


< 


ft 


2 


- 


— 






q 


2 


2T 


S 


H- 


P 


rt 


7 






3" 


o- ^ a 


--• 


7 


P 


2. 


3 






w 




P 


ft 3- 1 


3 




2 


7 




rr 


4 


-■ 




rt- 


. H- ft 


rt 


23 


rt 


3 


DT 


3 


ft 




P 


rt O to 




'< 


rt- 


n 


3 


ft 


rt. 






2 


O PT ft 





N 


3 


7 






rr 


-; 




3 


1 _, 1 


-, 


P 


ft 




Efl 


7 


H- 


7. 




7 


p -? rt 




3 




3 


O 


N 


3 








1 ft ft 


p 


rt 


~ 


H% 


ft 


rt a 


Hj 




rr 


& & 




:-■ 


3 




3 


ft 




rt 







to Pr 


a 


3 


33 


rt 


• 


3 


■2 


3 






P P 


3 


7 


rt- 


3 J 




rt 


Hj 


3 




P 


rt < a 


i 




h 


7 














3* ft & 


7. 


H- 


7 






2 


73 


rt- 




73 


ft 


7 


5 




2 


o 


rt^ 


rt- 


~ 




rt. 


a P Ef 

3 H- p 


3 


7? 


P 


5" 


2 




ft 


3 




O 


Z 


ft 


rt 


3 




rt- 


rt 






rt a h q 


ri- 


3 




2 


rr 


rt ^ 


.— , 




3 


h- a 


ft 


rt- 


rt T3 


- 


to 


-. 


2, 




3 


rt cr ~ 


3. 


P 




— - 


ft 






<. 




ft 


ft ft rt 




i- 


ft 


■< 




H- 


r-- 


3 






- ft 


— 






CO 





3 


rt 


7- 




3 


3 s- 


3" 


o 


3 


rt- 


3 


CO 








Hi 


rt rt- 


ft 


3 


ft 


rt 


ft 


~r^- 


rt- 


3 




rt 


3" rt ri- 


3 


2 


rt- 


7 




LO 


:■: 


2 




7 


ft p 3- 


ft 


3 


DO 




3 






-■ 




2 


3 H- 


— 


rr 




a 


P 


rt 


: -! 








- CO ri- 


rt- 


• 


rt 


7 


3 


CQ 


~ 


3 




2. 


ft 3" 


o 






3 


j3 




■7 


7 




H- 


H- PL [" 


• 




Q 


7 




rt- 


3 


7 




to 


to - 


■• 




Hj 


2 




3 




7 




rr 


3* 




g 




7 


3- 


rt 


O 


^ 




3 


" " H 


p 


2 


(* 


3 


C 


3 


3 






4 


rt- 25 3 


n 


3 


rt 


rt 


3 




3 


— 




rt a : . 




ft 


00 


H- 


3 


rt 




ft 




ft 


pr s: co 


3 


3 




3 




3" 


H 






Zl 


rt- rt- h- 


'3 


< 


CQ 


3 


rt- 




ft 


7. 






S 3 to 


33 


7 


rt- 


tfl 


U 







_. 




rt 


a 3- 


3 


rt 









tE 


h 


3 




— 


H> rt 


';. 


- 


3 






■-■ 


to 


3; 




rt 


^! 


ft 




-^ 


rr 




'.< 




— 




Q 


o 


3, 


— ■ 




~J 




rr 








3 


H% 




3 




ft 




3 







P 


33 


- 


H) i 


PI 3* tl 


H- ft 


rt 


£, P o 


3 


H 


2 


ft 


7 


rt- 


rt ^ 


ft 


2 < 


rt- 


P 3 O 


3 


4 


2. 


rt 


ft 


3 


ft 


rt 


ft 


3 


tfl & 3 


3 


2 




rt- 


3 


P 


P rt 


Ti- 


rt 3 


3 


to 


P 


3 


rt 


ft 


3 


rt- 


yj pr 


ft 


pr ri- 


to 


ft a h- 


7j 




2 


3 


to 


i— 


ft 


■3 


ft ff 


-• 


X P CO 


rr 


7 


7 


2 


3 


l -3 


ft 


2 


_ P 




H- H> rt 


rt- 


% 


_. 


ft 




-• 


Hj rt- 


rt 


£ H* 


S 


M ft ft 


3 


rt 


en 


3 




3 


-3 


O H 


ft to fi 




rt- 






Hj 


rt. 


> « 


a 


3 ^ 


O 


a rt 


O 


^J 


7. 


rr 




3 


to ft 




O 


z 


H- a 


o 


C, 


rr 


3 


3 




H- 4 


2 


a ^ 


23 


7; 3 rt 




rt- 





2 


-■ 


rt- 


P H- 


P 


pr o 


3* 


ft ft H- 


3 


3 3- 


n 


- 


to 


3 


-. P 


3 


*< 3 


rt 


< -- 5 


2 




rt- 






7 


S H 


3 


CO rt 




ft • E3 


2 


~ 


7 


3T 


rt 




H- 


ft 


H- 


o* H H 


rt- 


H- O 


CO 


ft 


3 


rt 


3 




rt rt ^ 


P H- 


rt 


CO Hj 






rt- 


ft 


O 


H- 


ft O 




!-■ H 


rt- 




3 


2 


-> 


H- 


*1 C 


3 




rt 


r ^ 


ft 


ft tFi 


^ 


3 


•3 


tfl 


*i 




4 ri- 


3* 


ri- rt- 


7- 


pr a 


P 


O 


-• 


2 


P rt 


rt 


ft D" 


3 


H- — O 




rt. 3T 


rt 


2 


2 




3 - 


2T 


H, ra 




3 ft Hj 


rt- 


H ft 


33 


2 


2 


O 


a 


ft 


q 


o 


ft 


3 


IS 


rt- 


3 


CO 


rt-. 


3 




O ft 


3 


to 3 rt 




'< 


ri- 






rt ft 


3 


ra P 


P 


P qr 


3* 


to 




ft 


< 


'-< 


pr 


2 


ra a 


rt- 


a 3 ra 


H- 


O 


rt 


rt 


H- 


- 


ft n 


§ 


H- 


O 


fl" 5 1 


7: 


Pi 3* 


3 


7 


7 


3 


o 


o rt 


7- 




- P 


Hj 


2_ 


5 


rt 


M 2 


rt 


1 & 


a 


H- C/J ft 


P 


Pi 


rt- 




CO 


H- 


^ & 




o 


3 X CO 


rt 


P 


3 


ri- 


■ 


3 


H 


O 


a 


2 


ta rt h- 


■3 


3 cr 


3 


- 






H- O 


-; 


So ft 


rt. 


H- O 


P 


& ra 


rt- 


ft 




.— 


p rt 




- H- 


e 


rt p 3 




CD 








i— 


3 ft 


rr 


rt 


3 


pr 3 to 


O 


H 3 


rt 


•3 


— 


■• 


a 


2T 


P ^< 




CD CO 


Hj 


P 


s 


O 


rr 




O 


O 


3 


^3 


- 




rt rt 


3 


ft 




'. 


4 3 




0- 


ft 


O H, 


rt 


ft p 


to 


33 


^ 


P 


H- H- 


ft 


Hj 


< 


H> 5J 


3* 


hj H . 


ft 


— 


P 


7. 


ft to 


3 


cr 


3 


rt 3 12 


ft 


CO 




7 


7. 




3 co 


'2 


ft o 


rt 


ft & ft 




rt ra 


Efl 






~ 


rt h- 


7 


o 


~ 


3 CO 


ft 


H & 


2 


H" 


H' 


P 


O 


rt 


P 3 


^ 


ra o 


3 


P 


rt 


P 


3 


2 


O 3 


o 


3 to 


ft 


Hj co a 


37; 


5| H- 


rt 


rr 




rt- 


3 CO 


rt 


ft rt 


3 


h- a o 


H- 


ra 3 


2 


7 


rr 


7. 






P 


rt- 


ft ft rt 


rt 


h- 


_ 


rt 


_ 


_ 


a" h- 


u 


P 3 




"1 o P 


7 


H P 


2 




ft 


ft 


ft 3 


z 


rt 


O 


O H- 3 




3 


3. 


ft 




3. 


3 rt 


■ji 


Efl H- 


H, 


ft P H* 


*^N 


a- 3 


rt- 


2 


O 




P O 


rt 


a a 




rt- P 


rt 





3 


7: 


3 


Hi 


H 


H« 


O 


23 


as h* 




<! 3 


ea 


3 


2 


3 


H» rt 


3 


?r a 


l ^ 


o << 


7 


rt- p 




4 


3 


rt 


3" 


H» 


ft H 


N 


3 O 




a to 


o 


-■ 


7. 




O CD 


B 


to ft 


P 


O rt CO 


C/l 


ra rt- 


-. 


3 


7 


rt 


Hj 


3 


2 


a pr n 


^ 


H ft 


3 


ft 




3 d 


, M 




P ^ 


rt 


■&* ft 3* 


rt 


^ rt 


3 


3. 


O 


ft 


<U rt 




3 3* 


H« 


m a 


rt- 


^ 


2 




H, 




q H- 




ft 


3 


CO P ft 


p 


1 H- 


— 


rt- 




H- 


ta H 




Hj 4 


3 


H- Cfl 3 


3 


7 


2 


— 


P 


rt rt- 


*3 


ft 




rt- o o 




O 3 


rr 




zz 


7. 


H- 


P 


rt 




ra ra - 


O 


3 


2 


3 


ft 


rt 


3 a 


rt 


3" 




rt 


4 


• | 


2 


rt- 


71 




H- P 


o 


rt CD 




a h- tn 


rt- 


ft 


7 


ft 


rt 


P CO 


2 




23 


ra ra *-< 


7 


rt p. 


ft 






H<" 


3 P 


rt 


ft to 


ft 


H to rt 


3 


pr q* 


to 


r 


ft 


3 


J 3 


CD 


ft 




tO - H- 


rr 


ft P 


« 


-■ 


x 


7 




2. 


rt 




ft P 








< 


1 




ff 




< 




ra a- - 








ft 






2 




ft 




q ra 








7 






rt 




O- 











P 


rt 


— 


— :/-. 




4 H- 


O P 


3 


P to 


n to 


P 


a 


p CO 


L.- 


ra 


H- 


rt- p 







H- 


H< 3 


rt 


3 


<; 


CO H- 




2 


7 


a§ 


ft 


q 


7 


rt 


ri- 







ft CO 


s-? 


to 


CO H- 


7. 


< 


n 


rt 


HJ ft 


H> CO 





to 


rt H- 


p 


1 


to P 


c- 


p 


3 


1 


s. 3 


H« 






3 C 




H- H« 


rt O 




n 3 


ra 1 




3" 3 


rt ra- 




ft 


ft ra 




W C2, 


to rt 




^ H- 


rt to 




H p 


• 




rt- rt 


& 




P ft 


3 




O 


a 




to 


K 




pr ra 


Co 3" 




P 3 


q h- 




to Efl 


3* rt- 




H- ft 


Cj. O 




O 


CD 




CO O 


n w 




rt H, 


rt 3 




P 


- 




a rt 


3" 




pr 3" 


P 




^ ft 


P 




« =r 


c ^ 




H- 


H- O 




3 to 


ra H 




rt- rt 


" ?r 




p. O 






1 


to 3 




rt% H- 


H H- 




H- O 


P (O 




3 P 


3 3" 




e. h 


ft ri- 
ft 




rt- p 


[fl 




rt 3 


P O 




to ri- 


rt 3 




ft 


3 




rt- h- 


c-. ra- 




Hj H- 


ft 




rt- 


3* rt 




a ra 


3 p 




rt rt 


rt 




Sfl 


P 3- 

3 ra 




rt-^ 


a rt 
















i-- 






3 






(O 







6a 



(pre-Islamic) Arabs, Turks, and even the King of Aothiopia occasion- 
ally provided uncertain asylum or support. The suffering of villager 
and peasant incurred in these events is documented with an immediate 
intimacy and tenderness. 



It is firmly in the midst of these circumstances that 
John's ascetics are to bo found, and he paints a vibrant scene of 
an asceticism that has become urban, found no longer in the desert, 
but in village, town, and city. Indeed, by the sixth century, ascet- 
icism had become a potent political force, one which the imperial 
government either had to enlist into its own service or seriously 
contend with. Asceticism as well as its adoring public had in fact 
grown up: where once the holy man or woman had been approached to 
perform intercessory prayers, healings (miraculous or otherwise), and 
exorcisms, now they also functioned as intermediaries between the 
common populace and the coldly bureaucratic, rigidly exacting govern- 
ment. Thus they were found handling land disputes, civil actions, 
divorce proceedings, matters of trade, and above all, difficulties 
arising from taxation or oppressive landowners; the ascetics drew 
no limits to their area of jurisdiction or influence, and often dealt 
directly with high officials - even the emperor himself would consult 
a venerated ascetic, be it for policies domestic or foreign. John's 
Lives present a diverse (and, at times, amusing) portrait of the saint 
at work in society, and the kind of impact such an ascetic role had 
both on the 'real world' and on the spiritual one. 



As an historical document, then, John's work clearly offers 
much to explore. But its content cannot be severed from its form, 
and its function as literature raises questions of an equally absorb- 
ing nature- The Lives of the Eastern Saints was composed in Syriac 
at a time when Syriac was a major second language of the Byzantine 
Empire, and the lingua franca of the east. Nonetheless, John could 
have reached a far wider audience had he chosen to write in Greek, 
which, being bilingual, he no doubt could have done; indeed, so 
infiltrated by Greek syntax and vocabulary is his Syriac that one 
wonders in which language he was thinking. However, the majority 
of the Monophysite population was Syrian, and most Syrians were Mono- 
physite. In a period of intense persecution, a revitalised ideology 
of Christian martyrdom was strongly present in the east. The impact 
of John's Lives as positive Monophysite propaganda raises intriguing 
considerations. 



Furthermore, the Lives represents a major link in a literary 
genre found primarily in Greek. While hagiography had become highly 
developed litororily, as a form of exalting and exalted biography, a 
few individuals - such as Palladius in his Lausiac History , Theodoret 
in his Historia Rcligiosa , and later John Moschus in his Spiritual 
Meadow (all composed in Greek) - chose a much loss formal, more per- 
sonally intimate form of hagiography. These wrote accounts of 
ascetics in their own regions, and presented their characters through 






63 



vignettes rather than full-length biographies. It is this literary 
mode that John of Ephesus chose for the purpose of making known the 
piety and strength of asceticism in a remote area of the Syrian 
Orient. One must, consequently, look to the influences and purposes 
interacting among the works of this particular mode. 



If I am in danger of presenting John of Ephesus as the 
definitive Syriac hagiographer, let me hasten to point out that he 
is but one of many (and hardly the best in literary terms, writing 
as he does in mangled half-Greek Syriac), although a particularly 
fascinating one, to be sure. However, if we look again at some of 
the cultural cross-currents written into John's Lives , we may perhaps 
begin to sketch a wider context for Syriac hagiography in the pro- 
Arab period. 



Immediately striking is the relationship between Syriac and 
Greek. With Greek as the primary language of Christian thought and 
literature,^ further strengthened by its political place as the lang- 
uage of the one true Christian Empire - that of Byzantium, it was in 
relation to Greek that the early Christian world would interact from 
the Latin West deep into the Orient. As Syriac had long been the 
common tongue of the oast, its constant interaction with Greek fos- 
tered its role as a major mediator between different Christian peoples. 
Thus, amidst frequent examples of the many opportunities open to and 
situations dependent upon the Syrian who was also learned in Greek, 
John of Ephesus makes it clear that in the sixth century the Armenian 
striving for access into the cultural elite of Byzantine society must 
be well-educated in both Greek and Syriac, the Armenian language not 
yet having achieved a stature of its own. In fact t the Syrian Orient 
and Armenia had a very intricate relationship of their own; geo- 
graphical neighbours, their histories were tightly intertwined. It 
was the Syrians who, in the fifth century, had worked with Armenian 
scholars to devise an Armenian alphabet and establish the foundations 
of an Armenian literature; the earliest Armenian works wore trans- 
lations of Syriac translations of Greek (the Bible and Eusebius of 
Caesarea T s Ecclesiastical History , among others)! John of Ephesus 
was not the only Syriac hagiographer whose characters provided access 
for an outside audience into Armenia, its society and Christian 
experience. 



Perhaps more immediately relevant for the Byzantine world 
was the interaction of the Syrian Orient with Egypt. John of Ephesus 
points to the major areas of common influence in his vivid descriptions 
of the Syrian Monophysite ascetics, exiled from their own regions, who 
fled to the Egyptian desert for refuge. The Copts, like the Syrians, 
were predominantly Monophysite - cherishing their tradition of Cyril 
of Alexandria, the fifth century theologian whose thought was crucial 
to the conflict at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Indeed, the theo- 
logical alliance between the Syrian and Coptic Monophysites was of 
critical importance for the rise of the Monophysite movement, its 
stormy period of dissent within the orthodox body, and the actions in 



64 



the course of the sixth century eventually leading to an irrevocable 
split into separate churches - the Coptic and Syrian Monophysites 
each forming their own independent ecclesiastical structures and 
bodies, irreconcilable with the imperial Chalcedonian 'Orthodox 1 
church of the Byzantines. The development is well demonstrated in 
Syriac hagiography of the time, as are the roles of both Coptic and 
Syrian leaders* 



John of Ephesus writes at the height of the Monophysite 
struggle, and despite his revolutionary zeal, is perhaps unconscious 
of the fact that much of the activity by ascetics and clergy he 
relates was directly responsible for the severance of the churches. 
As in John's case, many of our most important documents for this 
period of history survive in the Syriac sources, and Syriac trans- 
lations of Greek sources destroyed by Chalcedonians or now otherwise 
lost* Syriac hagiography of Monophysite leaders provides work of 
fundamental concern here, both in its own right and by translation. 
Thus, for example, the Syriac Life of John of Telia, written by the 
monk Elias, which became a great classic of Syriac literature - a 
model of hagiography and of Syriac stylo; and the Greek Lives of 
Peter the Iberian by John Rufus, and two of Severus of Antioch, one 
by Zacharias Scholasticus and the other by John of Bcth-Aphthonia, 
where the originals have disappeared and the Syriac recensions provide 
the most accurate records of these great Monophysite bishops. 



Apart from theological issues, however, and the allied 
actions of the Syrians and Copts, Egypt and the Syrian Orient were 
bound in a relationship of mutual admiration and respect for their 
independent but equally influential ascetic movements, Egypt, often 
viewed as the cradle of monasticism, had gained an early prerogative 
throughout the Christian world, and the Syrians too had acknowledged 
such a role with early translations from the Greek stories and lives 
of the Egyptian Desert Fathers, their 'sayings' (the Apophthegmata) , 
and of Palladius* Lausiac History (many of these wore later collected 
and re-edited in the early seventh century by the Syrian monk Anan- 
Isho, under the collective title The Paradise of the Holy Fathers ). 
Moreover, it became common practice in Syrian hagiography to claim 
that a saint was somehow linked with Egypt - for example, had received 
•training' there - even if this was not the case, simply to add valid- 
ity or prestige to the Life. It is not surprising, then, that the 
descriptions by John of Ephesus of the refugee monastic settlements in 
the Egyptian desert foreshadow the foundation of a Syrian monastery in 
Scot is, one of the most revered ascetic centres of Egypt. 



John of Ephesus again points to a further source for the 
wellsprings of Syriac hagiography in his stories indicating Syrian 
contact further to the east, Sassanian Persia, especially} was as 
imminently present for the Syrians as were the Byzantines, ruling as 
it did the eastern realms of the Syrian world. John describes the 
sometimes harrowingly dangerous contact between the Syrian Christians 



in Persian LerrLtory with their Byzantine counterparts; such inter- 
action was often occasion for the trailing of legends on both sides 
for mutual inspiration, found in Syriac hagiography such as the very 
popular legends of the Persian martyrs, gathered between the fourth 
and seventh centuries. Persia, too, offered its own cultural cross- 
currents, and the harsh tones of its Zoroastrian dualities, along 
with the savage ascetic traits of the Hindu Brahmans in India, would 
make their impact on Syrian asceticism while echoing behind its 
hagiography. 



Asceticism - a fundamental theme throughout Syriac hagio- 
graphy, as in John of Ephesus - provided a major form of influence 
that the Syrian Orient in its own right would exert outward. One 
sees clearly here that Syriac was not simply convoying cultural in- 
fluences between different peoples, but also offering forth its own 
wealth of experience. In fact, the ascetic movement in the Syrian 
Orient had arisen independently and autonomously at about the same 
time.' as Egypt's, and although their movements took very different 
form* and directions, hoth stood as renowned and highly influential 
modes of Christian witness, whose fame - often through the medium of 
hagiography - spread far beyond their own lands. The Syrian move- 
ment, however, gained special attention by its extreme harshness, and 
the bizarre forms of its practice. With its obscure and wild 
anchoretic beginnings so lyrically praised in the fourth century by 
the great poet Ephrem Syrus, Syrian asceticism made its mark through 
the use of chains, cages, and various other wooden or iron devices, 
and the common practice of spending years living in a tree or stand- 
ing on a pillar exposed to the elements. These developments were 
ardently described by Theodoret of Cyrrhus in his Historjg Religiose , 
a collection of lives concerning the ascetics in the regions lying 
around Antioch. Written in Greek to expose the wonders of the Syrian 
ascetics to the wider Byzantine world, Theodoret 's work must nonethe- 
less be considered as Syriac hagiography: not only were its subjects 
Syrian, but so too was its author, although in 'Greek dress'. 



It was these Syrian virtuosos of the Perfect Life who 
primarily brought about the re-omcrgonce of asceticism into society, 
rather than continuing its practice as a life of absolute withdrawal; 
this soon led to the ascetic's acquisition of political power through- 
out the Byzantine Empire, evidenced in countless other sources be- 
sides John of Ephesus. The giant figure who dominated this tradition 
across the Christian expanse was the greatest of all Syrian saints, 
Simeon the Stylitc. Simeon's ascetic career in the fifth century 
was noteworthy and scandalously tortuous from its commencement, and 
its culmination lay in the forty years Cor thereabouts) that he stood 
on a very high pillar in the wilderness outside Antioch. So awed 
were the masses by his ascetic prowess and so far did his fame spread, 
that Simeon's days and nights on his pillar were spent rigorously 
divided between various ascetic exercises (e.g, prayers, genuflexions), 
answering innumerable petitions and settling disputes for the crowds 
who flocked to his presence with suits of every kind, legal and other- 
wise, and addressing them on matters of faith, Indeed, the crowds 




(+ P- W P- tft ri- ri 

5* p. p- ft p 3" ft 
p ~ 3 tO !-■ ft C 



H 3 ft i 3 



O 1 

to 

ri- P> 

- o 
to 

P< (5 

ri- 3 



i-l to 

p ri- 



ri-^ 

O ri- M 

H . o *4 o 

4 - & 

3" 

0* H Pf 

ft o 

rs a = 

s - 

3 

> C. P 

4 ft 3 

P 4 O. 



* 3 



a 3 a h> 

>3 •< 

s o 

1 Hi ft 

o ~ 
ra 

s: i o 

p to e 



s? e. 



in 3 
to H 

p s 



p o 



4 3 

P 
3 to- 



ri 3 ft 
3* p 
ri- *3 
4 P- 4 
19 
3 "3 
■ P 



ft 3 
3 O 

a, pb 

as 



p 

ft 3 

s: 2 a 

3* p P 

ft 3 

4 S 

Q Hj 



h> p p o c to W P' 1 o 



to 

- 3" 



3 D. 4 3 



H 1 P* ft O 

3 P- 

O O < to 

cr in c 3 

to ri a p 

to 
c < z: 

1 3" h- a 
o o ri- 5 
a m 3" & 
■ o 

» » O 

P 3 ft 



3 to ft 

o 

ri- 4" 3 

3T P- fi 

ft a to 
ft - 

o »< s 

a 
ri 3- 

-. o 

3 




3" 
4 
3 S 



K O ft 

C 3- 3 

3 1 & 

3 to d- 

ri- ar 



ft h 3 O h- 



4 - p < 

ri- ri- P 

-< p - ft 



3 P 
ri- 3 

3* 

C *— 



Ga ra 3 



ft P to 

4 

O ri- P 

o o s 

Db 



P P- 1 



O W p 

ft ra 3 

3 ft 

0. ri- ri- 

to K- 3* 

ft ft 
S P' 

ft in (3 

4 3 O 
ft 3 

ri- C 

O" 3 h- 

p 3 
4 ri ft 

1 H" 
■ O O K 

* P 
ft -3 



a *: h- 

H- 3" 3 ri- 



3 H- 



3 ft 



ri ft p> 

O p 

4 tO ft 

h- ^j ri- 
ft Q 

to p p 



3" 

ft 3 
H- P. S 
►1 4 

£1 H 
O 3 P 



C 

ft 

P- to 

3 to 

P 



to d 
ft ft 
4 X 



1 & ri- H- 

H- to 

ri- H- < ri- 

3* 3 P 

p ri- ri- H 

ri- O ft H" 

a o 

to Q P 

O 4 ri- H 

3 o 3* 

o ft ft in 

B ~«^ 

to H p 

P P 3 
- 3 3 

p p. ri- to 

S ft 



z> 


ft ^ 


— p 


^ P * 


C ri- 3 ^3 P 




- 


M, H- 


3 P, 


P £ = 


p 3" "3 P O to 




z. 


h» ri- 





to P T 


3ft 3 X O 






ft 5" 


W "3 


4 H 


K' «1 tr h« ft 




> 


«-i H- 


*< ri- 


3 ft a 


ft ft H- ft 4 ri- 




r J-J 


ri- 3 


1 ft 


H 


i-" w ^ h- 




H> 


en 


h- a, 


^ =" ^ 


- ri- -MO 




P) 


w 


p 




to O *3 ft H> 






r^ << 


3 ^ 


0^-3 

3 ft 


h- p - to 




2 


O 4 


y 


a p t- 3 

*t & M tfl 3 




H< 


H- 


^ H 


1- s- 




3 


P P 


H' 


^ p ft 


ft < p *^ p 1 


Xfl 





H 3 


^ P 


a: ^i 


Sh-RhS 


p- 


4 


M 


?T 3 


H- 


?r to h- h. h- 


5 


< 


P 


to 


3 H« ft 


n i p hj 3 


ft 




Z to 


■3 


to 3 o 


tr 3 ft h- 


ft 




o 


to n 


*3 = 


H* ft n tn ri- 


3 




ri- ft 


C P 


H- t+ 


Hj 3 o ri- ri- P 






3- ri- 


ft ft 


^ ri- p 


ft "3 3 H ri- 


n 




ft H- 


3" ri- 


ft =r M« 


ft V s 






O 


H- 


& ft 3 


»• 4 H 4 


ft 




H. H> 


P O 


1 ft 


^ O p ft to 


X 




3 to 


to Q 


C C 


rr *i ri- 3 X 


p 




H, 3 


tn 


^< 3* 


H- to ft c - P K 


I 




M 


ri; 


p H- 


ft H- M ft 


"3 




c o- 




ri- o 3 


C P < ri* rf 4 


M 




ft ft 


P 


P H- 


M 3 M< H- ft ft 


ft 




3 ri- 


ri- H- 


H ri- 


p &, ri- & 






ft *. 


Hj 


ft a 3" 


ri- 3* C Hj 


3 




ft ft 


3* 


to 1 ra 


ft ?? to H- 







ft 


"< 3 


P 


to H- H- 3C 


ri- 




3 


Z 


0-3 3- 


3 3 ri- 3 






H 


C* <r^ 


Hj 3* 


Z ->3 rr O 3" & 


ft 




H< 





^ 1- 


ft to ft p 


Z 




3 <+ 


3- P 


La S 


h g i to p 


H 




7 


3 H •< r± 


H ft W ft H- to 


vi 




►1 


t 


1 3- 3 


M 3 






ft 


p 


v- p 2 


r* ft p <3 H, 


3* 




* 


r^ <■< 


P ri- 3 


— * ri- H* 4 P 


ft 




3 3 


to 




ft ft ft 3 P 4 


- 







K 


ri- O 


H 4 -3 


P 




& ri- 


■a H- 


tn - 1 


h,h H* »• as 


p 




ft "-s 


3" 3 


P ft 


3 t 3 ^ ft 


3, 




1 P 


ft 


P- ^ 


top ■ to 


ft 




p a 


to P 


3 S O 


H- to 3- ri- 


ft- 




f+ H- 


3 3 


ri- h- 3 


ft C H- 






O ri- 


to 


to a p 


3 ri- ri- to P 


P 




H- 


- ft 


- ft 3 


3* to ~ to 






-3 


.3 


1 - 


ft H- H- 


3 




1 3 


o B 


cr 


H, a e to d 

O ft 3 P 







P P 


3 p 


cop 


^ 




ft H 


ft h- 


ri- 3" 3 


10 H- C 






ri- 


H" 


- Z. 


ft 3 O ri- 3 h- 1 
H 3 Q 3 


— 




H- W 


to ^ 


H- r 1 ' 


ri 




O ft 


ft 


3 to ri- 


h* 3 4 ft 1 


". 




O < 


", ~ 


<r^ tr 


O 3 to 1 D- 


EC 




to ft 


:,-: x. 


3 H- ft 


h- ri- H* P- C 


3 




T 


rt 


p p 


o »d p (+ p B 


Q, 




Hi H 


ri- 4 


3 3 1 


C 3 ri- ri- 


— 




H( ri- 


3" ft 


^ ft 


to "3 ri- 4 ft 

C P- •< p 






ft v; 


ft 3 


C P 


Hi 




3 - 


ft 


h« o a 


P H> 3 - W H 1 


ft 






ri- 


3 3ft 


3 p 3 CM 


4 




^g 


ft 3 


to p H 


p« O *□ to ft o 






3 P 


ct H, 


ft 1- ft o 






v; a 


to 3 


P 3 H 


* ft ri- ft p 






i 


H- 3 


3 to 


to 






ft 


ft 


to 








3 T 


■: 


c 








to * 


w 


-. 





p 

3 
O 
3 
P . 

Q ft 



ft ft. ^ 
X P- 

ft to n 

ro n m 
h p- a 

tr 

3 ft << 
ri- 

P 

\r h, 3 

p- 

h> ri- n> 

ft 3* H 

ra p 

o a" 

Hj w o 

ri- P- p 

3* 3 ri 
ri- ft 

o a 

P 4 



H 


< 


- 


= 


M- 


i-- 


Z" 


■ 


ft 


< 


" 




P- 


-■ 


— 


— 


ft 


a 




3 


a 




5 




9 


": 


< 


C 




M 


■ 


ft 




- 


~, 


ft 


m 


-. 




~ 


= 


M< 


— 




c- 


-^ 


ft" 


3 



ri ft 
3" to v; 

O to ft 



« p 


4 


to 




ri- ft 


y. 






ft 




rt- 




n o 


i_i 


3" 




*4 3 


3 


1' 




3 




— 




^ ri- 


ft 






P- 


~ 


t/: 




to *: 




- 1 




p 


" 


= 




^ a 


" 


ft 




c 


— 


ft 




1 T 


a 


ft 




ri- ft 


- 




fr 


5" ft 


rr 


r 


'-'■ 



- - 

p p 




- 



*: < 



^ ^ 



ri m p 

3* O ft . 

ra (□ ft ri ^ 



ft 

Q. 

a to 

3 

H P 

ri 3 

to a 



p - 

to ft" 

ft 
3" 3 



H) P' 



ft 

p- :- 



ri- ri- rt- 



„ o 

o i »d 

P - ft 

M 3 

CD 

P 1 3 

3 



Q 

-1 
ft 

ft 

pr 

P 
to 

i— 

o 

o 
H 

p 
•a 

^ ri 



4 3- 

P ra ?; 

a ^ p- 

p- o 3 3 

ci- 3 ri p 

p- a ra q 

O 4 P 

3 ri *3 

5 p* Q to 

p- ra o ^ 

M rift 

M 3* P « 

P ri 5 






„ 



to 
Pi ri 



, o 

ft ft f? ft 

n o 

Km p* < 

O ri H 3 O 

4 3 PT ca -1 

" & ft to - 

O ft en 

i-S B S 

K H' P 4 

ft W 3- P- 

tot/i" p j p 

ri^<! ^ o 

P 4 M* 

C P- 3 C 3- 



3* M p 

P> ft 



3 . 

& ga 

ra p- 

4 



>3 3" 3" 4 
3 P- p ri- 
ft 3 eft P- 
to o p- ft ft; p 
ri o d " -a 

P* M CO M ft 3T 

Q p 4 p a << 

3 P- P 4 

to 3 "d - h- 4 

ri 3" 3ft 

o ai **; p 



p 

H. 3 P- 4 3 
ri & rt- ft -q 
to to p p 

§ 



ra p 



ft pj ftr to 


ft 


p- "d o 


O 


— 


ft 


t* 


ft 




y. p" p ft 


ft 


rt- rt 


4 


p 


M 


ft 


Hj 


ft C o 3 


ft 


tn H 3" 




ft 


o 






3* P- P- ft 


Hi 


P- ft 


P 


H* 


(3 


c 


B 


P & 


H< 


ri 4 


ft 


ft 


:— 


9 


HJ 


3 <n o 


ft 


5=; p 

3 3 Ui 


-■ 


"- 


P- 


"5 




(3 P- 4 Hj 


ft 


•J. 


ft 


ft 




ft 


ra 3 » 


u 


- ^ 


ri- 


P 


a 


to 


to 


ri »tf ri- 


■ 


3* 4 


ft 


tJ 






C 


ft ft 3* 3" 




ft P p- 


ft 




p. 


O 


to 


H 4 ^ ft 




^i 3 P 


ft 


^ 


3 


-, 




o » 




P* 3 


ft 








a pi 


(£13- ft 


" 


ri ft 


ri 




to 


r- 


<+ 3 


Op H- 


3 


P H 5* 






ft 




P 


O 3 ft 




a *d P 




"- 


4 


ft 


ri- 3" 


a to td 3 


ri- 


ra ra co 


ri- 


c 


4 




ft P- 


to ra c ra 


zr 


4 P- 


ft 




p> 


T 


to to 


ri 3 


fO 


P P- o 




!-■ 


ft 




o ri 




3 ft O 


'„: 


-1 


ft 


ft 


rt P- 


ri p> O W 


Pi 


ft. ft ft 


•: 


to 




3. 


3" 3 


4 3 


ft 


n p 


ft 


t) 


ri 




P ri- 


P ft B 


3 


P- ft "0 


™ 







to 


ft 4 


a c o 




3 3- 




4 









H- P> 3 to 


ft 


ri 3* ft 


P 


ra 


ri- 


~ 


pr p. 


3 ?,? d " 


X 


4 O 4 






- 


ft- 


ft 3 


a c ^i 


l; 


p- ri to 


= 


p 


ft 


H 


ft 


^4 to 


^2 


n rr 


O 


3 


H- 


'--: 


% ri- 


Z ft cr ri W 


P 4 


ft 




4 




4 P- 


p- to ra 4 


H 


a- m o 


ft 






ft. 


P- 


ri- p. 
pr p to X 


ft 


ft 3" < 




p. 


Pj 


M« 


^ 3 


to 


H ra ft 


HJ 


3 


P 


to 


ft 


3 c H- 




*< H ft 


ft 


7. 




O 


to ri- 


p a 4 3 


-T 


ri H 


4 


ri- 


^j; 


P- 


ft 


3 ft a 


ft 


P- ft 


hs 


ft 




"ft 


ri- 


HJ ft ■* H 


ft 


3 4 p 


-. 


ft 


i 


:— 


ft 


-5 


H M << 


- 


ft 


O 


ft 








ft- 


ft W p- 




ri ft, < 


- 


rh 




to 


= 




ft Hj p 


EQ 


O 










s 




s; 4 ri- 


P- 


C P 4 


H 


ri- 


09 


i 


^r 


r 


ft p- in 


< 


O 3 W 


P- 


ft" 








.-■ 


p o y hj 


T 


3 d a c. 


-! 


™ 


4 


ri 




< 


H 3 4 P- 


3 




ft 




ft 


— 


" 




rift P- p 


- 


* p« p 


■ 


■ft 


— 


g 


b 


to 


3" O P ^ 




P- 3 ri- 




ft 


'-: 


■-. 


z. 




to n 


M 


ft- < 




"ft 




ft 


t 





o - p- 




3" O 




ft 


rt- 




ft 


.-, 


Hi 3T 3 


" 


H 3 


M 


!— 


ft" 


5 






H- p 


P 


ri < a 


3 


ft 


P- 


ft 


rt- 


ri 


P- ri q ri- 


-1 


or ra ra 




o 


[fl 


3. 


rto 




rt- P- 3* 


ft 


ra ft. 


ri 


ft 






- 


ft 


to a o c 




ft 






K 


p 






p. a 


7. 


§ ' § 


ft 


p 


ft 


ft 


- 


K 


g p. 4 m 


H- 


4 a o 




to 


to 


ft. 


ft 


p 


i P hJ 
3 to « zr 


2 


ts 











to 


-a 


h- ft ri- 


ft 


P 


rr 


C 


P. 


— 


• ft" ft 


r- J 


& ft ft 


o 






ft 




ft 


^< 4 


'..-; 


"3 


ft 


t 


G 




ft. 


ft 


P- ft 




a* h p 


~ 


~ 




ft 


ft 


ft 


3 P 


2 


ft S 3 


'.' 


ft 


rt- 








P- 


ft 


^ & 


09 


.— 


P 




P. 


Bfl 


p H P> 


3 


O 4 


- 


ft 


to 


?. 


to 


P 


3 O 


ri 


3 O ft 




- 


K 


ft" 




p- 


^ to 


H- 


a o o 


tP 






ft 


P 


3 


ft ft ^ 





ri to 


ft^ 


*3 







ft 


<+ 


< CP 4 


ft 


P- ft 3 




ft 


-, 


— 




to 


ft P- 


ra 


ri c a 


ft 


P 




P 


-r" 


3 P P 


ft. 


to j 




to 




a 




ft 




p- 


P 








tsj 






3 


ft 


3 






Q 








a 


ri- 








^r 



p to 




3 ^ 




P. 4 




P- 




P 3 




4 C 




ri- 




p- to 




c 




C ft 




p- to 




p 


P- 


ri 


- 


ft 3 


& 


&- 






to 


ff 4 


ft 


^ ft 




< 


rr 


tVl ft 


~ 


•a p 


ft 


4 H 




P- P- 


H 


P 3 


H* 


3 !P 


U 




ri 


4 ri- 




ft P* 


ft 


ft 3 


H> 


ch ft 




to 


^ 


• P 


H> 


3 


a 


P- 


ra 




v. 


P 


■ft 


ift 


ft 


P 


ft 


^. 


p 


P 


a 


to 


tn 


ri ^ 





4 


ft 


p. 



3 tft 

ft- ft 
3 

p. p. 

a to 
ra 

P p 

to 3 

a- 
O ri 

4 ftr 

3 ft 



^ 


Li 


ri 3- P- ri- O 


-T; 


at 


3 


> 


ft 


ft 


4 ft ri 3" ftr 


— 


ft 




3 


3 


ft 


P P ft 4 
3 4 O 3 P- 


o 


- 


3 


(- 


ft 


• 


«j 


^> 




P- 


3 




to & p ft to 


-- 




- 


ft 






n 4 - ri- 


& 


h. 




ft 


P 




ft 3 4 p- 






-• 


3" 


3 


rH 


3 ft p- ri p 


a 


3 


ft 




ft- 


ri- 


O, ri ft O 3 




P 




s: 






to p to O 


H- 


ft 


* 


3- 


to 


p- 


•d - m 


ft 


*< 




o 


ft 


to 


rf- 3" & P- 


to 




-■ 


to > 


ft 




3" o o to ri 


- 


5 


ft 


ft p- 


ft 


ft 


ft 4 ra tJ ft 


.-■ 


,-■ 


~ 


to 


ri 




•3 ft 4 


ft 


ft 







P 


ri- 


5£ O O P P 

ft Hj 4 K 1 ri- 


P 


P 


to_ 


o 


t <T 


„ 


n- 


ft 




3 ft 


•^ 


ft 


ft, to C 
& ri P- 4 


H* 


i— 


ft 


< P 


* 


3 


Q 


ft 




ft "ft 




ft 


3 3" 3 ri ft 

ft ft *d o - 


3 


to 


P 


4 r± 
to P- 




— 


to H 


--^ 




pi 


P- < 




ft 


to ft H- ri 3 


a 




3 


P 




ri- 


ra P n 3" to 
to 4 p ra P- 


4 






3 ri 




ft 




*: 


a 


P- 




ft 


£" «* 3 


P 


ftT 




P- 3 




■■< 


OS P- 3 O 




— - 


;o 


ft ^! 




H- 


Pi O 


1 


.— 


4 


a 




ft 


ft 3 ri ri 


ft 


ft 


ft 


% 




ta 


3* 3 d to H- 3* 


4 




P 


rt p 






ra 3 — O h. 
4 4 3 to 





ft 


ri- 


O to 




3 




ft 








ft 


ra 


to 


ft 


ft 


3" ri- 




ft 


3- Ps "3 




rr 


ft 


ft or 




ft 


^ - O Pj 





p 




4 ft 






3 4 T) 


r- 


p 


C 






H- 


ri ri C 


~j- 


ft 


§ 


P H< 




ft 


to 3" P- 4 H 


ft 


Hi 


a ra 






ft p ri P P 


4 


3 




O CO 




" 


X ri 5 4 




- 


H *o 




-j 


3 to 


i— 


P 





rY 3 




» 


P (+ P Hj - 

5 d; S* o ri 


ft 


S 


-: 


p- a 






ft 


& ft ft 4 4 





ri- 


p- 


3 




P 


^ to 3 P 


ft 


ft 


ft 


Pi 




4 


4 * p 3 


a 


P- 


to 







M 


p* o P- ri to 


to 


P. 




Pj *d 




'-: 


to 3 P- P- < 






p 


ft 






ft P ri O ft 


ft 


^~- 


to- 


p J— 




ft 


to 3 ft 3 to 


Pi 


3 


ft 


P 




3 


-3 f 1 " 






" 


a to 




4 


<+ % P ri P- 


- 


W 


rr 


p- p- 




3" P* 3* ri- 


ft 


S 


P- 


to p 




o 


ft 4ft 


M 


4 


ft 


to - 




3" 


rh ri - 


S 


H- 




C 




■• 


3* ri 3" 3 




P 


- 


p. p 




to 


ft 4 ft (ft 3 


t 


O 


"- 


to 






C 3" 


ft 


■j 


to 


ra n 




I-- 


M P H, ri- 






ft 


a o 




a 


ri S 4 P> ri- 


ft 


rr 


H- 


d 




ft 


ft ft P Hj 


ft 




-ft 


P- 4 




ft 


ri o* ,o p. ■ 




ft 


PJ 


P- rv 




H 


p ft 3 ri 
4 H ft " 


P- 




P. 


pi ra 




ft 


3 


to 


ft 


ra to 




'ft 


Q P- 3 - 




ri- 


ft 


p 




[ < 


^ 5 «* H 




ft 




P 3 






o <; p cr t 




4 


P 


to 







Pi ft X C P< 




S 


3 







H 


to ri to 






a 


P Pi 






xi 


v.- 


a tn p 


ft 


M C 


ft3 


tn 





o <; o- 


H 


3 H, 


"a 


4 




< ra p 


ft 


3 a 


-: 


to 


~ 


3 3 


P 


to ra *o 


ft 


o 





ri a 


4 


4 d 


to 


ft 


rr 


P* Hj 


M 


P* 3 4 


to 


— 


P 


O C 3 


S 


O ft ft 


p- 




H 


3 4 




to p 


<! 


p 




Or ft 


"ft 


rY rb p 


ft 


ft 


< 


t, 3" < 


ft 


3* to 


*• 


-: 


p- 


p- ra ft 





to o 




ft 


h- 


PJ 4 3 


■^ 


ri ft 


to 


ft 


P" 


H - 


H< 


3 3" ri- 


ft 


ft 




O 


a 


ft P- 


d 


o 


ft' 


ft P- 3 


ft 


P- P- ft 


3" 


3 


ft 


ri ft 


to 


3 4 




:-■ 




3 




a 


P 


to 


ri 


■3 to to 


s 


rt < ft 




P 


3" 


H 3" 


3- ft < 


< 


=- 


ft 


ft P« H, 




ft 4 


P- 


p- 




ri 3 P 


p 


S ri 


to 


ra 


ft 


ft ra 3 


'ft 


p p- 


p- 


* 


ft- 


m to p- 


ri- 


C ft 







s 


*4 M 




to S 3 


ft 




^ ^ ^ 


;-■ 


rt- o - 






'ft 


ri H- 


:— 


ra w 


to 


H 


ft 


4 ri p- 


:-■ 


4 - > 


o 


o 




P 3- 3 


~ 


ft P- 


R 




ri- 


3 


'/. 


P ft 


P 


pr 


to ri o 


ri 


P 3 X 


o 




P 


Pi 3- 4 


4 


3 a p- 


ft 


t 


ri 


o ra a 


P 


a to 


- 1 - 







4 ft 


ri 


s 


*< 


4 


-. 


3 ft 4 


-■ 


3" O 3* 




M 


to 


O 


ft 


Crip 


p 


ft- 




P 3 ri 


3 


3 a 


-3 




« 


3 Hi 




& ri 


ft3 


*. 


4 


a p- 





M 3* H- 


ft 




ft 


a >d 


^ 


ft ra p* 


P 


ft 


ft 


3 ft c 




S < 


ft 


to 


'ft 


P 3 4 

?r ft tn 


ri- 


3" ft 


ft 


(fi 


3" 


ft- 


o 3 d a 


ft- 




ri- 


ft ft c 


ft 


H p 




4 


- 


ra 




S a o 


to 


ft 




3 rh 


o 


c 


3 


P 


p. 


ft tr o 





3 3 ri 


ft; 


P^ 


et- 


*. P 3/ 
ri 4 


j: 


P ft 


r; 


p. 




'ft 


3^3" 


4 


r- 


t 


ri H- 


ft 


ft P' 


Hj ^< 


.-- 


=r P to 


'-■ 


rt- 4 to 


pi 




H 


O 3" ri- 


to 


3- 


3 


Z 


^ 


to 


^ 


ft 4 ft 





P 




cr o 3 




S ra 3" 


3 


to 


4 


ra h o 


p- 


ft 


to 




ft 


H d 4 


3 


to O to 


• 


p 


3 


p- ri ra 


C;. 


P to ra 




p- 


D- 


ft ft 


P 


^33 




H 


O 


< HJ 


ft 


» p. 






to 


ft O ft 


ft 


to H3 




p' 




4 3* 4 


ri 


ra 4 







ri- 


— 4 Hj 


p. 


a o 







ft- 


P- ft 


ft 


H H, 






ft 


to o 
P ri ri 


3 


3" ri ra 

ft 3* to 






— 


3 P- H 


ri 


ft to 






ft 


a p s 





to p- p' 






ft 


3 ■ 




ri 4 






« 






3 



68 



origins and development, and the possibility of stylistic influences - 
have been left unanswered far too long. There is much to be had here, 
whether for the church historian, the social historian, the literary 
critic, or the folklorist. One never knows what one may find. 



A Brief List of Suggested Readings 

Basic historical orientation is always helpful, and a good 
introduction will be found in Philip K. Hitti, History of Syria (London 
1951)- Two fundamental areas of background for Syriac hagiography are 
asceticism and the Monophysite movement; for the first, S. P. Brock, 
"Early Syrian Ascnticism", Numon XX ( 1973) 1-19 lucidly lays the founda- 
tions, and Arthur VtiHbus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient 
in 2 Vols. (Louvain 19^8) provides a comprehensive study up to the sixth 
century. On the second, see W.H.C.Frend, The nisc of the Monophysite 
Movement (Cambridge 1972), and W.A.Wigram, The Separation of the Mono- 
phy sites (London 1923)- 

General introductions to hagiography (not simply Syriac) are 
Rene Aigrain, L'Hagiographie: ses sources T ses methodes, son histoire 
(Paris 1953), and, especially, thn classic H.Delehaye, The Legends of 
the Saints , English translation by Donald Atwatcr (New York 1962), as 
well as others by Delehaye. For Syriac hagiography, one is wise to 
begin with Paul Pec tors, Orient f>t Byzance: Le Tr^fonds Oriental dc 
LHlggiographie Byzantine , Subsidia Hagiographica 26 (Bruxcllos 1950). 
Particular Syriac legends are treated, for example, in F.C.Burkitt, 

>mia and the Goth with the Acts of the Martyrdom of the Confessors 



Eupho 

of Edessa (London 1913 ) 

L' Homme de Dieu (Paris 



; A.Amiaud, La L^genrie Syriaguc dc Saint Alexis , 
1889 J; and A.Smith-Lewis, Select Narrations of 



Holy Women in Stud i a Sinai tica IX-X (London 1900 ! 



For the importance of hagiography as an historical source 
there are two essential articles: Peter Brown, "The Rise and Function 
of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity's Journal of Roman Studies LXI (l97l) 
80-101; and E.Patlagean, " A Byzance: ancienne hagiographie et histoire 
sociale", Annales: economies, socjete's, civilisations XXIII (1968) 
106-26. 



Further reading may be sought out in the bibliographical 
aids suggested by S. Brock above. 



69 
EXPLORING THE TARGUMIM 
by Peter Jerrome 



These short notes owe a good deal to my recollection of 
Professor Stein's Targum class at University College London in the 
mid-sixties. He would always encourage his students to think f or 
themselves and make their own initial assessment of Targumic changes 
and the reasons for them. I hope these annotations will on their 
very limited scale encourage others to do the same. To observe the 
preoccupations of the Targumic 'writers' and the changes they feel 
necessary in rendering the Hebrew scriptures into the Aramaic vernac- 
ular is to see a familiar text with new eyes. 



The later 'official' versions like Onkelos or Pseudo-Jonathan 
are best seen as written versions founded on ancient oral interpreta- 
tions rather than as being essentially oral; but in origin the 
Targumim wore synagogue renderings into Aramaic of the Hebrew text, 
oral and not written and in no way a rival or alternative to the 
sacred text with which they were read in conjunction. The purpose 
of the moturgeman or translator was to interpret and bring alive for 
the Aramaic-speaking congregation the Hebrew text, and to .help the 
congregation understand that text aright. This the meturgeman did 
extempore; he did not rely on ivritten notes although of course he 
might bo mindful of older interpretative traditions. 



A printed rabbinic bible - often containing simply one book 
of the Pentateuch in a single volume -is probably the best work book 
for the beginner because it will give in synoptic form the Hebrew 
text, Onkelos, Pseudo-Jonathan and the fragmentary Targum wit h out 
continual reference to different volumes. The undoubted textual 
vagaries of these printed versions need not disconcert in the initial 
stages. The following notes simply use such an ordinary printed 
text and try to give an account of some of the more characteristic 
changes to be encountered in the Targumim and on occasion in the 
Soptuagint (G). For the text of G I have used the two-volume edition 
by Rahlfs. I have also tried to bring in to some extent the Aramaic 
of the Targumim, not too difficult for someone with a working know- 
ledge of classical Hebrew, or ideally a little Syriac. 



More serious study needs to take account of such aids as the 
recently discovered Neofiti Targum to the entire Pentateuch, now 
sumptuously published in five volumes by A. Diez Macho, and the fine 
edition of Targum Onkelos by Sperber. There are now so many general 
introductions to the Targumim that it seems otiose here to categorise 
in detail the different versions. The student might be better ad- 
vised to form his own conclusions about Onkelos and Pseudo-Jonathan 
and then compare his impressions with a good introductory account like 
that to be found in John Bowker: The Tar gums and Rabbinic Literature 
(1969) PP- 16-28. This book is a useful introduction to Targumic 
versions of the Pentateuch and has a translation and notes on selected 
portions of Genesis. It does not however introduce the beginner to 
the Aramaic language and phraseology of the Targumim, for which one 



?Q 



may use W.B. Stevenson's Grammar of Palestinian Jewish Aramaic (Oxford 
192'i/62) and C.R.Brown, An Aramaic Method (New York l88V93>- ?hc 
best introduction to Targumic literature in general remains that of 
R. le Deaut, Introduct ion "a la Litteraturo Targumigue (Rome 19&6), 
although unfortunately only the first part of this work lias yet 
appeared- Le Deaut also deals with the Targumim to the Prophets 



and to the Hagiographa, 



Among versions with accompanying translations -there is the 
edition of the Tar gum of Isaiah by J.F. Stenning (19**9) with supra- 
linear pointing, and the edition of the Targum of Ruth by E. Levine 
(Analocta Biblica 58 1973). Tiic latter writer has also produced 
similar works on the Targumim to Lamentations and to Jonah, For 
Chronicles, a fascinating but very late and uncharacteristic v or si on , 
there is a recent edition by R. le Deaut and J. Robert with Aramaic 
text, glossary and translation into French. Recently reprinted is 
the mid-nineteenth century translation of the Pentatouchal Targumim 
by J.W. Ethoridge. This version was intended to facilitate private 
study of the Targumim and is often disconcertingly literal 
helpful but needs to be used with some care. 



it is 



There follow some representative passages from the earlier 
chapters of Exodus, mainly concerning the burning bush and the plagues. 
I have not attempted to draw out all the possibilities of Targumic 
interpretation in any given passage - simply to draw attention to 
points of interest. The student can later if he wishes see how the 
Ncofiti version compares. 

(l) Exodus 2.12 : Moses strikes the Egyptian - concern for 
the reputation of Moses 

According to the Massorotic text (M) Moses, seeing an 
Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of Moses* own people, struck thn 
Egyptian down and hid the body in the sand. G and Onkelos translate 
as M. 



Psoudo -Jonathan, however, mindful of Moses' reputation, 
seeks to alleviate the matter-of-factnoss of the Hebrew : 

And Moses understood in the wisdom of his mind and 
discerned through all generations and behold there 
would not arise from that Egyptian a proselyte or any 
that would make repentance from (among) his descend- 
ants and he struck the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. 

Psoudo- Jonathan did not apparently concern himself with the somewhat 
abstruse theological problems his expansion might entail! 



1 






71 



(2) Ex. 2.21: 'And Moses was content 1 - again concern for 
the reputation of Moses 

According to M Moses stayed willingly with the priest of 
Midian. But should he have been so willing? Midian though a 
kindred people (Gen. 25.2) were not . worshippers of Yahweh. Onk. 
again translates the text as it stands but note G PixroKLtr^ 
'he dwelt', avoiding the positive statement of willingness. 



Ps.-Jon. has a long explanatory addition dealing with Moses 
being cast into a pit and fed secretly by Zipporah the priest's 
daughter. After ten years he is freed and shown the wondrous rod 
with which he is destined to cleave the Red Sea and bring water from 
the rock. Only then, explains Ps.-Jon., was he prepared willingly 
to dwell with the priest of Midian. 



(U) Ex. 2.25 : 'And God know...' - 
and an ant i -anthropomorphism 



a cryptic Hebrew text 



According to M God saw the people of Israel and knew. The 
Revised Standard Version adds 'their condition' to clarify. The 
text, though very abrupt, is not discure. Two points concerned the 
mcturgeman here: the cryptic nature of the final clause, and more 
particularly the imputation to God of human sense-perception which 
could lead the unwary to draw false conclusions about his person and 
being. Of all Targumic changes 'anti -anthropomorphism' is the most 
characteristic and occurs time and ajain in various guises. 



So Onk. paraphrastic ally: 

And there was revealed before the Lord the affliction 
of the children of Israel and the Lord gave order by 
his Memra to redeem them. 



The Lord's Memra or Word is hardly in the Targumim a personal- 
ized being at all - more a surrogate for God and a means of avoiding 
anthropomorphism in cases like this (cf. R.E. Brown: Gospel according 
to John , Anchor Bible, I pp. 523-4). 



Onk. thus avoids the anthropomorphism and expands the cryptic 
9~T;7l . Ps.-Jon. addresses himself to the same problems, although 
differently in detail. 

(4) Ex. 3.1: Moses comes to Horeb, the mountain of God - 
a Targumic clarification 

m nzLnfn crn'S^n -^-n-hn m'zl^i 

T .. . -, -j. - v 

But is there just one mountain of God, so that all other mountains 





i i 




H- 2 




r- 


> 








3 

a pg 


% 


to 

to 




re 
3 


3 

rt- 








< 


«i>J 


H- re 




to 


H> 








-0 

3" H- 

h- a 


ib 


CD 

*3 




H 
ct 


1 

P 

re 






•■ r 


1- H' 

o 3 


-o 


o w 

c 






rt 






ib 


to 




to ct 



-a 


ft 


-1 

D 






•u 


II 


h- H" 


& 




•3 
■J 








!-■ 4 


-• — ' 


rt 


* 











X 


P re 


•n 









3 


o 


** 


J 

■u 


n in 




I 1 


• 




- 
o 


M 

re 


1 


z 


3 

rt- 

►3 H- 




M to 


3 




n 

- 


3" 




hJ 


■ 3 




EF 


."j 




3 


3 


■X' 


..n 


Q O 


3£ 


•*xTE 


^ 
- 




(6 


^ 


1 


o 


Hi 

3 


iU 


13 




< 


"* 




-0 


■ Hi 


,._i 


^S* 




c 




3 




re 




3" -3 
1 


ft) 


ug 


a 




H 




re 




K 


- 




-- 








r_ 




re w 
< ^ 
re -• 


"3 


b^ 


5 




< 

re 

q 




re 


..j 


CD 

-I □ 


3 


^ ? 


re 

Mi 




H> 






- 


j 


re 


M 


US 






1 




a 


.^j 


3 P 


3. 


3 




re 






a i-> 




It*? 







„^ 




r^ 


-d 


Q w 
1 o 




u 

re 




B 

re 




r. 




DO 

- CD 


to, 


'0 


DO 




I 




o 


u 


*2 


P 

3 


3 d 
— 0) 


to 




s 




j 


j 


p~ 


C 


• 3 


re 




" 




• 


■-I 


3 




3* 

o re 






■? 




■ 
■ 


.- J 


H- 


n 


£* 


- 




= 




3 




gg 


- 


rt- 


■1 









re- 




0* 


■3 


1 3" 


c 




3 




«¥ 


zc 


P 


►1 


re a 


2 




r. 




— 




b 


3 


3 R 


H- 




P 




C 


•CA 


re- 
s' 

o 
n 

i 


3 
to 

1 


& P 

►1 w 
to 

M H- 


= 




to 









H- 


>* 


D> 















rt 


H« 


ft 












pg 




ft 


G 












03 


a 




3 

to- 











I 



^ j 






.-4 



1-1 

TJ 



J 



.a 



u 



g 
3 ffi 

re a 



re o 

o re 
3 to 





1 p 


T- 


(a h 


" 


3 1- 


~ 


H- tn 




3" 


s 


1 rt- 


O O 


rr- 


■3 


- 


O 3" 


R 


3 H- 





o a 


~ 


1 





•3 ^ 




3- il 





H- O 


g 


01 3 


3 


3 
to rt* 



(T H rt 
C rt- 3" 

| 3- re 

3" -O 

re ■; 
*— - X 
-t re -3 

|HH 
3 3 

3 3 
H« 4 3 
3 rt 

re > o 
a -d 4 
— 3-v; 



ic re p 3* 



h a p 

4 O rt 

O rt- 3" 

3 H- re 

H 
U a 

re p tre 

to. -a I 

4 p 

re -i h- 

re rt 3 

3 I-" 

- o a 
h- re 

o (- re 
H- re 4 

Ul M* 

rt -3 cr 

- O H- 

- j* d 

3 to 
ct el- 
re- re rt 

3 & 3" 
W Q 

■ ■ re 

- rt- C 

rt- 3" to 

3* re 3* 
re i 

. 6 



-1 P 3* 
O rt p 

o re to 



■!*-» S* O 1 



w < 



ST! 

C- 3 



ff 3 



i -i 



j 
J 

--y 

■y. 
-A 

% 

D 
z 



o 

3 *g 



"J 
»U 

<c 

"6. 

J 

•.^ 

j 
i -■ 

-j 

j 
•a 

..j 



•3 



B 



lb 

J 



j 

■e. 
■a 



* 4 

p -^ 






O »T3 



cn a 

2 3 

to • 



2 O 

3 s: 

3 re 

v < 

re re 

-1 4 
to 



1 » 

o 

3 
t3 

& P 

re <r* 

P 3- 

O. & 



Ui p 

re 3 

3- 

re > 
cr 

1 H- 

re --j 

3 p 
Q- 3 

re - 
n 

to H 









t J 

1U 



•d 

u 



t=3 






P -o 


— 






a 






M 


o 






•-< 






to d 








■3 






re 3 


re. 






- 






4 p 
►a rt 


c 






-C 






re re 


to 






re 






3 4 


H« 






■1 






rt •< 


■^ 






re 




'-^ 


— 


- 






^ t 




■3 


* a o 


to 


T- 


•— V. 


3 re 




O 


5^ 




3 


^0 


o re 






.-• 


to 




< 2 






to . 


■z 


re 




i 






to 




tn 




a & 




P3 




rt 




^ 


re h- 




H 




H' 


X 


P 3 


v; 


• 


re 


to 


• 


a so 


-- 




J^ 








•*• 


(0 


(P* 


^ 5 


h 


rt 


ijf- 


rt 


■to 


• 


to 


p 


o 


• 


_ ° 




'-: 


■ 


5 




-i 


[T 


s» 


o 


ct i 




rt 


-J 


re s 
re p 




" 


-J C - J 




El 
<■■ 
re 




O M 


H, 


z 


P . 






^: 


C r- 


H» 





-O- 


B9 


.-- 


c 


H 


1* 


to 


(h. rt 


EQ 


3 


to 


& £t 


re 


7 


S 1 


'-■; 


ct 


re 


3* 


a 


S9 


3 P 


»a 


O 


EO 


3* ^ 


rt 


O 


5 i 


ct 






re 3 


'-1 


- 


j-j 




?■ 


-1 


3 re 




" 


f-» p 




to 


D 


3 


H- 




^- rt 






^ 




3 


1 


Ci re 




— 




re s: 




re 






p 


I 


rt 3 d 


liC 


rr- 


p 




2 




3 O 

3 t. 




3 

3 






rr- 


C. 


t n 




e4 


? tf 




re 


4 

s 


h- re 







3 






2 


rt- 






rt 




►t 




3" to 




~ 











o re 




o 


3 




p, 


re 


c re 




-' 


- re 






3 


«+ ?r 




•d 


rt t 




s: 


cr 


H- 
H) 3 




t+ 


re - re 
p 






^~ 


Q C3 




j-- 


n- a 






H 



rt 3 d 

3 P 

4 to 

3 

re f+ 

a 3- 
re 

3 re 






H J 



t J 



'6. P. 






O -TJ 

3 O 

O "I 

C 

re h 



"J 
I 

4 
■u 



u 



o o 

to 



& re 
re h 
3 o 
re >a 
re B 
re 



•d i-3 

II 
U i 

n 



re j 
o 



a 8 



P -a 

H H 

rt re 



!-- tr 

o re 
re 

?r et- 

re re 

a re 

3- 

£ » 



>j re 



M to 

1 3 
O O 



74 



♦And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord that I should 
listen to his voice? 1 

G softens the blasphemous nature of the Icing's outburst by omitting 



Cnk: 



71919 ~^*?^L 



•And Pharaoh said, The name of the Lord has not been 
revealed to mc that I should obey his word. ' 



For the second offensive clause in this verse ('I do not 
know the Lord 1 ) Onk. again translates 'the name of the Lord has not 
been revealed to me'- Ps.-Jon. translates the first part of the 
verso as Onk., but for 'I do not know the Lord' renders: 'I have not 
found written in the Book of the Angels the name of the Lord, where- 
fore I do not fear him. ' 



(12) Ex. 6.16 : 'the years of the life of Levi' - a mid- 
rash in Ps.-Jon. 

M f jives the years of the life of Levi as 137 years. Onk. 
renders as H. Ps.-Jon. also as M but with the additional clause: 

S^non-T v*o,->-»->T3 ii-171^ JVM no>o jv rmri^T ~ry 
■• r7 . : 4- • : / -?- ": _ ^ r : 

'until he saw Moses and Aaron the deliverers of Israel' 

According to Ex. 1.6 Joseph died and all his brethren but the Tar gum 
makes it clear that Levi in his longevity was able to see the deliver- 
ance wrought by Moses and Aaron. Note the similar expression by 
Ps.-Jon. at G.18. 



(13) Ex. 7. 11 : Jannes and Jambres 
in Ps.-Jon. 



a midrashic expansion 



In M Pharaoh summons the wise men and the sorcerers and 
they emulate the miracles wrought by Moses and Aaron. Onk. as M. 
Ps.-Jon. however has Pharaoh summon the wise men and sorcerers but 
also the two magicians Jannes and Jambres. These figures are under 
various names well-known to rabbinic tradition. According to Ps.- 
Jon. at Ex. 1.15 they had forecast the birth of Moses 'through whom 
the whole land of Egypt is to be destroyed', and they also figure in 
rabbinic versions of the Balaam narrative. In the Zadokite document 
of the Dead Sea Scrolls 'Jannes and his brother' are categorised as 
raised up by the wiles of Satan to oppose Moses and Aaron who arose 
by the hand of the Prince of Lights (Damascus Rule V. 17-19)- Compare 
also 2 Tim. 3-8 and the extended discussion in M. McNamara, The Now 
Testament and the Palestinian Tar gum to the Pentateuch (Analecta 
Biblica 27) pp. 82-96. 



75 

Cl4) Ex. 7.1,5 : Pharaoh at the water's brink - differing 
Targumic attitudes to a crux interpret urn 



According to M Moses is to encounter Pharaoh as he comes 
out to the water in the morning. Jewish commentators were much 
exercised as to what Pharaoh was doing by the waters. Onk, however 
does not speculate or expand but translates quite literally: 



A >rj >0 



nS p "» £33 K 7 



Ps.-Jon. however has: 



h r? *> e> a K -7i 



1 as he is coming to observe sorcery upon the waters 
like a magician (lit. magian) ' 

Ps.-Jon. thinks that Pharaoh himself took part in the rites of the 
magicians, the Nile of course being the basis of Egypt's fertility. 

The Fragmentary Tar gum has TVTT'iprnnS (error for rT^rpjivy?) 

<^ ^O >V ■ — i.e. 'to cool himself by the waters' - an entirely 
different explanation for Pharaoh's early morning activity. More 
prosaically some medieval commentators thought that the king wont 
to the water simply in order to relieve himself. 



(15) Ex. 7.22 : The waters of Goshen 
difficulty in M 



Ps.-Jon. sees a 



According to 7-20 Moses and Aaron had turned all the waters 
of the Nile to blood. There were hence no waters left upon which 
the heathen sorcerers could in their turn wreak their magic arts. 
Ibn Ezra was aware of the difficulty and suggested that the magicians 
tampered with the waters under the earth. Onk. simply translates 
as M. Ps.-Jon. however carries the addition: 



x-o^xb \<l) 



N^O 10 -ID'Oni 



'and turned some of the waters of Goshen to blood' 

Ps.-Jon. aware of the difficulty has assumed that Moses and Aaron 
left the waters of the ghetto untouched and that it was these that 
the magicians were enabled to turn to blood. 



(l6) Ex. 8.5/9 : Moses before Pharaoh - a question of 
precedence 

Moses asks Pharaoh to assign him a time at which he is to 
entreat deliverance from the plague of frogs. M's -*^«jj ->X£5:rin 
can be paraphrased as lexicon of B.D.B. 'assume the honour over me 
(to decide when) 1 - Obviously the meturgeman felt this was a far 
from satisfactory order of precedence. 



ca a 1 

O ff P- 

►l H- 3 

a 3 ta 



rf rf 

3- 3- 

a o 



01 p 

O 3 

3 B 

O 3 

* ■ 

O O 






Q 3 C-t B 
H' □* H 



O ^ O H 



ff O 3 

r p 

a ft £ o 

*1 fD O Hj 

- 5 & 2 

» 3 ■ 

«+ O 

Hi ^ 

H 

H) ff > 

o 

t- 3 
Q • 
►1 

«-. & rr 
o • o 

C ■ 5 

■ s 
5; - <; 



< 
B 
3 

ff > 

EB O 

O 

o o 
hi n 

a. 

g a 

p rf- 
o o 



p 3* 



a 

3 3- 

H) & O 



P rf 



s r 



ff 

p 3" 



H- O 
3 3 
*+ (D 
O 



ft «H 

p O 
ff C 

a 
e h- 

O 3 
3 
cf W 

aa 

•3 
■a 



4 

i *< 



1(5 



3 tA 



m - 

cf- p 

O 3 

3 & 



3* 

ff 

O B 

R i 



i 
et rf 

►1 
h- * 

& B 

* W 

rr 

t3 © 

3 

ft Hj 

4 

nj o 
w ta 

* w 
i 

U ff 

O 3- 

3 B 

■ ff 



' : J 

HI 
& 

i— 



5C 

..J 



'- £_1 

tZ 

---J 

b 

<q 

■z 



16. 
-a 

'6. 



ff 

P 
ff < 
O 

3- a 

3 3 



"5 S 

■■ J 

H 



J- 

IZ 




to H 

ra 3* 



cr h- 
o cf- 

< H 



♦ "1 

O 

• o 
o 

I 




r+ H 






h 


•0 






~ 


H, 








3- 3 








to 






3 


o 








to 






VI 


• 




~C 


C 


h 








\3 
i-3 • 






-J 


L 




1>£ 




3* 








Ufl 






C 
3 




■■J 


3 


3" 








ID 






* 




'^ 


" 


.-. 








c a* 






D 








Z 


&3 








3 








H- 






3 






*— » 




- rf 








w 




vT 




3" > 




r: 




3 " 






X 


B 




«>C 




P O 
3 O 




o 




3 3" 






tU 


& 






o 


& O 








Cfi P 






■ -j 


5 








W ^ 








ff a 


- 


~^ — 







- 


;^ 


9 


• & 




T- 




3 0* 


B 

3 


J" 






3* 




H 


3 


" 


M 




p o 


3. 


.rj 


^^ 


H- 


s 


rr 


i-3 a 

3* 


g. 


O 




a 3 


31 


I5C 


— 


a 


N 




I 


3 ff 


B 








5 


> 


o 


a 






3 a 


3 


U 




n B 


w 


■ ■ — ■ 


3 


- 


r^- 


^ 




& 





^j 




o m 


- 




^ 


r+ 


3 




o s: 


(9 


•t 




3 3 


K 






H- 




r \T 


O 


H 








(C t+ 




"J 


v s 


n 


rt 




- 


ts 


P 






M< 


P 


Z 


B 


3" 




™ 


P o 




Hj 







3 


■:G 


ID 


M 


B 






3 W 


3 






3 3 


a 


O 


-• 


rt- 


b 




a o 


H- 


s 




ff o 




3' 


'/. 






rf 


to 


►1 






*- & 


> 




cr 


- 


j 


1 




B 


4 


-J 




Q 




^ 


3 


B 


^ 


P 


P to 


n 





Xj 


p 







r+ 


C/3 


3 


H- O 


H 


H- 




■Jl 







p 






Itu 


CO 


m a 


a 


3 






" 


J 


" 


H- 







i- 


to 








o 






3 


o 




B 







o 







^ 


i ID 


Q 




- 




cf 


O 




o 




M« 


'; 


3 


<r^ 


-■ 


H 


o 


B C 




(B 




3 


3 


* * i^» 


c+ 


3" 


3 


^ — 


U) 


W cf 




:/. 




ta 


rf 


"*■* 


^ 


A 


ta 




ra 




O 










* — ' 






ff 


o 




m 




cf 


c 






H, 


d 


M 




P H) 











3 




3 


H. 





ro 






p- 






rf 




rjj 


^ 


i 






& ff 




r 




T3 


— 






r/ ; 


3 




H 










^ 








rf 






B 


cf o 




3 




s 








»d 




"^ 


cf 


o 








P 








p 


P. 


iJ 




H' 








o 








4 




W 


1 (+ 




B 




? 








^ 


3 



»G 


4 


P M 
I— 




;-■ 












a 


r+ 


rr- 


3 P 
















Hi 




-^ 




3 




J 














•1 


o 


3 a 








ff 








r+ 


to 


^* 


H, 







r^ 










0" 


P 






0) 




3" 




ff 








(E 


r> 




ft; 


M rf 




-■ 




3- 










- 




9 


^ 








** 








< 

It 


ff 




r: 


3 O 

<a rf 




h3 




4 








►1 


3" 




<; 


(D n 






c 








EB 







n 


n 3 




ID 




I 








(0 






*t 


o 
















ID 




w ji 


CD 




2 













*-J 


4 




m 






H- 




3 








r: 













= 




* 








3 


— 














& 








3. 
ffi 


3 















r* d- 4 d f- 

3* h« © *i a 

ft ft to f- » 

a d- o* d- 

o o 3 

c 3 a 

ft o 

et 3 
to 

d- ft 

P P *1 

3 3 P 



1 

to = 
ft 

et 

Hi • 



Sd d Hj 

| 3- O 

C P 3 

C et r] 

§■ o o* 

- F, ft 

o 
p g w 

M ft ft 

» ^ ° 

»* W H> 3J H 

^ p D C H- 

a O F> 9 H to ct 

Ul ct ft M ft M 3" 3" 

=* ff * ? ° 

3 ft O" ft- ft P 

o n a Hi 3 d 43 

g O "3 - 2 
3d-3ftP43^3 

o ?ari- f i P a; d- 

»1 O 3 d P R 3 P 

a c+ a ff P it et 

• 3" O h F* 3" ft 

O O = 9 H ft C 



n p o 



^ Q 
Ul d ft 

e/j ft 3* o 



7 



Ms d 
O P 
►1 3 



ft 3 

an H ia 

p 

* *J M 

.j H- ft d to 

a ft- En tn e* 

H 01 7 f+ O 

>i ft Ul p F- 

p er p *1 r+ o 

(5 c ffffl n id 
M d- l- 1 IS 

o h ba 



d 

o 

B MP) 
H- 5 p 3 
H- 0. d P 



% 

3* 
jg 

43 
.£-[(3 W 

5 
4 

F- p ft 
3 (5 

to P 

*-- h- n 

3 



3* n 

n s* ?? a to 



F- & 



0) 
3 

r. 

IB 



ft ft 
d- 3 W 



o, p 



3" P 



:-■ ■* 



CO 



n m 



W P 

= d O 

3" F, 3 & 1 

fft M H O 

#-. O 3 

trt tT 3 P N 

(ft 



O S3 



. - P 

Hj p H>U) O r.O 

if efr » 3 "mi a N;H 

ft to to Q ■ d- V" 



D an- 7 



ft 1 
< H- 

P H> 



ft 



d- 3- * 



3 § 

U> p 



3 ~ P ft 

Ul > H- W 

d- tr ft m 3 3*-tf> 

O I H S3 

p cr p a f- 

d- O ct- 3 ft 

Ul p 3- a 

d- n 



s$ 



S3- 

p 



d 

a 1 

a a 

*— ■ F- 

3* 

O M 

o o 



3 

o & 
o 



H- d- H- 

a w tfl 
tn 3 



O P H 
H 3 



•& 



3 M fi" ^ 

^(5 7 4 

a < 

in P (h h- 

3 O & 

•a & *i ft 

o ca 

d- H. tn 

P 3 P c* 



d- ro a 
3- 3 

ft 4 

-*- P 

3 O * 



3 
13 P 
p c+ 



d P 



tn 3 

N- Hi 

td P O 

P 3 4 
O- ^ 

^ e* 

H H3 5 1 

O p ft 
3 H 

N- E 3" 

p 3 C 

3 p. LO 

- ft 
H 

P ft 

MOO 

3 3 3 

C ^3 3 

CL H- C 

- H 3 

ro d 



a p 



o et 

M 4 

P 

3 

< a* 

P ft 

M 3 

H> ft 

a p 

• d- 

= 3* 

c+ 

f-j 3* 

s: ra 



SR. 

■ST O 
< 1 
P I 

o "a 



3 

to a 



3 H 

•5 " g 

3 c+ 

ft *— n 



O "l 43 

P P 

<; o -i 

P c+ d- 



& c 

H- 3 
d- ft 



ft = 

m ** cr 

ft 3 

p ^ d- 

3 » 

U • 3 

ft o 

C <rt 
et ?r 

o* «*- a 

Q l/l U) 
P- 

3 P 



35 



^ ft 
d- 
3" S 

DOS 

1 H- 

3 7x tn 

p W 3" 

& 3 

3 it P 



O P 

a H- 

3 o 
& o 

ft 



C P w 

Hi M " 

H 

et a 



i+ a* o c 



1 a et 

ft M 1-1 

O GO P 

O 

n d- et 

3- P 

ft et 



cr - 

I- 

3- m 



en 



3 
-d 
P 
d fcf. 

H- 3 

»3 
3 O 

rt B* 

Hj p p 

3 et 

et n 3* 



ft £ H' 

O* O P Q 

u<! (+N 

ft ft 

et 3 et H 

3* - 3" 

9 • ft M 



7 



fP 



3 2. 



H) 

O Q 

er c h 

H* ft 3 

a 3 

a ft h 

ft 3" 3 

3 no 
r 

,3 in O 

C P 

P C3 

3 o 



cr ^ 



c 

P M 

«| 

CF* M 



n § 

Hi H- tO 

ft 3 

1 VI d 

ft v 

a- — 3 

ft *a o 

p o to 

1 -1 ■+ 

to a* 

^ p o 

•a ■»> 

Hi - & 



ft ft 

3 et w 
o h- n 
ft et 

3- 
I 



v; p 

v; <- 
yt„ ** - 

- O 
ft zC, *i 
K 3* 

ft P 
ft 



cr p 

£J O CL d 

SO 3" 

* H- O ^ 

3 3ft 

W 3 P 

B" H« et a 

P 3 o tn 

3- (3 

cr 



■^ ft 3" 

h P 

1 H- < 
-3d 

P« 

O 3 et 

3 P 3* 



et - 

3" 
ft O 



3" ft- 



•3 h* o a 



O ft 

"I O H3 

?r 3 3" 

43 ft 

S H- 

ft M ft 

>-J ft P 

ft 3* 4 

M 

C3 P H- 

P o- o 

ft o w 

3 d 3 ft 



4 W 

ft > C 

a < 



o a 



H- tO H- 

a o 3 

3* o a 
et 

t-> H- ft 

v; 3 o 

3 

H Otl 



A 3 **• 

et et 

P 



7 


1 


<• 


7 




'.-7 


et 


B 


T 


k 


7 


N 




r* 



P o 

s; 3 

W to 

1 O 

ft < 

< ft 

ft 4 

3 3 

Ct P> 

H* 3 

3 O 
CO 



tfi H, 

d- O 

7T 3 M 

ft ft P 

tf 

Hj M O' 

P H* 

[fi < 3 

ft t/) H< 

H, ft 
ft ^ 
POM 

• f+ P 

H. 

3 H- 

D(l M 
O M 

et C ft 

ft q 

^ 3. 

O 



o ^1 

C tt 

rt d 

to & 
h-v; 

a 

°? 



o n s 

h, o p 

3 V) 

d- t3 

3" H-T3 

ft M g 

P O 

i (+a 

P H- C 

a- o n 

D* 3 ft 

h- u> a 

3 

R* o .or 

ft H, S 



M H- 



4 

p d 
a- 3 

cr id 

H- 
3 H 
p. o 
ft CO 

p H. 

M P 
3 
Ul 

ft P 

— J3 . (Q 
Oft. H- 

O 3 

H 3* P 

^ jj, |j ^, 

la if H 

g crP-S 
3 O Ul 
et *t et 

H> H- H '"l 



^^ 



ft ft 

3- ft 

ft 3 

CO M 

H. p 

CT ^ 

M 

ft O 
Hj 

3 

p ft 



P 

d- a 



tn ft 

ft P 

3" to to h- f 

o 

° 9 

M 4 

to h 



<J cr 

ft M 
* ft 



4 - 

ft 

ft cr 

ft C 

3 ri- 
ft 



Q S 



p to a> 



*3 tn 


ft (tf 

ft ft 

3 ft 

n- 3 

H- 

P 1 

M ft 

P 

H, a 
o 



ft M 
P M 

to ^ 



M ft 

P o 

< c o 

M 

P d- ft 

O* 3" *1 

M ft W 

ft 

P- H 

Hj ft 3 

o cr 

et 

ft 



4 
43 
C ft 

to o 
o 1 

Hi O 

3 
M et 

S<i 

ft S 

P o 

ft 3 

C - 
"I 

ft g 



ft M 
3 d M 
H> 3 



« 4 
O p 
>-I rt 
ct H< 



3 






■& 3 
O 
ft M 



ft 43 
3 P 
d- >i 

ft ^ 
^. i_jH- 

to a 



DS 



O (3 tf 

3 3 3 - P 

H- M O M ct 
3 S i-J ct 

& P F- 

i— '<• 5 F- M 
- p d- Ul 

= M ft 

• H- O 3* 3* 

p. Hi ft ft 

ft 

H- (— p 4 

H hj d- c ft 

=r 3 d to p 

H- £ ft ft tn 

to H o 

- H- ""J TT 3 

d 3 ft 

ft d M 3" i— 

O ft ft ft H) 

3 3 

CT O <h 4 

H- H, ft 

3C ^ £ 

O d to tn £T 

a 43 ft 

tO ft F- 

< 43 O 3 "1 

H- ft H- ft 

ft ft p Hi ^ 

3* H- M O 3 

Hj •-£ H- 

ct F- H- ft 4 

3" O 3- H- ft 

o p r? co 3 

M 3 3 ft 

H> M ft 3 

n •< H- 43 ct 
ft OP 

£ < 3 R £ 

C H. d O 

ft d- cr ui 
3 3-S ug 

d- i— i p 

M t P ^ 

v; d- a- H ft 



3 ft 



H' ft 



P 

i— 3 

3 3 H> 

I P P O O 
> 3 --I P 

H ft D. ct 



M O < 

d Hj O 

ft- "-J 

ft ft 

ft ft 



3 - 
ft K 

p 

3 f+- 

§ ■, 

ft ft 

- P 
• to 

- o 
3 



if* 

P 

^ cr 

ft cr 

p p 

a 3" 

ft 

4 tn 

»& 

P M 
tr. _ 

ft ft 
O ft 
P 
H, C 
H W 
ft ft 



G 



J 




d 3 

to 4t 
a 

P H< 
1 ft 

ft P 



■= ft s: 

ft v O 3* 

3 

O CC 

F- ft H. 

rt 3 to 

ft - t 

ft > p. 

ft 43 ft 

• 3* ST 3 



O 3 S 
C M O 

43 = C 



> 43 3- H 



p 3* Ul 

3 -^ -- 



v; 




r+ 




3* 




(1 






- 


ft 


g 


~ 


d 


H- 




1 


: : 


:- 


■: 










O 


~ 


7 


.7 


3 


? 


rr 




3 


ft 


1 


7 


ve] 


- 




to 


!> 


n 










C3 




• 


- 







^ 




3 


- 


P 


7 


r^ 


r 


ZT 


-■ 


7 


3- 




7 



^ 3 

t3 P 



P ^ 
tt 

ft c 
*i tn 

o 

H 3- 
P 

M O 

3 d 

3 ct 

& to 

H- H- 

ft & 
ft 



h- to_ 
S ft 

ft M P 

3- M < 

ft ft 

43 3 

ui n 
d ft 
a ct 

P v; 3- 

ft o p 

P 3 et 
3 H 

H. 

H H, 
ft ft 

to ft p 

ft d 3 

1 »< 
ft h>- 

3 O 
M F) 

H F- 

1 d 
3 O 3* 
3ft 

• to 

tD 
(f P p 



3- P 
H- 3 

a to 



D -0 

4 



p < 
H- H- H 



ft o 

to ►□ 

In F- 

3 H^ 
3 M 

et 



o H 

M 3" 

ft ft 
H ft 

8 & 

ft 

M 1 

o 

a ■— * 
ct 

P 
3 
3 
P 



a > 

ft • 



ct p 

3" ►O 

ft 43 



KJ M 
P ft 



= -^ P 
M p 
Hj M cr 



Fj "^ 
P ** 



o 

£D Hi 



ft 3" et 



1 ft 
ft 

S 4 

3 F- 

ft et 

F- ft 
M 1 

ft 

to 3 

P 

St ^ 

O 3* 

P 

ft <! 

t, ft 



3 

p c 

33:^ 



O ft o 

F- >1 

ft ft 43 

d- ft p 

h. p. to 

3 »- to 

ii et 

3" 

m s: ft 

P o 

cr 43 



cr to 
vj 

3 
F- H- 
3 3 
43 P 
= 

a- 

F- 2 



ft 
F- et 

Qi N 



tt 



p to O 3 

3 F« H, ft >~J 
Q *— 

H3 3 F, m • 

P F- P 

E" 9 3 * 

3 P a 

C 3 F- 

CL 3 



Hi a 

O O F- 

d f- <; 

3 ct 

a ct 4 

F- ft 

cr 3 ft 

H- 

HUP 
H 3 

O Uj M 

- tn 
p. ct 

F- "5 

< 3- F- 

H- ct 

1 ft 

o ro 1 

:n» 

• co to 

• 3* ct 

• ct "-( 

P 
O F- 

3" O [ft 

ft 3 3* 
H ct 

to m ^ 
3* F- p 
O ft vc 

d ft 

M H) 

d> •«; o 



p F- 
1 3 ri- 
ft O 
to d P 
ft 3* <3 

ft P 

1 4 H- 
ft 3 

■3 - 

ct p 

3- to F- 

ft to ft 

3 p 



ft ft 

ft 



F- < 

3 ft 

ct 4 
ft 

3 43 

a O 

ft to 

P. to 
F* 

rt cr 

o M 
ft 

w ■» 
P 
< 



ct rt >a to 

3* F- 4 ft 

ft 3 p 3* 
(3 ft O 

P. Q 

F- 3 

< ft 



P to 
M 3" 



f- s: 

3 P 



O 4 
ft ft 



H Q 

P ft 

ft ft 

Ui 1 o 

o 

ft 4 

3- ft 

3 P n 

ft 5 o 

3 

3 F- O 

H- 3 F- 

to < M 

3" ft ft 
3 to 

P ct O 

F- F- O 

ft O 3 

P H, 

43 ft M 

P ft F. 

to ft 

to € ft 

pj 3 H- 

■O P 3 

ft ft Q 



ft ft 



P to 

O* 



to 43 

43 in O 

F> F' to 

I 3 ft 

p ft to 

ft ft - 



rt- rr Li 

3 3" CT 

ft o 

o s D. d 

F> F. 3 

cr to a 

2 ft o • 
o H o 

to F- < 

ft ft ft 

to < 4 tj 

F* p d 

3 ft 

3" ft rt 

ct p M 3 d 

3* ct ft ft 

ft p 

r- 3 3 

3-3- P 

1 cr 



C F- UJ F* 



3 cr 

M F- 

f- to 

a a 



3 

a p 

El F. 

ft 

a 3 _ 

O ft 3f ft 

■i "-{ p to 

P M ft 

o o" m d 

h cr & 

H- 13 F- 

ft to o ft 

tr top. 

ft ^ ui 

H* p H- ft 

4 4 ff ~ 

d m ft 

ct ft 

10 M 

p ?r n p 



to 

cr 
p ft 

3 ft 



F- F- 

3 3 

d- et 

ft ft 

1 3 

43 to 

1 F- 

ft < 

d ft 

P M 

d Vi 



:r P 
O F- 

9 o 



o o 



c+ & 




37 


o 


ft 


P 


- 


n 


3 d 


C 




p p rt- 


2 £ 


P 


■-■ 




H' 


r+ re 


O tJ 


P 





ri- CT H 




P 


M 


*% 


P 


O^htf 


H <: 


a 


re 


« 




P 




p p* 


3- a 

O 3 




fj 


1— 1 


3* 




3" 


i-f 


Hi re 


re 




tn w 5" 


re 3- 


3 


Pj 




H 


1 < 


Pi 4 


3 





3" tre p- 






re 


P 


B 


3- C P 1 1 


p p> 


3 


n 


P 




re 




ri- O 




a 


M> 


o 


£ 


v< 


c 




3 




rt - re 


to re 


& 






!-* 


B P- 


re 


ri 


3 


re ^ h 




"3 


p 


3^ 




i • p re 


p- re 


g 


o 


Pi 




o 




o 


c a 




5 






P 


X tf 






n 


P 




p. 




3 


re a 


p en 


3" 


rr 


►3 re 




^ 


B 


C 


9 


p. m eg 


3 Z 


3 


3 




g 




Hj P. 


CQ O 




o 


a 1 


o. 


Ef 


T, 


B 


§ ? 


H 




o hj bd 


*3 c+ 


ri- 


ri- 




n 


rt- re 


p re 


3 


1 


•o rt- 




D 


ri- 


P- 


trt CVl 3" rT 


C trt 


p- 


3 


r ^ 




3 




p« re 


3" I 




c 


re 


p 


13 




M 


:■; 




(- p 


O 


- 






rt- 


te 3 


P> ^t 


-", 


P 


O H- P- 




re 


*• 


3 


p* 


ri- p B 


a 


Qg 


3 


rt 




3 




-s 


b 




3 


c. 


ri- 


I 


re 


<< 


< re 


P 




C *i 3- 


ri- 4 


- 


p« 




►1 


- re 


p- <; 


B 


i 


P* P 3 




re 




P. 


EO 


p- 3 Pj 





o 


p- 


p- 








tn o 






re 




re 


— 






1 


PI 




tre K 


CJ P' 




;*. 




P 


re 


h re 


• 


rt- 


3 3 




m 


3 


re 


3 


P 3" rt- 


tn Hj 





3 


3 




rt- 




ri- h, 


W M 






c 


i 


P 


rt 


■x 


3 3* 


n 




^ H- H- 


3 01 


3. 






rt 


<i „ 


re ci- 






rt- rt- 




u 


& 




3 


3 re T 3" 


P 


I/.' 









3 






re re 




ct « 


33 


M 





r+- 


re 






"30 


p- re 


I-- 


H 




re 


H< ►! 


re 




c+ 


13 3" 






"1 


<3-i 




a rt- re 


"^ a 




§ 










ri- 


H) X 


3 


■1 




p 


3 


!-' 


H« 


en P 


ri- 


~ 


tn 3 


P to 


tn 


q 


i 


p. 


p- re 


V 


^ 


O 


o p re 


^ 





M 


3 


!*• I 


ri- *1 3* 


B P. 





o 


§ 


rt 


O 


ff 


c b 


c 


§ 


P" 




Q. 


H 


3* & 


ff 


H 


rt- h. 


3 


re 


H 


s 


• 


h- 3 


re p 







H,« B 


o 


3 


l < 


a 


VO 


3T P- - 4 


C 


H 


Cu 


H, 


- 


3 


re 


l- 1 


O 


re 


5 


.t 




H 


p re 


p 


BT 


P P 


O 


3 




3" 




P P 


3 S 


1 


& 


^ re 


1 


M 




P 


* — ' 


re 3 o 


P< 








re 


a 


■3 




b 




I j Cl 




3 


Jj 1 




M & 


c+ 


- 


3 3 


Cfl 1 


it; 


B 


re 




a p- 


re ^ 


rt- 


3" 


< *i ^ 




H 


1 


p. 


~" 


o tn re 


3 re 


ri 


la 


rt 







re 


■i 


o 


p 








9 


H' 


(B 


H -• 






re 





•j. 


c 






re 3 


o "1 


3 


3 


p- p- rt- 


rt- 




P 


B 




h^jo ?r 




3" 





3 1 


~ 


t+ 




p 


s * 


3. 




cr 


p 


3 


= 


>■ 




~ 


n 


o j-3 


O H 


i— 


^ 


3 


■j; 


B 


e p- 


3 




re re 


3- 


C_l. 


~ 


= 


P 


o #- 


c-i "3 


3 


3 


3 


o 


- 


rt 


ff 


< 




P- 


3 






n 


C P 


re 


— 


- P 


H- p 







1 


z 


W 


T 


P 


! 


£ p- X 


B 


3 


3* 




3 


Q P P* P" 
^ w« 3 


re p 




p- 




:3 


3 


ff 


ff 


- 


p 


, — , 


rt 


i. 


3- 


H- 


r; 


re 3 


^ 


p 


I-" 


re p< 


3 


3 




re d- 


P B 


r- 


3 d- 




BB 


P< 


B 


3_ 


4 tn 


C: 


p 


d- *< 


3 


3 


p- 




2 


ff 






1* 


3- *d 


& 




■— ■ 


re 3 


ri- H 




EC 


" 


3 


1 


□ c 


re 


r-- 


o a 


3" 


rt- 


3 


P- 




• 


re tn 





H 


pi 




h-> 




7. 


R ? 


ri- 




o 


P 


B 


H- 


rr 


3 


to 


3, 


< 3 


^ [rt 


EQ 


- 


" 


-i 


p- 


o re 


:~ 


M 


P) c^ • 


P« 




p. 


a 


re 


P (B tj 


3 P 


B 




3 


Hi 





3. 


-■ 


P 


Cn 


Pj 






0': 


K' 


P 





p 


H- p, 













C H) 


a p*^ 


rr 


tr 


rr. 


Ef 





3 





tn p- 


p-ca 


33 


M 


(D 


p- 


L3 


P' 




tf 3 


C3 


3* 


Hj 


P' 


3* 


• 





3 


re 


a 


Hj ^*^ 


C 


C^ 


3 


rt- 


re p- 






C 


&■ re 


ri 


re 






3 


_ w re 


& Ui 


O 


P. 




H 


S 


Pl 


3 


P- t) 


re 


V 




O 


re 




3 


3 H* 




P 


re ■-■*• 


N 2 


Et) 


C 


P 


- 


tn H 


cr p 


rt- 


re 


v 





eg 


tn 


tr 


^ 


M M re re 


H- 


H, 





:-; 




Pj 


P 


ri- H- 


BO 


& 


p 


3 


01 




P 


CL 


^ 


3 


3 c^ 


O • 




rt- <<; 


3 


- M 


3 tn 


r 


1 


re h- pb 


1 


3 


3 


s 


P 


p p i re 




B 


(G 


Hi 


rt 


3 


p. 


"< 


1 H 




D* 




a 


a 




h *<; 


c 


03 


w 


3 













P- 


3 


P 


P 1 3" 


P- 


3 


3, 




3 


rt- CT P- Efl 


to < 








• 


1 







5 ft 


h* 


P 


o 


P- 




Q 




rt- 


3 




• 


a 


3 


3 


p< 


•3 


3 p- 


t- d- 




rr 


p* m re 


P 




P 


tn 


P« 


re cr 'o o v*j p 


^— - 


O 


C-i 






3 


% 


3 


- 


P= 


3 


E£3 


3 


-, 


C o 


(- 1 


*— « 




re p 




O 


re 


1 


2 3 


C 3* 


3, 


u- 


o c 


3 


»■■> 


P- 


p- 


3 


p. rt- = 


» M 


to 


H; 


re 




~ 


H 


-. 


<*< P- 






3 


13 


» 


r; 


a 




3- 


P 


z> 


« tf 


ri 


rt- 


3 







p- re 


- 


o 


? M o 




\Jl 


a 


3- '3 


B S3 C w 

B P- R " 


to d 


* — f 




'.-■ 




P- 


r~ 


i— 


O 


7 


p. 


b 




Q 




►1 


3" 




7, 


t-i 


p 


c 




Qi 


c 


re d- 


3 


•^ 




re rt p 






3 


re 




O p 


■ 


rr 


3 


t3 


B9 


H- 


i— 


P* 3 


rr 


O 


rt- 


n 


p. 




(1) H' 


— 


ri- 


to 


> ^ 




p- 




H *^ 3" 


a o 




p 


4 *1 H 


D" 


• 






ri- 


P 


cr 




3" 


7. 


ff 


rt 


: 




3 B 


3 


c> 


O 







E3 


d 


3 B 


re 


4 


rt- O 


• \3* 


p, 


K 


3" 


re 


re 


re 


re 


'Ji 


» p- 


3 




p. 


* 


^ 


rt- M 


i- 1 




3 




3 





7. 


i- 1 




P- 




H 


4 


H, ^ 


ro 


& - 







3" B 


a a 


.*: 




P- 


l; 


re 


p- p 


^ 


:r. 


B rt- P 1 


ri- 




Yi 


p- 


re 


3* H- 


re 






1 




3 




re 


ri- Ifl 


S 


CT 


• 




re 




Z 




9> 


H 


re re 


• ri- 


P 


H- 


W 


7; 


tr n 


3 & 


p« 


3 


o p- re 


_ 






H 




re 3 < = 


«^* » 


P3 


O 




rt- 


q 


P 


3 c 


P- 






rt 


M 


3* 


VI 


t3 - 




c 




N 


?— 


£^ 






§ it 




5 


3 


nop 






: " 


pj 


rt- 


rt- re > 


^ hf, 


3" 





rt 


p 




< 


Q O 


3 


I 




3" 


:— 


!5 




■"! r^ 


rr 


<p 


t w 


W P« 






— 





a W 


P 


>3 


P- 3 3 


C5 









^ 


rt* re *l a 


Pl 


ED 


3 


3T 


3 


7 


re 


3 


h- s* aa 






_re 






H- 


p o 


~ 


re 


H- 3 


O P 


^ 


P- 


re 


Pi 


ta rt- 


c re 


rr 


rr 


P 


P 




-! 


P- 


o 


ss* »t a 


w H 




3 


re 


3 


rt 






1 






! 1 


C 


< 


3 


^ re 


_. 


4 


a n 


o 


H« 


'/- 


3 




% n 


Hj p 


3 


-■ 


p 1 o re 


H 




rt 


H 




P- "3 re rt 




3 


rt 




P 


3 





r^- 


P 


rr 




^ 


P> 


— , 


P 




y 


'■z 


m 


re 3- 


Vn 


rt- 




P 


rr 


P 




o 


p» < 


p. 




3* 


l— 1 


3 


1 n p" 


3 d- 


P> 


•"! 


p- 


P- 


3, 


< 


3 


B B 









H 


-; 


'.', 


d* 


Hj 


^ 




09 


ri- 


3* 


-. 




3" 


n re 


a- in 


3 


3 


O P- 


H 






3 


~ 


& re re re 


Q 3* 


P. ^< 


3 


rt 


-j 


re 


3 


rt> 


© 




ft 


3 








^ 






« H- 


o -* 




3 


d- 


~ 


-n • 


m re 


-. 


EC 


H P 1 £P 


3 




P 


3 


' 


rt- p 


rt- re 


T 


•• 


7. 


p- 


3 


•~i 




P- ri- 


7 






H. 




CQ 


h" 


4 O 




d 


1 3 




" 


" 


•/. 






re n 






p. p. re 


3 




3 


P> 




re p ^o rr 


p- 


P 




d- 


re 


rt 


re 


3 


re 3" 


$ 




3- 


rt 




H- 


a 


c 







O ^3 


CO 


g 






rt- 


p 





ri 


3 


re pj 3 






P 


3 


"! 


re ri- p p 


S 4 


■j, 


<+ 


p. 






o 


re 


p 






P- 






d- 




3 1 




H 


P 




3 


Hj 


^ 


3 


H 


Hi i-> 


3" 


l - ) 


1 re o 


& 




H 


P 


3 


3 H'tf | 


^ 


-■ 


~ 


rt- 


5 


^ 


:■: 


S 


rt (+ 


rt 




B 


c 


™ 


<+ T) 


re 


w 


Qj 


a g 


• 


cy 


O 




3 


M S 


rt- p- 


3 




b re 


3 




^ 


ri- 


M 


ri- H 3 





P« 


re 


3 


3* 


Q 




P- 









< 


re 


p- 


o 


1 3- 


3- 




B 


> 


H 


a 


re 


3 


. 1 


o tn 




rt* 


» p- 


P 




U 


re 


pi 


c 3 re re 
■l tn 4 


o *3 


3 




ri- 


H- 


3 




B 


o 


a 




H> 


re 




3 


1 


o re 


ft 


ri- 


c* p 




re 


a 


p 


3 


3 


c- 


3- 


3 p. 






p- 




□ 




ri- 


P> 


rt 






rt 


3 Hi 




1 


3 


*i 


co 


H« 


^ p 




— 


re rt 


tf 


^ 




ri- 


rt 


C rt 


- s 


3 


3 


B 


Z 




3 


rt- 


P< 


^i o 


i-j 


?: 


3" 


O 


H- 


rt 





3 


b 


CO 




ri 


re 


Zl 







- a 


*, 


- 


h-i H- 


■ w 


IT 


r~ 






p re 


a 




rt- 


re 




-j: 


3" 


3 


3 Hj re 


& B 


p. 


3 


3 


3 


P 


3 


3_ 


* crt 






H- 


'^ 

=; 


K- 


P 


3. 









H- 


p- 




rt- 


rt 


Hi 


3T rt- 


ZL 


p 


(3 


m pr re 


V". 






3 


3 


d- p p 


H & 


m 


3 


jI 


'3 


n 


3 


3 


ri- 


H 




cf 


0) 


3 




re 




= 


re 3 


VI 3 


^ 












m 


3 


"1 


rt- re »o 







- 


3 


GB 


3- ^ 3 £ 


p« 


'-3 




V, 


?» 


7, 


3 


i 




•a 





- 


a 


L 





p 





Hj 


O P- 


s 






W 


d- a 


rt 


P 


3 


^ 


-3 




3 






^ p 01 

o ^ 5 re 


Pj re 




3T 







h- 


P« 


ri 


sa 


re 








3, 






„< 


a 


ri 


P' 


O H 





P 


3" 


" 


~ re 


p - 


3 


P 


O XI P 


O 




-. 


cr 


3 


" 


"3 


ri- 


H> 


t 


re 


3, 




m n 






CO 


3* 




u 




^re 




3" 


p M 


o E? 


3 


■- 


re 


3 


P- D 


c+ re 




ft 


P- O H 


ri- 






3 


Hj 


p B *< B 


re i 


►J 


I 




3 


7. 


re 


UI 


d- — 


<5 ' 




re 


P- 


- 


c+ 




ac i 


3 


i 


3 




O 




►1 


3 H 


3" 


3. 




< 3 H 


p 




Pi 


rr 




CQ P" 




c 


£ 


rt 


r^ 




-i 


3 


1 


< 






5 


H- 


3 


a 


re re 





i 


o a 


§ H- 


ri 


H« 


1 


• • 


tre p- 


p w 


3 


c 


re P re 


3 




rr 


3" 


Q 


3- H Pi 3 


P P 


-1 


D 


3 


H 


ri- 


p 


3 


H- tO 


P* 




rt 




eg 


a 


o 


p p. 


ri- 




3 H- 


ET 


a 


o 




en 3 


rt o 


M 


'1 


tn 3 a 


P- 




•J. 




3" 


tn 3" rt- 3 


B 


p> 


4 


re 




ff 


cr 


3 


B P- 


CL 




— 


B 




*< 




a 




o 


O M 


3 


re 




- 




ere 


Hi 


re 


re 




P 






/~. 


M 


3 


3. 


H 




pi 


3 


i-i 


•■: 


P* 







EC 





re 


H- 


^ 


(rt 


P 


^ 


O 


c? tn 




3 


p 




e^ » 


3 ri- 


3 


re 


P t=J 






o 


rf^ 


.- : - 


re p re ^ 


p rt 


3 


P 


H 


i-j 


K 


3 


~ 


M 


3 








K 


3 


H' 


O 


H 




1 o 


re p- 


•d 


'-'": 


_. 




3 


rt 




3 3 3 


3 




5 




B 


3- < 1 


3 3" 






3 


P» 


3 




p 


3 re 


c* 




W 


rt* 


"• 


CQ 


PL 


O 


H 


W 


P 3 


',3 


-; 


3 


& 




re 


re m 






•3 P- 


& 




3 


• 


d- 


o re *3 B 


3 re 


P 


O 


3 


3 




ff 


rr 


s -i 


« 




►3 


— I 


ui 






< ri- 


Q 


■ 


re- re 


O 3- 


_. 


" 






M 


3- P- 


3" 


p 


re p-^ 


3 








P> 


p- i-i -a 


re 


H 


Hj 'd 


7 


rr 


re 




P CT 









P 


« 


O* 


a 


re J 


< 




c- re 


c d- 


re 


! < 


p. 




< P 


3 


P 


3 


b n 






" 




P 


p p- re p 


"1 33 


rt 




r-- 


r- 


3 


3 


3* 


H 


rt- 




a 


ri 




,T 





^ p 




\< 


p. R 


H 'j: 


re 




■3 




p. 3 


re re 


B 


P. 


mow 


re 




=- 




3 


R a <t B 


p 


re 


rr 


re 


"1 


H 


3 


re 


!-■ O 


cr 




P- 




tfl 


3 


d- 


h. ri- 


3" 


P 


EB c+ 


H 










< & 


tn 






o ^ 


a 




3 


p. 


m pi p ?r 


rt- o* 


•i 


3" 




P 


ri- 


PS 




^ JT 


a 




n 


ff 


p 


re 




3 


H- 


o 


P- 


re p- 


3 


i 


X 




p- 


3 n- 


P 


r 


3 H) 


3 




3 





ri> 


H ri- M 


3 ^ 


3 


O 




r- 


B 


p* 


p< 








rt 


O 


^ 


p 


5" 


CQ rt- 


3 


3- 


H- 3 


p. 3 


Hj 


• 


H- 




a o 


re O 


i— 1 


p 


ri- 4 rt- 


re 






rt- ^ 


B C P- 


p h-> 


p 




ri- 


re 


• 


rt- 


p« 


c ■— 






P- 






r^ 


3- 




3 


3 ta 


rt- 




• 


- 




pj 


1 3 


'S, 


rt 


P- 3" 






1 






c re o <+ 


rt- 


r+ 




ff 






7! 


3> 


3 -0 













— 1 


3 


K« re 


rr 


P 




H, o 




• 


3. 




^ g 


re re 


3 


p. 


p 3 re 


rt- 








p 


O 3 3 


3 


H- 




re 


d- 






O 


S — ' 




3 








3 


w 





S 




1 




■ 






J 


ri- 




3 


P 1 


3 








3 


3* re B 


P< 


-1 






3- 






~. 


P* *• 
















Hj 








c 




z 








1 
















3. 


3 - 


B 


3 






3 






7 
















" 








3 






























a 


3 














3. 



hj re 

et 

N 

H • 

*"» • 

re *=i 
4 P 
C p* 



H 33 
P • 

frr 

3 

a w 
(rt 

3 ^1 

3 P 

q. re 
?r 

P p 

P 

o • 
3* 

a 
*-►« p' 

re h 
p- re 
hj h, 

N 3* 

Pi re 
o re 

p* - 

W 

3 
= 
3 
3 



P^ C 
O < 

UI t£ 

i re 
-o c 

O tn 
*-• 3 

re 



a • 

p- s; 

h re 

H" 3 

- tn 

3 

r re 
re 4 

p- - 

3_ 



O £l <-* 



x ^r 



3 r 

p 

H 3 

3" 'J3 

p- re 

n •« 
& 
o 



o 

G 

"O 17] 

rt- 
p- C 
^3 d 
-J P- 

c^ re 

»— - D* 



vo re 

Co p- 

■— - B 



P^ 

3 

■=r 
C 

H n 

to re 

3" < 



m ^> u 



p. to 

tn re 

rt- 3 

re 
4 



-J 



p* e 

5 

Pi C* 

-j re 



CO ^1 

p^ a 
•o • 

2U 

■^ re 

1 
3 

re 
D" 



S 2 

p re 
tn C 

tn 

O 3 

da re 
4 i 



H H- H 



B 


ta 


p. pj p 


q 




re 


ri- 


Hi £ re 3 ^ 


Fl P5 ri- 3 


3 <"*- P" < P i 


1 


rt- ri- 


p 


ri 


M 3" < 




3* 


ff 


3- p- re p 


< 3 33 


re ri- p- p. 3 




ff 


31 


p- 


rep 


re 




p 


p 


4 p> p < cr 


re re re ri- 


p PT ft pj re & 1 


ri> 


re 


ff 


■— 


^ P* 






3 


3 


p- p- re cr 


3 p- 


3 re P 1 3 H 




re 


fr 


— 


re sb p- 


3 




rt 




p. re 3 1 p« 


s a xj h- 


p* c h, *cj ri- a 


re 


-3 






h- re P 


3 






■3 


3 p- 3 


3 re 


3 CQ P 3" P H- 




3 


p 





P ff c 


7 




— 


3 


b p 3 re h- 


P H"B rt-cre ff ri* ffl rt-ri-O 


K 


HJ CD 


3 


3 


1 p* ^ 




3^ 


re 


d- ri- p re 


3 H- 03 ff 


3 P* 3" Hj 


3 


C P* 


a 


3 


S 2 Q 









!.>:■ 


p rt B 

3 re p M rt- 


- p- re 


p- n re 


-3 


pl Q, 




33 


o ^ 


H) 




7 


7 


tfl 3 cr 


P) rt* re 1 3 B rt- 




q (5 


p. 


B 


4 p 





tyj 


re 


^ 


re 3 3 3 


rt> H* H 


- re b pr 


B 


p 


rt rt 3 


3 


3 







re 'd rt- 1 


P3 H, p. p 


d- p> p • p- re 






7 


p 


3* re £X 




3 


re 


4 


- rt- p- 3 


P C pi B 


3* Efl 3 rt- 3 


3 


*D ri- 


3 


rt 


X 


P 


_ 


„ 


fT 


B ,Q B 


P> H" rt- rt- 


re m 1 


3 


P- 3" 


3 


p« 


rt- rt- Efl 






§ 




rt- C O 3 


3 ^ 


P- B K rt- P 


B 


1 re 


< 


< 


3* B 


7 


3i 


- — ■ 


ff rt- H* 3 rt 


B p pj 


d- 3 rt- 3; 3 cr 


rt- 


?r 


3 


3 


re 3 


d- 


" 


'31' 


t£ 


re rt re 


a_3 re 


re 13 p* re re cr 




re 3 


-1 


i— 


fffl ° 


3 
3- 


3 


re 
tn 


"^ 


p* p p- <i pP 3 ^ 


X K P 1 p. 

rt- h: B Cl! 2 B 

b c+ p- re p- 


3- 


p- 
>o 


• 




1 re 3* 


re 


rt 






3 P" Hj 3 Q ttf-i- O K 






4 


o P 


3 


pr 


•-J 




ri-MO^^ re3*re 


p 3 0- & B rt- 


d- 


rr 




S 


£ 3 ■< 
P' rt-'d= 


ri- 


3 


P 

ri- 


^ 


reo^o ri-ppp 

40 <H,4^34 


P 3 P 3- ff 

b rt- rn ff a 3 re 


% 




rt- 3 




3 


re 


3; 


ff 


3 


ri-p ri-p P-^3(QB 


re v; 3 p 3 

P 3 c 4 rt- ff ed 


re 


Pf O 




■ 


re t 


3 


3 


3 


< 


re d- rr d- < p-re re^^ 


3 


" 3 






• C, P 


rt 


3 


3 


3 


Brerep-re3&B» 


p« -t ct p- re 




p. 






P- 3 


re 


tr 




3 


rt- p- 


3 rt- re p 3 P m 

z ?r b <, 


P 


p re 






K Efl 


" 


i— 


ri- 


rt- 


P hi 3 n h- 


•r, 


B 




hJ 


Pi pj 


p. 


re 


— 


ff 


3 re 10 re d- 3 


B rt- - P- M Q 




re 




3" 


E71 P- p 


3 


3 


P 


re 


re CQ 3 3 3 f 


rt- 3 ^ ere b 


p 


(Q R 




3 


re re ri- ere 


B 


3 


H 


3Preprt- t34p 


rt- to - re 




P-HJ 




n 


n 3 h- 




* 




re 


ri-P'^'ICPPipB 


p P* ff 3 p 


< 

rr 




(5 


P» P* 


rt- 




& 


7 


p re H m cr ri- 


H re P P* P- 3 3 
H rt rt 3 3 P* a 






rt- 3 


— 




re 


C 1 ! 


H 1 p- p- rr p ff h 





3 CO 




? 


C B 


Pf 




3 


* 


3* a re p- rt- p- Q 


rt- ri- 3 


p* ^1 tn 




B rt- 


7 


> 


Mj 




k 3pre3tnrep-3- 


ff ri- *3 re re p 


3 


p. 




3 


O P 




P* 




Pi 


re 3 p b • < p- 


H' 3 i i m n 




ri- O 






B 3 


Pi 


P» 


rt- 


rt- 


"-jcqbo resrere 


tfl re p -3 v; re 




rr 3 




'-3 


rt- 1 CP 


P- 




^ 




p- re 3 p 

OBrt->1 rt-QCcR 


ri- b < n "-s re 


P 


re b 




31 


3 re 


tt 


3 


3 


p- 


re p- re re i tj 


3 






3 


a. p a 


H 


P 


P- 


B 


& oreOffPidre 


1 a rt- re rt 


Q. 


■: p- 




Si 


^ P o 


C. 


3 


4 




rt- a p re a 


h- m re 3 P Hi 




re 3 




d- 


o 


* 






B 


re a ri- >q p 3 


P P B 3 rt- H ri- 





B 




3 


O* P P- 

^ 5 




re 




3 c+ rt- p- re 3" 
boo re 


3 


B rt- 

re 3* 




*3 

■3 


3 p. 


- 


7 


P- 
B 



P" 


P O CO P ri- 3 ri- 

H ri- rep 


n rt- 3 rf- 


3 


3 re 
n 




3 


O ri- P- 


P 


3 


ri- ^ 


Hj rt- d- ff 3-f+o cr 


p < 1 re 3 3 


3 


re rt- 




" 


3 3* ri- 


— 


3 


re 




rt- p- 3 h, h- P- <; re 


< pi ra pj a *a 


j 


= re 




— 


i re h> 


3" 


3 


3 


rr 


re re re re re 


re re 3 rr 


3- 




B 


3 ^ Q 


p- 


3 


re 


re 


333H,ri-<(31rt- 


^ rt- C a rt- H 


B 


& 




ri- 


P > 3 

cr R B 

SI tf 


3 
p- 
O 


3 
3 

rt 


3 


rt- 
rt 

ffl 


P" p 3" P Efl p 
tTM C(5 O 1 rt-S* 

reRrecr p* p- pr re 


cr oi p a p- rr ct 
re h re Hj re P 
re ^ Hi 3 


rt- 




Hj - 

•1 B 




H> 




3 




►1 


b p. p* re 3 re 3 


3 h» 3 p- *-j re 




P 3 




re 


3 P 


ri- 


3. 






m -n w re 


O O Q Ci p O 


re 


cr 




tn 


P" P- *i 


3 


• 




rt 


H-f3recQ3>ori- 


t? c 3 a 3 tr 


3 


cr ff 






re o 


y- 






O 


rt-nniip 1 ^. reo 


1 a p- h> cr 


p- 


p- 




T' 


tn 


r- 








rt- p rt- O J— 35 


re ct re ft H' Hi 


- 


3 P 




3 


tn o ri- 


7, 






P 


P*BPB C Ortl 


■0 ri- 3* <; b - 


n 


P- B 




1 


f> Hj c 




> 




rt- 


rep-ar-^rereocre 

O H-O 3*B 3*1 O 


P 3* re p -o - 




re 






s - 5* 


P 


3 




rr 


"-J re p- p b 


rt- 


ri- 




3 


rt- o 


3 


3. 




3 


crpMSPorep-o 
reBP'[fi3H.3reo 

ri- e+ P- (Q p- - Efl 3 


re ri- BOP 


3" 


rt- 3" 




9 


P" 3 3 

& re rt 


re 


33 




3 
33 


1 X P p 3 * 


•3 


re 

P B 






■-! 


1 




rt- 


rt- pi ^| ff re a- • p- 


rt- pi ri- cr <q 


rt- 


re 




-■ 


B 1-3 - 


re 


3 






re 3 - H B P- B 


cq b cr re hj -3 


ff 


& 




3 


p 


p 


7. 




rt- 


t - re 3 re 


H» pi B 1 3 


3 


pi -■ 




' 


P- P- 3 
B 3 B 


— 
p- 


"8 







p- a 

Efl 


a 3 3 n 

OP pi 1 p- 


3 


3 3 

Q 






3 re 


r— 


ri 

T 










P 1 rt- 


ff 

r* 





82 



Other useful books 

ll.L. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash Engl, transit 
(Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia 1931; 
now in paperback, printed by Schocken Books, New York) 

J. Bowker, The Tar gums and Rabbinic Literature (CUP 19&9) 

E.P. Sanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism: a comparison of patterns 

of religion (SCM, London 1977) 
S. Safrai and M. Stern odd, The Jewish People in the Fir st Century 

(Van Gorcom, Asscn vol I 1974 » vol II 197&) (to be used with 

care) 

For full lists of Iranslations and editions, see Safrai and Stern op cit 
vol I pp 15-lS and SchUrer op cit (note 2) vol 1 pp 68-99- 

Easily accessible are: 

Mishnah edition by P. Blackman, Mishnayoth (parallel Hebrew text and 
English translation) (London 1955 ) 
translation by H. Danby, The Mishnah (OUP 1933, reprinted 1972) 

Tosefta edition by M.S. Zuckermandel , Tosophta based on t he Erfurt and 
Vienna codices, with parallels and variants 

2nd ed with 'Supplement to the Tosephta' by S. Licberman (Wahrmann 
Books, Jerusalem 1970) 

translation by J. Neusner ot al, The Tosefta 6 vols (Ktav, New 

York 1977- ) 

Jerusalem Talmud translation by M. Schwab, Le Talmud d c Jerusalem 6 vols 
(reprinted by Editions G-P. Maisonneuve et Laroso, Paris 1977) 

Babylonian Talmud numerous editions available: 

translation in I. Epstein ed, The Babylonian Talmu d translated 
into English 18 vols (Soncino 1961) 

Mekilta J.Z. Lautcrbach ed, Mekilta de R. Ishmael (Hebrew text and English 

'translation) 3 vols (Jewish Publication Society of America, 

Philadelphia 1933; paperback edition 197^) 

Midrash Rabbah translation in R. Fredman and M. Simon edd, Midrash 
Rabbah 13 vols (Soncino, London 1939) 



83 

WIDENING HORIZONS: SOME COMPLEXITIES OF HEBREW GRAMMAR 

by Grace Emmerson 

(In addition to standard abbreviations, note that RBH = Readings in 
Biblical Hebrew, listed on back cover. ) 



The Particle J"tS 

The Hebrew text of the Old Testament holds some surprises for 
the student. Take the particle T\H , for example. Didn't he learn 
in one of his first Hebrew lessons that this particle occurs frequently 
in prose as an indicator of the definite object? And so it is with 
rather more than mild surprise that he later discovers several instances 
in the Old Testament where the same particle accompanies a noun which is 
clearly not the object but the subject of a sentence, as in the following 
examples: 



rr \b i**eii~Tp ~jin -oWm 



'As for any man, his sacred things shall be his', i.e. the priest's 

(Num. 5-10). 



anS 



? 1 



Tjtt 



rpn 



'aT~bj>-:nN UN 



•Or shall all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them?' 

(Num. 11.22). 

'And the second bull was offered upon the altar' (Jud. 6.28). 

•These four were descended from the giants' (2 Sam. 21.22). 

' A -r - v - * v : 

f Thc iron tool fell into the water* (2 Kings 6-5)- 

Note that in all these instances the noun is both defined and 
in an emphatic position preceding the verb, which in each instance is 
cither intransitive or passive. 

With these can be compared a related group of passages which 
differ only in the position of the noun, e.g. 

'Do not let this matter distress you' (2 Sam. 11.25- See RBH II , p. 35). 



IU>9 " n zl~^t ~ ;nx' rif?^)? "^i 

•Esau's words were told to Rebekah 1 (Gen. 27-42).- 



here verb and noun do not agree in number, and the verb is to be regarded 
€-is impersonal, defined by the following noun. 



VA 

How are such apparently contradictory functions of the 
particle to be explained? The connection between the particle and 
definition of the noun (l Sam. 24.6 is a rare exception) suggests 
that in its basic meaning it is an emphasising particle, a meaning 
now imperceptible in the majority of instances where it came to indicate 
the accusative as case-endings became obsolete. (cf. GK 117 b). 



This use of -Tl^ 
relevant to Gen. 49-25: 



to emphasise the subject of a sentence is 

frequently emended to *\ '•^TdJ *? X | , as in the RSV, NEB and JB, 
for example. But the emendation is unnecessary, and removes the 
strong emphasis intended by the particle: 'oven Shaddai Himself, who 
shall bless thee.' (See N. Walker, VT 5, 1955)- 

There is no uniform terminology to describe this use of .TIN 
with the subject of a sentence. It is sometimes referred to as .hX 1 
with the nominative, though R.J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax (1967) P» !■**£ 
regards it as an extension of the use of _n N with the accusative, 
and refers to it as the 'emphatic accusative of specification, when 
the accusative is the semantic subject'. (See also J. Macdonald, 
'The Particle Xvtf. in Classical Hebrew: some new data on its use with 
the Nominative', and P.P. Saydon, 'Meanings and Uses of the Particle XW 1 , 
both in VT i4, 1964.) 



Enclitic -m 

The question is, does it, or does it not, exist in Hebrew? 
The opposing viewpoints are well illustrated in the following two 
articles, one by H.D. JIummcll, JBL 76, 1957, a strong advocate for 
its frequent occurrence in the Old Testament, the other by G.R. Driver, 
JSS 10, 1965, (reviewing M. Dahood, Proverbs and Northwest Semitic 
Philology ) who doubts whether a single example of enclitic -m is to be 
found anywhere in the Hebrew text. He laments that, through the ingenuity 
of some, it is 'growing like a weed' I 

But first, what is it? Enclitic -m is a suffix of uncertain 
vocalisation which appears a number of times in the Ugaritic texts. 
Whether or not its presence conveys any particular meaning is not clear. 
The assumption that it exists also in Hebrew, but went unrecognised by 
the Massoretes as it fell into disuse, and hence was wrongly vocalised, 
seems, to some scholars, the solution to a number of problems in the 
text of the Old Testament. Others, however, maintain that all such 
instances are capable of explanation by less speculative means. 

An interesting example occurs in Psalm 29.6: 

'And he made them skip like a calf, 
Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild ox. ' 

The verbal suffix is here anticipatory, referring to Lebanon and Sirion. 



85 

It is, however, arguable that the final "CD of the verb represents, 
not the third plural suffix, but enclitic -m (vocalised by Dahood, 
Psalms III (1970) p. 409, as wayyarqed-mi ) , and the verse is to be 
translated 



'And he made Lebanon skip like a calf, 
and Sirion like a young wild ox. ' 

This is the view adopted in the RSV, NEB and JB alike. Certainly it 
produces a neat and appealing meaning, with the balance of exact 
parallelism. 

Several instances where a plural form seems to obtrude un- 
accountably in a singular context have been resolved by appealing to 
the presence of enclitic -m. 

^i^Db n^y n ^n ^ZJSN ^>k»^i h\x<iS~ jvn Sn-ivoo (y^) 

'Samuel answered Saul, "I am the seer^ go up before me to the high place, 
for today you (plural) shall eat with me."' (l Sam. 9-19). 

'The asses which you went to seek are found, and now your father has 
ceased to care about the asses and is anxious about you (plural), 
saying, "What shall I do about my son?" ' (l Sam. 10,2). 

■■- JMJJ^L -ioj'=l7. ~VmN> M\Xia 

'They shall be turned back and utterly put to shame 

who say to a molten image, 

"You (plural) are our god(s)*" (Isaiah 42.17). 

The plural forms in question are revocalised as the appropriate second 
person singular with suffixed m. 

Genesis 1.9, 'Let the waters ..... be gathered together into 
one place ( a i p iO J 1 has always presented something of a problem. 
The suggestion has often been made that n } .~> tCj 'gathering' should 

be read here as in verso 10 (see BH ). Indeed G has o'uvfuy^jy^ for 

a ' P *? , and this is followed by JB: 'Let the waters ..... come together 
into a single mass- ' The acceptance of enclitic -m here resolves the 
problem without resort to emendation. 

A theological point is at issue in Hosea 14.3- Does the 
prophet consider animal sacrifice a worthy expression of penitence or 
not? The two opposing viewpoints are illustrated by the NEB, 

•We will pay our vows with cattle from our pens, ' 

and the RSV, 'We will render the fruit of our lips' (an avowed emendation 
as the footnote indicates; cf. JB). The Hebrew is problematic: 



36 



D""0^ ('bulls 1 ) and ■n* , .'n^>cf ('our lips') appear to 
be in apposition, the second noun apparently elucidating the meaning 
of the first. It is arguable, however, that here, too, the difficulty 
has arisen from failure to recognise enclitic -m suffixed to " , ""J Sp 
•fruit', and thus the meaning proposed by the RSV (cf. G) can be 
supported without resort to emendation. Yet it is equally possible 
to resolve the problem by redividing the words, -i }-»,*]-}.£) c£Jr} ~^~~)T3 

•bulls of our pens'* In this instance the meaning can only ultimately 
be determined in the light of Hosea' s attitude to the cult. 

See also J. Darr, Comparative Philology and the Text of_the 
Old Testament ( 19-66), and F.C. Fensham, 'Ugaritic and the Translation 
of the Old Testament', The Bible Translator, 19G7. 



Inseparable Prepositions 

'In any one language the meaning of the prepositions is a 
highly subtle, difficult, and idiosyncratic structure of possibilities 
and choices' (J. Darr, op. cit. p. l?6). That the Hebrew inseparable 
prepositions have a wide range of meanings soon becomes clear to the 
student. (For a useful summary see R.J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax ( 196? ) 
p- 47-5'i). One of the points still debated, however, is whether, in 
the light of Ugaritic usage, we are justified in including the meaning 
'from' for the Hebrew prepositions 3. and h . Dahood, Psalms III , lists 
a number of passages where he attributes this meaning to 31 (p. 391-3) and 

to *y (p. 394-5). 

A notable example is Psalm 68.19 (EV 18): q— j-^t^ jYlj.Fi'n j^Hp 1 ? 

— translated variously as 'receiving gifts among men' (RSV), 
'having received tribute from men 1 (NED), and 'you have taken men _as 
tribute' (JD. cf. also J.H. Eaton, Psalms , 1967, 'having received 
tribute in human kind'). Certainly the translation of a as T from' 
gives an easy and appropriate meaning here, but the existence of other 
equally possible translations makes the evidence inconclusive. 

Another passage where the meaning 'from' seems particularly 
apt, it is argued, is Isaiah 27. 13: 

. ^ . . f « V S • «r • - 

'and they shall come which are ready to perish, from the land of Assyria 
and they that were outcasts from the land of Egypt' (Fensham, op. cit.) 
Yet here also other meanings are possible. NED translates, 'those who 

ore lost In Assyria and those dispersed in Egypt ' (cf. RSV Most 

£ n driven out to ' , and JB ' lost jji .... exiled to ....'). 

"it must, in any case, bo noted that the occurrences of ^L in the following line 
both clearly have a locative meaning: ' on the holy mountain iri^ Jerusalem' . 
Here is the crux of the debate. Can the same preposition be used to 
convey adequately two such opposite meanings? Several points must be 
taken into account in considering this question. 



T 



87 

1. The meaning of a preposition in any given instance is necessarily 
determined largely by the words used in conjunction with it, - cf. J*J 
meaning variously 'upon, over, beside' (sometimes ambiguous as in Amos 9.l), 
and in hostile contexts 'against'. The meaning 'from' for n. may there- 
fore be clearly defined by the verbs which it accompanies, and thus con- 
fusion of meaning will not arise. 

Put 

2. Though English idiom may sometimes require the translation 'from', 
it does not follow that the Hebrew preposition itself has that meaning, 
for Hebrew idiom may differ. (See E. Sutcliffe, VT 5, 1955). 

'}. The usage in Ugaritic may not correspond to that in Hebrew, since the 
latter has also the very common preposition f rp (cf. Darr, op. cit., 
p. 176). ' 

4. We have no means of knowing whether in Ugaritic IX 'in' and tX 
'from' were in fact homonyms, for they may have been distinguished 
by their vocalisation. (cf. Darr, op. cit., p. 175)- 

Psalm 60.3 (EV l), Uy> 3 .3.'l <V jjl ^*TO £ 1 is 

one of the passages adduced as an example of 'h with the meaning 'from': 
'You turned away from us' (Dahoodj cf. also Fensham, art. cit.). This 
meaning has not been accepted in the standard translations for various 
other meanings are equally possible. The question remains open. 

See also N.M. Sarna, 'The Interchange of the Prepositions Beth 
and Min in Biblical Hebrew', JDL 78, 1959, who finds this the solution 
to many oxegetical problems. 

3 and IX- expressing Identity 

The preposition 3 frequently expresses likeness, but, as 
R.J. Williams points out ( Syntax , p. 49), this may bo 'either similarity 
or identity'. An interesting example occurs in Hosea 12.12 (EV ll), 
where the decision taken on this point affects the meaning considerably. 
Is the prophet saying that Israel's altars will resemble the heaps of 
stones gathered from a field in preparation for ploughing, either in their 
abundance (so NED, 'common as heaps of stones'), or in their utter lack 
of significance (so J.L. Mays, Hosea (l9e9) P- 169)? Or is lie affirming 
that they will be destroyed and themselves become rubble heaps (so JB, 
'their altars shall be reduced to heaps of stones'; cf. II. W. Wolff, 
Hosea , ET 1974, p. 207)? 

In contast to this ambiguity, Nehemiah 7.2 provides a clear 
example of the use of "D to express identity (sometimes known for con- 
venience as kaph veritatis ) : m VD tV <V "■ H 3 M'Vn ~ ^13 

'for ho was trustworthy'. Similarly Psalm 122.3* 'n*^ p rH*03L71 D^'***^ 

has the meaning, 'Jerusalem that is built to be a city where people come 
together in unity' (NEB). 



Wo may link with these examples the usage in which the pre- 
position is repeated to express identity: 

e.g. Joshua 14.11, HIPi^; ^nDD'1 ftt ^rOtD — 'I am still 
as strong now as I was tnen ' * « 

Hosea 4.9, ( H 23 p t) <0 Z> P^HI 'But people and priest 

shall be treated alike ' (NEB; cf. GK 118 x; BDB p. 454). 

The preposition 3. is also used to express identity, a use often 
conveniently labelled bath ess entiae . Sometimes English idiom does not 
require a corresponding proposition, as in Exodus l8.4: 

""? ?V-?- ^^^ "*$■*£" "*? ' F °r * hc G °d of my father was my help 1 , 

and Deuteronomy 26.5: i390 "^0*?^ ^^ *"*>V*M 

'he sojourned there few in number-' In other instances it requires an 



I 



equivalent proposition. Thus Exodus 6.3, 

■■TOi baa, zipg" 1 -L 7N\ pnn^-hx nn^irLN'-^^ H^) 



1 X 



\M 



I V 

is translated, T l appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as El Shaddai. 
This is perhaps the moaning also of Genesis 1-26 with its problematical 
exegesis: 

•Then God said, "Let us make man as (i.e. to be) our image" (though cf . 
J. Barr, 'The Image of God in the hook of Genesis: A Study of Terminology', 
Bulletin of John Ry lands Library 51, 1968), As a last example we may 
take Proverbs 8.8 (RBH II, p. ll6, though an opinion on the point is not 
expressed) : 

" : ' v J v v : 

where the preposition is more likely H of identity (essentia©) than of 
accompaniment: 'All the words of my mouth are righteous". 



The Passive Qal. 

Among the grammatical notes in RBH reference is made several 
times to the possibility that certain verb forms are to be regarded as 
examples of passive Qal. In general the passive is expressed by Niphal, 
Pual or Hophal, or by an impersonal construction. Yet the idea of a 
passive Qal should not come entirely as a surprise since the existence 
of a Qal passive participle is already familiar to the student of 
elementary Hebrew. 



The following examples of possible passive Qal are taken from 



RBH II. 



Gen, 



3-19 (p- 15) Jin^b 



'you were taken', apparently Pual perfect, 



89 

Gen. 16.4 (p. 21) ^]- n^-> 'let it be taken 1 , apparently Hophal 
t- I- \ 

imperfect of the same verb. 

Nahum.1.10 (p. 78) *lSlD|\? 'they were consumed', apparently Pual 

perfect. (See also Neh. 2-3,13, p. 47, 49 T where the form is 
not noted). 

Other instances include the familiar passages 

2 Kings 5-17 f*3~ \^ llct it be given', apparently Hophal 

imperfect of [ IP 3 , and Gen. 6.1 MT 1 ?"' 

'they were born', apparently Pual perfect of T J "" . 

But why is there any question about these forms? Why are they 
not simply Pual perfect, or Hophal imperfect, as they appear to be? 
The suspicion that we have an old passive Qal form arises where there is 
ostensibly a Pual perfect which has no corresponding Pual imperfect, and 
no corresponding active form, i.e. PI el, (cf. GK 52e), and likewise where 
there appears to be a Hophal imperfect which has no corresponding perfect, 
and no corresponding active form, i.e. Hiphil (cf. GK 53 u). 



Note as regards -IT 1 ?" 1 



'they were born' that there 



is a Piel form, though in view of the difference of meaning ('to help 
to bring forth, act as midwife 1 , Ex. 1.16) it can hardly be called the 
corresponding active. 

*\)D}<L 'they were consumed' has no corresponding Piel 

form. In this instance, however, there is one occurrence of the 
corresponding imperfect ■! *7 D N IFI (Isaiah 1.20), 



Perhaps the most compelling argument is the extreme unlikelihood 
that, in the case of such common verbs as | XO and np7 » 
of all the forms of the Hiphil and Hophal only the Hophal imperfect 
should have been preserved. On logical grounds, therefore, the theory 
of a passive Qal seems preferable. 

See also R.J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax p. 32; M. Dahood, Psalms III 
p. 388, who lists passages in the Psalms where he suspects the presence 
of passive Qal, unrecognised by the Massoretes and hence wrongly vocalised. 



'Internal' Hiphil 

The student accustomed to thinking of the Hiphil as causative 
may be surprised to find, not infrequently, an intransitive use of the 
Hiphil expressing not causation, but the exhibiting of a particular quality, 
or the entering into a certain condition. It is this intransitive use 
of the Hiphil which is sometimes known as the 'internal' Hiphil, since 
the action or state which it describes applies to the subject. (See 
GK 53 d-f; R.J. Williams, Syntax , p. 30). It is for this reason that 



90 



91 



the comment on Psalm 1.3 ( RDH II , p. 6l) explains that the Hi phi I 

O"; ^- may mean either 'to b_£ successful' or ■ to make successful 1 . 
Taken in the latter sense it is causative, in the former 'internal 1 
Hiphil. The one is transitive with S'p as its object, the other is 
intransitive. 

An unambiguous example of the intransitive Hiphil of Fl^?^ 
occurs in Judges 18.5: ■t^3>-|~T mS^mTl H S> T 3 1 

'that we nay know" whether our journey will succeed 1 . And Gen. 39.2-3 
interestingly provides examples of both internal and causative Hiphil 
side by side. In verse 2 Joseph is described as n~>h>i5Yl CjJ^>i 

'a successful man' (the participle is intransitive). In verse 3 the 
same word is applied to Yahweh who 'was causing everything he did to 
prosper in his hand'. 

As examples of verbs in the intransitive Hiphil which are 
used to indicate the exit i biting of a quality we can group together the 
following : 






rusn 

V - 



"to act the harlot 1 (Ho sea 3.3 5 4.10) 

'to act wisely* (Amos 5-13; Ps. 2.10) 

'to play the fool' (Gen. 31-28; 1 Sam. 26. 2l) 

Ho act wickedly' (Ps. I06.6j Neh. 9-33) 

'to act craftily' (l Sam. 23-22; Pro. 19.25) 



Others indicate 'growing ...' or 'becoming 



, such as 



■t ■» <v n 71 



*to grow old' (Job l4-8; Pro. 22.6) 

'to become white' (isa. l-l8; Ps. 51-9/?) 

'to become dark' (Ps. 139-12) 

'to be silent' (Gen- 24.21; 2 Kings 18.36) 

'to become ashamed' (Jer. 2,26; 8.9) . 



INTRODUCTION TO AKKADIAN 

by Wilfred Lambert 

The name 'Akkadian' is the term used to embrace Babylonian and 
Assyrian, which differ dialect ally, and their third-millennium pre- 
decessor, Old Akkadian. The name derives from Akkad, the town apparently 
not far from Babylon built by Sargon of Akkad c. 2300 B.C. He was a 
kind of prototype of Alexander the Great, creating a vast but short- 
lived empire from the Persian Gulf to the Eastern Mediterranean. Whereas 
previously Sumer, as the most southerly parts of ancient Iraq were then 
known, was dominated by Sumerian culture and the Sumerian language, 
Sargon promoted a new ideal of kingship, a new concept of government, 
and a new official language. The Semitic 'Akkadian' (a term used by 
the ancients to contrast linguistically with Sumerian) served alongside 
the non-Semitic Sumerian in his royal inscriptions. Semites had long 
been resident in the areaj but only then did their language become an 
official language so that it was written down and we can read it. This 
is the earliest known Semitic language. Still earlier traces can be 
found. Semites and Sumerians had evidently been living in contact for 
many centuries before Sargon of Akkad, because, though their languages 
are in general structure and vocabulary totally distinct, in details 
there are many remarkable similarities, and there are loan words in both 
directions. 

Thus the Akkadian tamkarum 'merchant', from the root rokr , was 
borrowed in Sumerian as domnara (probably pronounced tamkara ) , while 
the Sumerian e'.gal 'palace', a combination of e_ 'house* and gal 'big' 
passed into Akkadian as ekallu , and reached Hebrew as hckal 'palace' 
or 'temple'. More substantial influences of Sumerian on Akkadian 
occurred in phonetics and syntax. The Sumerian sentence order is quite 
like that of Latin: subject - object - verb, and this is also the 
Akkadian sentence order. Without knowing the prehistory of Akkadian, 
before it came under Sumerian influence, there can be no proof that its 
word order was influenced by Sumerian, but the very different word order 
of Canaanite strongly supports this conclusion. Also there are Semitic 
personal names attested in Sumerian documents before Sargon of Akkad, 
such as Il-Addu 'Adad (Hadad) is God', or 'El is a storm god', but their 
value for reconstructing the language is limited. 

The emergence of Akkadian as a written language c. 2300 B.C. thus 
took place in a context of Sumerian culture, and to the same source it 
owes its script. Akkadian is the only Semitic language not written in 
an alphabetic script. The Sumerians developed their script in the early 
third millennium B.C. as a true writing system, that is as a means of 
recording human speech and thought. It was preceded by book-keeping 
systems which served to record numbers, amounts and measures, but these 
symbols could be 'read' in any language, like numerals still, and were 
not therefore a true writing system. The original Sumerian script 
consisted of pictograms for noun- and verb-roots ('ideograms' or 'logo- 
grams') and some of these were soon adapted to serve also as signs for 
syllables to express the grammatical elements required to indicate such 
things as case and plurality of nouns, and the person, tense, etc. of the 
verbs. In addition there were signs which were not pronounced called 
'determinatives'. These were added to nouns to indicate the class of 
object: wooden things had the sign ibr Vood* prefixed. Names of kinds 
of fishes had the sign 'fish' following, and so on- 



Easily available local materials from the Southern Mcsopotomian 
alluvial plain served as the ordinary writing materials: clay for the 
tablet to be inscribed, a piece of reed with trimmed end to serve as 
the writing implement, the stylus. The clay was softened in water as 
for a potter, then an inner core was wrapped around with a thin outer 
layer. Tablets vary in size from about an inch square to about a foot 
and a half square, though oblong in the commonest shape, the length being 
greater than the breadth. At first the surface of the tablet, unless 
it was one of the smallest, of which each side constituted a single 
compartment, was divided into compartments which began at the right 
upper corner and ran downwards with as many vertical rows of compart- 
ments as necessary to fill the area of each side. Thus the last com- 
partment on the obverse was the bottom one of the far left row. The 
tablet was then turned top to bottom and the rows of compartments on the 
reverse were similar to those on the obverse, except that instead of going 
from right to left, the scribe started writing at the point on the 
reverse closest to where he finished on the obverse, i.e. at the top 
left, and so the rows of compartments went from left to right on the 
reverse. 

At first a group of signs was put in each compartment entirely 
at whim: their positions within the compartments give no indication of 
their sequence in the sentence or word. The reader has to work out 
the correct order for himself. Over the first half of the third 
millennium this unsatisfactory arrangement was improved. The haphazardly 
placed signs in compartments in rows developed into lines of signs in 
correct order, the lines forming columns on the tablets when these were 
sufficiently large to have more than one column on each side. Thus 
when Akkadian was first written down, the signs were inscribed in 
correct order in lines. 

Clay was not a good material for drawing real pictures. Soon 
after the invention of clay tablets the pictograms became patterns of 
wedge-shaped impressions in the surface of the clay. Scribes held the 
stylus on the clenched fist and pressed downwards into the surface of the 
tablet, which was held at a slanting angle to the movement of the 
stylus. The result was a wedge-shaped impression, and from the Latin 
cuneus 'wedge' the modern name of the writing system, cuneiform, is 
derived. The other major development in script was a change in 
direction. The lines were first vertical, beginning from the top 
right corner- Since the stylus was held in the right hand, this 
method of writing risked the smoothing over of lines already written 
as the hand moved to write further lines. So tablets were turned 
around 90 degrees and the writing was begun at the top left corner 
and continued horizontally from left to right. Otherwise things con- 
tinued as before, and the result of this change is that all the signs 
are in fact lying on their sides. It appears that this change in 
direction took place between about 2000 and 1500 B.C. Tablets of 
course do not reveal anything because they can be held either way, but 
inscriptions on, for example, stone steles with human figures do 
clearly indicate the direction of the writing, though they may have 
archaised compared with clay tablets. 

The adaptation of Sumerian script for a Semitic language was 
not without its problems. Sumerian script immediately before the 
time of Sargon of Akkad used over ?00 different signs, many of which 
bad more than one ideographic or syllabic value. The system had been 
developed for the Sumerian language in which the verbal or nominal 
root is an indivisible unit, to which are prefixed or suffixed the 
various grammatical elements when the noun or verb is used in a sentence. 



93 

Akkadian nouns could be expressed by this system. For example, the 
Sumerian sign for 'king 1 (in fact a combination of two signs LU + GAL 
'man' and 'big', always written GAL + lO in wrong order, a survival 
from the period when order of signs was not observed) was used for the 
Akkadian word for 'king', sarrum . The reader had to know the word. 
Its phonetic form was not spelt out in the script. Further, ho had 
to know the correct ending, since in all but the latest stages of 
Akkadian there were three cases for nouns and adjectives, like Arabic: 
the nominative, subject or complement, ending in -urn; the accusative 
ending in -am; and the genitive ('of and after prepositions) in -im. 
The reader had to supply the correct case from his grasp of the 
sentence. Plurals were usually expressed by using a Sumerian plural 
element, the commonest being MES*, literally 'they are'. Thus LUGAL.MES 
meant in Akkadian ' Icings ■ , and the reader had to know the correct plural 
form and render either sarru or sarranu for the nominative or sarri or 
sarrSni for the accusative or genitive. The possessive endings common 
to all Semitic languages could be added with signs for syllables 
exactly as in Sumerian, only the reader had to know the correct form 
of the noun on which to attach them. Thus LUGAL-ka was 'your king', 
to b-v read sarraka or sarka if in the nominative or accusative, but 
sarrika if in the genitive. 



Semitic verbs lend themselves to this kind of writing much less 
easily than nouns. The root is normally three consonants and the 
various formative elements are infixed as much as prefixed or suffixed. 
However, Akkadian does in same cases write the Sumerian sign for the 
verb with the appropriate meaning and leave readers to supply the 
correct form from the sentence. Help is sometimes given by adding 
a syllable at the end to indicate how the Semitic- form ended, and this 
is called a phonetic complement. E.g. the verb prs 'determine' would 
be written with the Sumerian sign BAR, and if the form were iptaras , 
then the scribe could help the reader by writing BAR -as, while if the 
form were i nru s , then he would write BAR-us. More commonly verbs are 
written entirely in syllable-signs, e.g. : ip-ta-ra-as . Although all 
periods and genres of texts have their conventions as to how words should 
be expressed through the signs, there is often a fair measure of free- 
dom for each scribe to chose between alternative ways. In a period 
when on clay a scribe would generally write e.g. ip-ru-us , on a small 
stone object with little space a scribe might well write BAR if he felt 
that the reader could reasonably be expected to work out that iprus was 
meant. In many periods there were many ways of writing nouns, and it 
was fully permissible to write these syllabically. Thus 'king' could 
be sal" -rum, sa-ar-rum , sa-ar-ru-um , sa-ar-ru-um , sa-ru-um , etc. Doubled 
consonants did not have to be expressed in the script (note sa-ru-um 
for sarrum), but the repetition of a vowel as in sa-ar - does not make it 
either long or short. Vowel length can be indicated, e.g. in ra-bu-u 
the U is long, but ra-bu-um is to be rendered rabum , and such writings 
as ra-bu-u-um do occur. There ore often several signs with the same 
value, and these are differentiated in transliteration as: _u, ju, u, u^, 
ur, etc. 

It will be understood that cuneiform script is a very inadequate 
guide to the precise grammatical form of Akkadian, for which reason 
grammar is learnt in transcription. Learning the script and writing 
system takes a long time, and to some extent the task is never finished. 



9'i 



One can never say that one knows every sign and sign form. They 
varied from period to period, from medium to medium, e.g. on stone 
some scribes archaise, and within one period scribes may have 
individual hands. Also particular genres of texts may employ very 
different writing systems though using common sign forms- Late copies 
of omens use almost exclusively ideograms, many of which are almost 
unknown outside this genre. Thus one may be able to read, say, royal 
inscriptions with ease, but be utterly unable to read a single line of 
late omens- Technical subjects, like chemistry, mathematics and 
astronomy also have distinctive writing techniques which match their 
specialised subject matter. 

Even the signs for syllables are only approximate guides to 
pronunciation in many cases. Thus one sign has the three values ag , 
ak and agj another the values _ig_, ik and iq ; and a third ug_, uk and ug . 
Though Akkadian writes four vowels, _a, £, _i, ja, in all periods the 
script very poorly differentiates i_ from e_. But at least vowels are 
indicated, even if _o is merged with u in the script and i_ and £ are 
often not distinguished. Other scripts for Semitic languages are no 
less ambiguous in certain matters. The original alphabet script is 
considered a .syllabary by some. It is assumed that each 'consonantal 1 
sign really stood for that consonant plus any vowsl either before or 
behind. Whether or not this is accepted, one has to add many vowels 
to most Semitic languages, except where systems of pointing or other 
means supply the need. The earliest of these, however, the use of W 
for o and u, etc., is as ambiguous as the cuneiform signs with i_ and e_. 
Also~~thc consonant signs in the alphabets were at times ambiguous. 
Biblical Hebrew had one sign for *ayin and gayin, though the two sounds 
were distinguished in speech. The Arabic alphabet has many more pairs, 
or groups of three consonants sharing the same symbol, but differentiated 
by extra marks. Students of Kufic are fully aware of the problems! 

One result of the cumbersome writing systems used for Akkadian 
is that only professional scribes could read and write. Ordinary 
people, and even most rulers, were illiterate. Thus the problem of 
the relationship of the written language to the spoken language is more 
acute here than in some other ancient languages. The inadequacies of 
the script are one thing, but in addition scribes, as products of a 
rigorous traditional schooling, tended to archaise. However, study 
of all surviving material does allow one to gain an idea of the relation- 
ship of the written to the spoken word. Poor quality scribes writing 
the humbler contracts will often make 'mistakes' that in reality reflect 
the spoken tongue. The following survey attempts to describe the 
variety of dialects of Akkadian over the millennia, from the middle of 
the third millennium B.C. to the end of the first century A.D., both in 
Mesopotamia and in adjacent lands as appropriate. 

Old Akkadian, the language of the second half of the third 
millennium is inadequately known from many personal names, some royal 
inscriptions and a very few magic texts of great interest but difficulty, 
in Southern Mesopotamia it was used against a strong Sumerian background, 
but its use is also known from documents found in El am, Nuzi and Mori, 
where, in the two latter places, it was no doubt the spoken language. 
More publication of Ebla tablets must be awaited before one can speak 
confidently of the relationship of Old Akkadian to the Semitic language 
of Ebla. There may well have been dialectal differences between tiie 



95 

various local forms of Old Akkadian, but more evidence is needed. The 
end of the third millennium marked a big break. First, it is the time 
that Sumerian died out as a spoken language, though it remained the 
language of the schools for a great deal longer, and literary texts 
were composed in it up to about 1000 B.C., after which traditional texts 
continued to be copied, but almost nothing new was composed. Secondly, 
Old Akkadian underwent a substantial change in southern and central 
Mesopotamia over the first two centuries of the second millennium. 
The dialect that resulted is called Babylonian, though at first it is 
a misnomer, since Babylon was totally unimportant until the reign of 
Hammurabi, c. 1793-1750 B.C. The time of thi^ change was the period 
of the Amorite invasions. This previously nomadic group descended on 
Sumer, broke up the existing Third Dynasty of Ur, and settled down as 
ruling families in the Sumerian and Akkadian cities. Their language 
was Amorite, known from personal names only, of which Hammurabi is one. 
The first element, written hammu, is the cuneiform rendering of the 
Hebrew 'am 'people', the second element is of uncertain derivation. So 
far as one can judge, Amorite could be described as a kind of primitive 
Hebrew. However, the striking thing is that the changes from Old 
Akkadian to Babylonian are not attributable to Amorite influence. For 
example, the prefixed forms of the verb corresponding to the Arabic 
yaqtulu (3rd sing, masc.) and taqtulu (ibid, fern.) were iprus-taprus 
in Old Akkadian, but in Babylonian the separate feminine form disappears 
and the masculine serves for both. Amorite, like most Semitic languages, 
retains the separate feminine. 



From roughly 2000 B.C. and onwards Akkadian is known from two 
main dialects: Babylonian and Assyrian, a dichotomy which lasted until 
the fall of Nineveh in 6l2 B.C., which witnessed the death of the 
Assyrian dialect, so that Babylonian alone remained. Assyria was a 
small piece of territory on the upper Tigris with capital at Assur, 
though Nineveh, another ancient city, is also to be counted Assyrian. 
What held the Assyrians together throughout their history was in part 
their language, which continued, with normal linguistic development, 
while all around them cultures with other languages come and went. 
Assyrian did not undergo the changes that resulted in Babylonian in 
the south, so it remained much closer to Old Akkadian. For example, 
it preserved the 3rd person feminine verbal form tgprus . Both Assyrian 
and Babylonian are known from three main more or less well documented 
periods, each called Old, Middle and New or Late. One condition which 
affected their relative histories is that Babylonian was spoken in the 
cities which had been Sumerian centres of culture and learning, a 
tradition which continued in Babylonian times, while Assyria was in 
cultural terms provincial, and though in some periods it produced art 
which excelled that of the south, in literate culture Assyria was always 

inferior. 

• 
Old Babylonian is very well documented from c. l8OO-l600 B.C. 
In view of the political, social and linguistic changes associated with 
the fall of the last Sumerian dynasty, the period was innovative in 
many ways, and Akkadian literature began to develop as it had not done 
before. No doubt it arose orally first, and only then, because of the 
conservatism of the scribal school with their Sumerian heritage, did it 
get written down. This literature is classical as being fresh and 
vigorous, and in the judgment of many it is the finest that Mesopotamia 
every produced. The Gilgamesh Epic was complete by c. 1600 B.C. though 



96 

it is only partially preserved in Old Babylonian copies. At many 
points one has to fill in with later, inferior versions. This is one 
advantage of cuneiform literature. There was a scribal tradition, 
but, unlike the cases of the Pentateuch and Homer, it can be tapped 
at various stages in its development. Not only the final form survives. 
Other documents in Old Babylonian survive: letters, contracts, court 
case records, etc., including the famous laws of Hammurabi. It is now 
known that many of his laws are verbatim translations of earlier, Sumerian 
lavs. Also the royal inscriptions of Hammurabi and his successors 
were put out in both Sumerian and Babylonian versions, which regularly 
agree word for word. Outside Southern Mesopotamia Old Babylonian, 
with slight dialectal variants, was the language of central Mesopotamia 
(the Mari letters attest this), and as the language of literate culture 
i was used among the Syrians, the Hittites in Anatolia, and in El am. 
One suspects that the language of the Mesopotamian letters is very close 
to actual speech. 

Old Assyrian is known, save for a few royal inscriptions, over a 
shorter period, c. l900-l800 B.C., and chiefly from the trading colonies 
in Cappadocia, the ancient Kancsh especially. Its vast archives in 
the Old Assyrian language are clearly, allowing for the technical, 
commercial content, a form of the spoken language of contemporary Assyria. 
The scribes probably knew no Sumerian. There is a very small quantity 
of short religio-magic pieces of high literary quality in the same dialect, 
but so far as we know this tradition was never developed much. Political 
changes in Anatolia brought about the complete cessation of this trade, and 
with it the end of our knowledge of Old Assyrian. 

The Hittites ended the Old Babylonian period by marching to Babylon 
c. 16OO B.C. and sacking it. Then the Cassites, invaders from the 
Zagros mountains ultimately, took over and for two or three centuries 
there is total obscurity. When there is light again, c. 1350 B.C., we 
are in the Middle Babylonian period, and the middle of the Cassite dynasty. 
The Cassite language was not Semitic and only personal names and a few 
loan words are known, save for a short Cassito-Baby Ionian vocabulary, 
which seems in fact to be based mainly on personal names. The possible 
Indo-European connections of Cassite arc still matters for study. Apart 
from the loan-words, which are not always proved to be of Cassite etymology, 
though the Cassites reasonably certainly introduced them, it is doubtful 
whether there is any Cassite influence on the Middle Babylonian dialect. 
The development from Old to Middle was purely internal. For example, 
mimation, the -m on the case endings, was normal in Old Akkadian and Old 
Babylonian, but while the endings remain in correct use, the mimation 
drops in Middle Babylonian. By chance little literature has survived 
in copies of the Middle Babylonian period from southern Mesopotamia, 
though there is every reason to believe that it was a productive period, 
if lacking the freshness of Old Babylonian creativity and at times more 
compilatory than original- The literature of the Old Babylonian period 
was sifted and edited and new texts were composed. The addiction to 
Babylonian language and writing had subsided in Elam, but in Assyria, 
North West Mesopotamia, Syria, Anatolia, Palestine and even Egypt the 
Babylonian language and its cuneiform script were admired things, the 
moans of international communication and at the same time literature spread 
from Babylonia to the outlying areas. The Amarna period is famous for 
this internationalism, and it was probably at this time that the Babylonian 
traditions, including the flood story, spread from Mesopotamia to Syria 
and Palestine. More Middle Babylonian literary texts have in fact been 






97 

recovered from such sites as Boghaz-Koy nnd Has Shamra than from 
Babylonian cities. Their language can hardly be used as evidence of 
spoken Middle Babylonian because of the literary tradition which had 
built up, and which gave rise at about this time to a purely literary 
idiom, commonly called Standard Babylonian. For spoken Middle 
Babylonian there ore letters, especially from the ancient town Nippur - 
Inscribed Boundary Stones, which are a new type of document of the 
Middle Babylonian period, are written in a language which soon became 
highly stylised and artificial. 

1 - i • 

Middle Assyrian is known from Assyrian documents c. 1300-1075 B.C. 
They consist of royal inscriptions, compilations of laws, a compilation 
of palace regulations, and letters and administrative documents. How- 
ever, in all cases there is risk of some Babylonian influence, most in 
the royal inscriptions, least in the letters. It is known that one 
Middle Assyrian king employed a Babylonian scribe and no doubt there 
were other cases of which we are uninformed. As with Middle Babylonian, 
Middle Assyrian is a development from Old Assyrian, and there too mimation 
dropped, but the case endings continued to be used correctly. Most 
literary texts recovered in Middle Assyrian copies are of Babylonian 
origin. There was ^omo genuine Literary creativity in Assyria, seen, 
for example, in the Tuktulti-Ninurta Epic, a literary account of the 
conflict between this king (c. 1244-1207 B.C.) and his Babylonian con- 
temporary, Kashtiliash, but this is essentially Babylonian, and the 
As syrian isms that occur may well be the work of copyists. 

Both Assyria and Babylonia suffered severe setbacks c. 1000 B.C. 
Arameans flooded into the country from the Syrian desert and ravaged 
both Assyria and Babylonia. Assyria recovered first because the Arameans 
did not stay there. They moved down through Southern Mesopotamia and 
settled in tribal groups near the Persian Gulf. This left a divided 
country since the old city-dwelling Babylonians remained. Gradually 
the two communities merged or learnt to get on with each other so that 
under Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar (c. 600 B.C.) Babylon became 
a world power once more. Linguistically the result of the merger was 
that Babylonian died out as a spoken language and was replaced by Aramaic, 
which was presumably influenced by Babylonian, as is clear at" least in 
the case of loan-words. The timing of this process is not certainly known, 
but one suspects that Aramaic was normal on the streets already in 
Nebuchadnezzar's time, Assyria, as already stated, was not subject to 
such Aramaic pressure. In a sense things continued as before. The 
literature read and copied in the libraries, of which those of King 
Ashurbanipal are the most famous, was almost entirely of Babylonian origin 
and in Standard Babylonian. But whereas Middle Assyrian copies of 
Babylonian texts are often defective if elegantly written, Late Assyrian 
scribes were fully the equals of their Babylonian brethren in breadth of 
learning and accuracy of work. Thus it is no surprise to find that 
Late Assyrian royal inscriptions are written in Standard Babylonian, 
though the occasional Assyrianism occurs, especially in those of the 
ninth century B.C., but those of the last four great Assyrian kings, 
Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, were partly composed 
by scholars of great literary attainment, who introduced a wide range of 
poetic phraseology into royal annals, even to the extent of incorporating 
whole sections from poetic texts. The Late Assyrian dialect was used 
in letters, of which many remain, but even here Babylonisms occur. 



98 

However, these letters are enough for a study of the language, which 
remains to be undertaken. Clearly big changes were taking place. The 
only major text in Late Assyrian dialect is the Vassal Treaty of 
Esarhaddon, and this reveals a totally unexpected wealth of unparalleled 
imagery in the curses. Perhaps the Assyrian dialect tradition had been 
more fertile in literature than the surviving texts allow us to know. 



The literary products of the Late Babylonian empire are chiefly 
the royal inscriptions. They are meant to bo in Standard Babylonian 
but the perceptive reader is made conscious that even this was changing, 
presumably under the impact of spoken Aramaic. Letters, from the end 
of the Late Assyrian empire and from the period of the Late Babylonian 
empire, arc clearly in a vernacular which some consider a distinct lang- 
uage from previous Babylonian. It has been described as Aramaic syntax 
and mainly Babylonian vocabulary. During the following Persian, 
Seleucid and Parthian eras the cuneiform tradition was kept alive, first 
in a few of the old centres, but gradually they died out until Babylon 
alone was left. Standard Babylonian was the language of this academic 
community and it was essentially a rearguard action to which they were 
committed; to keep alive their cultural heritage. It is remarkable 
that it lasted until the second century A.D. 

Akkadian grammar is relatively simple, and it is easily mastered 
by any one who already knows another Semitic language. It is customary 
to begin with Old Babylonian, because it is well known and is regular. 
It also opens up Middle Babylonian and the literary wealth of Standard 
Babylonian. Its phoneme stock is _,most similar to that of Biblical 
Hebrew, though, presumably under Sumerian influence, some of the distinctive 
Semitic sounds, such as 'ay in, were lost, as indeed happened in Middle 
Hebrew. In vocabulary also Akkadian is closer to Hebrew than to any 
other Semitic language. In grammar there are some distinctive features, 
especially in the verb. The Akkadian form corresponding to the Arabic 
yantulu , namely iprus , is the preterite, corresponding in moaning to the 
Arabic qatala . This preterite can also be found in Ugaritic, early 
Hebrew poetry and in the co-called waw-consecutive in Biblical Hebrew. 
The Akkadian form corresponding to the Arabic qatala , namely par is , is 
called the stative. It is in principle timeless, and is used partic- 
ularly to indicate states, though it does occur in active, transitive 
use. The Akkadian form corresponding to the meanings of the Arabic 
yagtulu is iparras , stressed on the second syllable with corresponding 
doubling of the following consonant. A parallel form is perhaps found 
in Ugaritic, but not generally in the Semitic languages. A fourth tense 
peculiar to Akkadian is the perfect: iptaras , formed with an infixed -t- 
after the first consonant of the root. In Old Babylonian it had two 
functions: by itself it indicated an event in the recent past, but it 
was also used In a string of verbs joined by suffixed -ma to indicate a 
sequence of events. All but the last one were preterite plus -ma, the 
last one, without - ma , was perfect. Later the perfect became virtually 
an alternative for the preterite. As to verbal stems, Akkadian has a 
neat scheme of four: the simple form, corresponding to the Hebrew .gal (I), 
the form with double middle consonant (Hebrew pi ' el ; II ), the causative 
with prefixed s_ (III) and the passive or reflexive with prefixed n_ ClV). 
Each of these three stems exists in three variants, the simple unmarked 
form (l/l, Il/l, etc.), the form with infixed -t- (l/2, Il/2, etc.), and 



99 



the form with infixed -tan- (l/3» etc.). The -t- infix, which produces 
some forms identical with the perfect tense, usually gives a reflexive or 
passive meaning, but there are special usages. The 1/2 of alakum 'go 1 
means *go away*. The infixed -tan- indicates a repetition of the action 
of the verb. Not every verb can take every form. The IV stem, being 
already passive or reflexive, will not normally have a IV/2. Passives, 
of which Arabic has a complete range and Hebrew traces for the qa.1 , but 
a fully developed pu' al and hoph ' al , do not exist in Akkadian. There 
are verbal classes differentiated by vowels like the Arabic qatala- 5 alima - 
hasuna in Akkadian: 



iprus 


iparras iptaras 


•determine* 


imhas 


imahhas imtahas 


'strike 1 


ipqid 


ipaqqid iptaqid 


'inspect' 


iblut 


iballut ibtalut 


'live 1 , 'be 



•be healthy* 

While some examples fit the classes of meaning firmly established in 
Arabic, others, as will be noted from the examples given, do not. 

There are two 'moods' in Akkadian, apart from the normal form, which 
is unmarked: the subjunctive, marked by -u, and the ventive, market] by 
-am or -nim. The former is used in most subordinate clauses except 
conditional classes. The latter can be used on verbs of, or verbs 
implying, motion, but its use is not obligatory. Verbal suffixes occur 
as in the other Semitic languages, but with wider usage. They may have 
not only the function of a direct object, but also of a dative, and two, 
one dative and one accusative, may occur on a single verb. Babylonian 
has separate forms for accusative and dative, but Assyrian does not. 

Because of its cultural prestige Akkadian was one of the major 
languages of the ancient Near East and it is vital for study of that 
area not only for the vast and highly diverse quantity of documents 
written in it, but also because it is necessary as a preliminary to 
serious study of many other ancient Near Eastern languages with which it 
shared its writing system: Sumerian, Elamite, Hurrian, Hittite, Urartian 
and Old Persian. 



Bibliography 

Grammar: A Ungnad, Grammatik des Akkadischen , 5th edition by L. Matous, 
Munch en, Beck, 19 69 

Reading Book: R. Borger, Babylonisch-a ss yrische Lesestttcke , Rome, 

Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 19^3 (new edition 
in preparation) 

Dictionary: I.J. Golb et al., The A ss yria n Dictionary of the^Ori ental 
I ns t i t ut c of the Universit y of Chica go , Chi cage , 

Oriental Institute, 19 56 ff. 



Sign Lists: R. Labat, Manuel d'Epi graphic Akk adicnne , 5th edition by 
F. Malbran-LabatT - Paris, Gouthner, 19 ?6 

R. Borger, Assyrisch -babylo nischo Zcichenliste , Neukirchen- 
Vluyn, Butzon und Bercker, 1978 



=r to P > P 

p sr 3* g 

e+ 3 IB (B 1 

O p. 




3- re w p 
re H re 01 
1 



3- o 

O 3 

4 P- 
P- 3 

5 CD 
O 

3 § 



d- a 
a o 

P 



cr o P 
p to P, 

O *' J* 

P" P 

a: re oi 
3-0 



P 
to 
rt ^ 

4* p 
?r n 
- re 



o ^ o 

* re 

P* H> d" 

3 c cr 

!Q [Q (6 

Q 
P> 

p 

1 

d- 

3* P 



a p- 
•3 ct 
4 

re p- 
p en 
a 

rt 
O 3 
M) P- 

tfl 
d- 

=r =r 
re o 

4 
> H« 
4 N 
p o 
3" 3 
H* 

P< P- 

P o 



- 



I i 

3 i 

o 

P> P 



4 o 

3 4 

O ^ 

to • 



d- ^ 3* 

C m re 

o P 1 rt 

Hj H O 

P- O 

d- o t/i re 

re p s 

a d- - 



d- -3 
3- 4 

re h»« 

3 
p- 13 

< 

re d- 
o 

■3 3 
3 H- 

re 3 

3 3. 

t+ - 

re o a 

X Hj Q 

re p v 



re 3- 

re 
o 

P- H 

< P 

H- (+ 

h re 

P- 4 



3 O 3 p 

(3 3 P ct 

re n ai H* 
ire o 
to 3 






■ 




3- 



- 




P O rt- ct O 

3 H> 3 d 3- re 

p- h- re 3 

3 a w c+ 

P P >Ji £ 

F* h* $ ft H 

in H O 3 H' 

■ ^ C re 9 



09 K« a 

re 3 O 

d" * 

£ k re 

re <+ < 

re ^ re 

3 P* M 

re ■* 
efr 

3" 3 d- 

re 3 3- 

a re 

►3 

•i q 

re *i 

I 3 



1 

3 

3 

P 

3 

H rt- 

p H- 



3 M rt- 

re ^ h- 4 

o 3 s 

p- a co - 

P P 

M ■-< d- tf 

H Co 3" 3 

^ red- 



wee 
p* p p 



o < 

3 re 
3 

re 3 

re p 

d- & 
re 

3. 3 



•3 
3 

re a 



§ H 

<D &* 

c re 
p 

re re 

a 



P 3 

4 
P- P 

d- cr 
co to 



P H 

SS 

o to 

3 C 

jb tn p 
£ J§ (Q 

p. ^ p- re 

d- 3 

3 d to d- 

•a h- 3- 

4 re p- re 

P o re <•< 

h. p. &> 

3 P 0] C 

- h- - tfl 

p- re 

o tn re 

p j re o ^ 

o a 3 g 

3 e+C 

C ri- (5 H 

in re 3 & 



~ 



p 

3 

o 



p H 

CD 3 

b re SB 

3 P- 

a & 3 

3 re 

d* R a 

3" P* 

3 *i 

3° § 

-3 p 

a b i 

re 4 x 

1 d- p 
3 H- u* 

a ■- 



4 O H 

3 P- 

O !P 3 

p j p a 

d- 3 p- 

3 d cn 

4 - d- 

P H- 



■.■- 

3 

re -3 



. - 4 
re ^3 re 
Hj i H> p 



prewd-coop' 
3 p cr p- H & (+ 
ari-npdiD^p- 



3 
a h 

H d- 

re 

tt 3 

c 

4 w 
H- p 
d- P- 
^ D. 

" $ 

3 

3 d 
< P 
H- < 

re re 

- "° 

^ i 

3 re 

p- n 

o re 

3 4 
< 

n re 

O 3 
3 

M f+ 

3- 5f 

re 
o 
« d- 

re 4 



s: h3 

re 3- 

H Efi 

n ^ 
o 

3 3" 

H- p 



_: 



d- 

3 3- 

re re 
w 

ft 3 



O P^ 

H) \D 

d- 

^ 3" 



P 

d- K re 

a* ft 4 

3 3" H 

- re ^ 



W 1 



I- 
o 

C* d- 



n 3 
P d- 



t ji -d 

p re 

"a h oi 

•3 3- o 

p- re 4 

p- < 

re 3 re 

a | a 

rt re 3 

o p 

- 3 
B >^ 
P» 1 

H B Q 

cr C 

t - a 

3 d- 

o o o 

Pj 3 



■B O 

re o 

&^ 

01 

> re 

P 3 

o* re 



DC > 

a p* 

a ct 

O 3" 

3 a 

g" C 

3 CQ 

d- 

4 d- 

P- 3- 

tr re 

re i 

co re 

re 

s § 



d- rt 

4 3" 

p re 

re t) 



rt ri- O 
O O Pj 



d re 

3 X 

re re 

p- re 

1 to 



co 

09 - 

3 

< re 
p- 4 

< re 

P 

H *3 
* 4 



•a 

O ft 

re 1 
d- p- 

H P 
H 

P 

p- 
to c 

re 

3 

CD p 

* i 

3" 
P- H 

n o 
P 

"3 M 

1 (+ 

2. ^ 



rt H P 

^ P" 

1 P- 
p- d re 

o 3" P" 

a re o 

m a 

rt - 



3 O 

re 1 

0) 4 

n re 

p pj 

pj pj 

re 



3> O 

re 3 

ip re 

n - 
re 

3 d- 

pu p" 

3 re 
3 

c+ 3: 

m re 

3 

O 4 

i-^ re 

pi to 



3 

I 

P 
H d- 



-I d- 

re 3- 
3 re 



re a* 
to 
o 

d- re 



re 

H> < 

o re 

4 H 
o 

ft "3 
3* 3 

re re 



a to p 

o o 

3: 3 3 
Q M 

3 d P 

1 tn 

re K 

s: o 

t» H H 

- W d 

3" re 

O 3 3 
3- P 

p re re 

R P" o 

P •* 3 



1 
rt- p 

d 
% re 
p i 

3 



S3 



d- P 



H S H- rt 



cr n 

3 P 

rt <1 

re >-t 

a H' 



3 

3 
P 3 
3. CD 



3 ai 3" re 



p o EG P 1 
p> to re 3 
to cr io 
o o 4 p- 
< 
re 



- d- > 



3 * 

to p 

cr ^ 

" t o 



^ re o 

P. p Hj 
ft Pi 



3- a 3 



> 

O 3 a 
OOP 

a < h- 



3 3" 

P> p ct p. 

< o a 

> re 

cr d- a 

i 3* 3* re 

P p* re as 



3- 3 

re re 

3 P 

6 3 

■^ a 



3- cr 



o X 

H) CD 

4 



cr 5 p- 



a o 

3*3 



rt H. | H- 

3-3 01 

re. d- > 
o cr re 
IP 

Hj (+ B CO 

P 3- § ^ 

rt re - 

3 ft 

ro a p o 



1 ra 
co 



a -3 



h re o 

d- p< ct 

a H 



o 

Hi 

p 

3 III 1 .. 
S 

H- O 

3 ct 3 3 

P 3- re 
ft p c 

P- ft 4 CD 

2 " ^ 

3 O 
CO C 



P- to 3 O 

3 ft 3 

B re 

tJ 3 to 

n a 3* h- 

p p Ifl 

p* p a 

m 3 re p- 

re a 3 

Pi 

o re o d- 

p» n n 3" 

3* re 

P p- 3 

ct P, H P. 

re H a a 

4 o oi a 
• 3 - H 

o 

M 

3 P- O 

re p, p,. 

- re 



& s 



cr o re 
o 3 3 

3 Co 

P 
£0 p 

a 

P P* 3" 

3 P, 3 
"<! Pi CD 

rt re re 
3 1 

p- re cr 

3 3 3 

ft 1 

3 

Ct Pj P- 

3- re 3 
P rea 

rr" ? 

& £ ' 

01 3 M 

a 

re o 

< o p> 

re 3 

4 re co 

P 

cr o 3 

§§- & 
< § 5. 

t a ct 

p* re 3* 
rt n 



d rt- 



102 



The Semitic family of languages, spread throughout the Near 
East, falls into three main regional divisions, Eastern, North-western 
and South-western* Arahic belongs to the South-western group-, which 
is sub-divided into the northern (the language we know today as Arabic) 
and a southern, comprising Ethiopic and South Arabian. 

Arabic originally consisted of numerous dialects, spoken by 
the tribes of the Arabian peninsula, but these were for the most part 
absorbed into the language used for the Qur r an and thus for the entire 
Muslim context. 

Within the Semitic language family the other main surviving 
language is Hebrew, which, together with Aramaic, belongs to the North- 
western branch. 

Characteristic of all the Semitic languages is the trilitoral 
root system whore a basic root can be expanded in different ways, and 
any word can (at least in theory) be traced back to a 'root 1 - There 
arc also roots of two, four or even five letters, as classified by the 
Arabic philologists. 

it is interesting that many of these roots share similar mean- 
ings in Hebrew and Arabic. Examples include: 



M L K 
K T B 



possess/rule 
write 



Some words have the same consonantal root and the same meanings; 

bi ' r well 

ma'- root M W H (mayim) water 
bayt (bayit) house 

and again: lis&n (lashon) tongue 

shams (shemesh) sun 



. c 



sami a (shama" ) 



hear 



This interchange between Arabic $_ and Hebrew s_h reminds one of the 
Shibboleth incident (Judges 12.6). 

In some cases a basic meaning may have diverged: L 13 M with 
probably an original indication 'food' is now in Hebrew lehem 'bread* , 
in Arabic lahm 'meat*. But compare a change in English, where 'mince- 
meat' and 'sweetmeats' do not refer to meat in the usual sense. 

The Arabic root system allows for the formation of new words 
from existing 'roots', so that ancient and modern appear side by side 
in a dictionary. 









103 

shubbak , a window, today often an expanse of sheet glass, is 

from the same root as shabaka , a net. It referred originally to the 

wooden trellis-like framework, still to be seen in old houses, allowing 
people to see out without being seen. 

saqiya is the feminine active participle of SQY to give water, 
and means an irrigation channel (cf. Spanish acequia - gs-sagiya ). 
Today , as the feminine form of sag! (often transcribed as Saki, the cup- 
bearer) it can mean a barmaid - after all, both bring liquid to the 
thirsty. 

sayyara , from SYR to run or travel, appears in the Qur'anic 
narrative of Joseph, indicating a band of travellers; today it is more 
familiar in the modern sense of motor-car, travelling at somewhat greater 
speed. 

ta'ira, aeroplane, is the active participle feminine of the root 
TYR from which comes fcayr, bird. 



Roots can give rise to different concepts: 



^.c 
shi r 



poetry , 



sha r - hair, with only a vowel (generally not written) to distinguish 
them. The word bayt can mean both 'house' and 'line of poetry' - a 
fact played upon by the Arabs: bayt shi c r and bayt sha c r . 



English transliteration can be misleading, where only a dot 
distinguishes two letters, as with d^ and d. This is increased by the 
fact that Arabs seem to enjoy contrasts oT meaning between roots where 
only one letter varies. 

■ wj . 

To take the example of _d and d: 

— 



and similarly with Ji and h: 



dalla 


- to 


guide 


dalla 


- to 


stray 


harb - 


flight 


harb - 


war 





■ 






■ 




I 



' 




< d- - rt x a 



H- cf 

_ ft Sf I* I* to 3 13" 

(5 ?M< ft 

p rt B ft B P 

to 3 3 S - 

H- CQ (D d- ■* CO *3 

U » 3 D" rt ft ft 

m a^J o *i cr 4 o 

h- - ft ft h. 3 

Hi JO to 



H- "3 H- 




p z 

3 H. 

& d- 



3 ft rt- 



g 

3 O 

a 3 



rt 

01 o 



ft 

o ci- *d 

B H- 

4 3 rt 

h- a 

to to b 

h* rt 

P ft > 

3 3 1 



3 a 
a as 

rt c 

a O to- 
ft rt* 

h- c a 

to rt to 

tn *3 

tt o* o 

ft p 3 
& 



4 rt 



3 to 



H, ft ft 

d- 3 

> ^ d- 



- D* Mj 

a 

O 3 J-t 

3 to in 

ft H- 

d- 1- p 

3" <; 3 

O ft H- 

to O 



s- 

(-" a 

rt ft 

d- " 

id to 

3 a 



3 ^h3 
3 hv d Hj 

c. o & _ 



d- Hj d- H« 
3" 1 rt 



S rt 



& ^< 



3 3 

a o 

*l 

H- » 



,0 a* 



H" to 

p H< 

rt 3 

h- n 

o o 



a 

ft H 

| 3* 

d- ft 
3* 

ft 



3 - 
b h- 

ft 0> rt 

a ^ p 
3 to rt 



O H 

4 O 

a 3 

ft in 

a - 



3" £ 

ft ft 

H 1 



&, H- & ft 



00 HJ 



d- H 

BX 



b 1 

■< ft 

n 

S 

3 ft 

a a . 

_ w ft *d 

- H- ft. ft 

3 3- ~ 

ft to t* 

H- B 

p d- ft Q H 

1 O 9 ff 

o- 3 2 

3 ft d- c 

O 3* 

■ d- 3* a 

< B ^ 3 

pft 3 

R 3 P 

H- 9 O pi 
P d- P 

3 ft 4 C* 

rt H rt ft 



P 

H 

a 3 

(5 
3 

o « 

o 4 

^ H- 

3 3 

rt 

3 3 

ft ft 
to 

K' to to 

O C p 

3 "d Q 

to ^ n 

o 

2 

H> (B Hj 

ft 

rt ^ M 

3" to 

1) O H 



ft a 

o 3 

3 ft 

ft O 
d 

£D ft 

O &. 



p H- 



■d ft 

3 1 5J 

a 

B H- 

n c 3 

c ^ a 
d- tn 

3* * S 

3 H- O 
g d" Hi 

- H- <+ 

3 3" 

ft 



H *3 
O 

=: 3 



T ffl d 3 H- 

& *i 3" ft a 

ft ft 3 O 






£ h -to 

P 3- 

ao c 
re m 

a* 

O Hj ft 

° 2 _. 

o 

1 d- c 

3" a 

ft a 3 

d- d- 
ft <! 
*1 ft O 

3 1 Hj 

p ^ 

H* O 

H to 

p - 

3 d- P 

a ft 3 
H 

p. p h- 

ipa 

3 M ft 

rt- to H 

P H »d 

3 g 1 

m B ft 



IT > 
>-( 
o p 
pf 3 
H- 
ft ft 

b - 
3 

3 d- 
O 3* 
d- ft 

tr m 

o g 

d- tq 
n d 

p p 

3 <Q 
to ft 
h- 

P O 
d- Hj 

ft 
a cj 

ft 

p 

3 JO 

a c 

d- - 
3 g 
P 3 



h to H* 

re ft 
-no 

H- h> 

rt H rt- 

3" h- ra 

p n 3 
d- p 

h« d- 

m M 3 

to *^ o 

(-. c 

g no 



C H- 
3 O 

a 3 

ft ■ 

R o 

w -t 

rt 

P ft 
3 X 

a ^ 

3 P 
O 3 

P 

O rt 

H> H. 

o 

M 3 
■ O t 

a 

d- H 

3 3* 
R H- 

ft to 

P to 

ft 
- 3 
d- to 

3" 
ft 



3 to 
a h 

ft H- 



g (j!cr 

3 P ft 

a cr 

H> H* 
HOP 
O 3 

WHO 
?*■ yj> £ 

d- P 
<l ft O 
P 1 ft 
H* P 

h. d- 
a d Hj 



O d- ^ ft M 

d- 3 • to 

3" P ft H 

ft I 



i n- 
ft ft 
to 1 1 a 
to d- o 
ft P to 
a h» -3 

P> y ' 3 H- 

(□ o g*1H rt 

ft M 3 >-=J ft 



a N 



P ^ 

rt- O 

H- 1 



3 rt 

to 3- 

3 

rt W 

<+ o 

ft H* 

a 

a B 

o 

n* o 

^ K 

2 O 

d h, 

3" 



3 H- 

P p 

a 3 

rt * 

O P 

to 

3" 

H- Hj 



. p 

■3 3 

Q a 



B 1 

ft ft 

to 

rt ft 



3 

X O 3 
rt ft 

rt 

O O 3" 

Hj H, 

rt to £l 

3 3 3 

ft R 

3* 



S 



ri 

3 ft 
3 
ft rt 
a a o P 
3 to H" rt 
-MO 



3" 3* 

ft d 



ft ft 3* to 



3 rt to 

-Pa 



P ft 

C ft 

Ks 

ft 1 



►d rt 
rt 3- 

3 ft 

ft »i 

ft 



H. 3 
3 O 
ft O 
H" ^ 

o 
> H 

n p 

p d 

3" ft 

h- a 3 



p 

3 H- 

p O 

rt rt 

H- 3* 
O 

3 O 

to ft 
3 

h> d- 

O 3 

rt - 



ft 



H» ft 3* 1 
1 < O ft 

H> *| H 

3 a ^ p 

ft O rt 

ft rt h- o 

H 3 3 

p h- a to 

rt 3 W 3 
ft H- 

a rt H,»a 

rt o o o 

1 b 3Hl 

3 P B ?* 
to to ft 

ft 



£L H 



3- 

3° O ft 

d rt 
a pr «, 
o ^< 
•i 



rt 
CA O 



I.8& § 



m 


H 


^ 


p 


— 


H- 


d- 


a cq 


3 


3 


P 


p ft 




ft 


rr 


a 


3 


3 1 


rr 


rt- rt 


H- 






a 


It 


3 3* 


•• 


o 




m 




P ft 




^j 


H> 


W p 


o 


r^- 1 


^ 


■-s 


3 


rt 3 


ft 




4 


H- 




3* (3 




< 


-■ 


IB 


s; 


h- d 


L0 


s n 


rt 


rt 


!T 


P 


H« 


H* 


H- 


pi 


Hj (ft 


a 


ft H- 


3 


P 





H' ft 


CD 


O 


CO 


3 


~ 


to 



rt 3 

'■A g p 

» 3 3 

■< na 

3" 

ft ft O 

X to Hj 

•3 ft 
►1 H- 



to ft 



O »3 3 
« H a 

rt C 

p H- 3* 

H n ct 

ft d ft 

h- a 

tn 

< 



a h 
h- 

rt □ 



H*1 ft 



1 


B 


P O -3 





rt 


H3 -3 




o 


a is 


3 


rt 3 


CQ 


^ 


nd 


ft 


> P 


rt 




H 


o 






ft 


3 H" ^ 


H| 


3 


3 B 




q 


ft 


ft 


O 


B O 


»1 


H- 


> -3 


o 


to to 


B 




B 


H 






rt 


O 


a a o 




ft 


ft H- 




£3 


rt 


o 


a 


ft rt 


ft 


rt 


B O 


3 


to 


ft 




ft 


P 






pr 


9 


ft CO. 


rt 




H- 




— 


ft 


-3 


■d 




P 


B 


a 3 


-ft 


rt 3 






H- 


to 






ft 


to 


HJ H, ^ 


B 


,o 


H> 




1 


n 


H 


rt 


O M 


<* 


I-- 




c 


B 3 


a 




ft 


to 






2 


to 


3" ft 


ft 


1 


P to 




H> 


ft 


- 


> P 


ft 


3 


P rt 


ft 


ft H- 


~- 






!-■ 






p 




h- to to 





H- O 




N 





to 




B to 


1 




H- B 


ft 


3 


p 




H 


ft 






rt 


ct 


H O IB 


>-• 




rt hj 




H- 


►1 




* 


B rt 




rt 


1 ft 


1 


P Q 


r- 




B 


P 






-■ 


ft 


O 1 H- 


ft 


1 


B B 


H 


B 


p 


3- 


B 


P 


-3 


~ 


^ 


a 


3 


-, 


« 


3 


i— 


M 


> 


ft 




a h- < 


'ft 


3 


*< 


4 


3 


rt 


^ 


H- 


to M 


ft 


ft 


P rt 




3 P 


ft 


B 


■^ 




rt 


ft 


to 


rt 


"3 ft 


H- 




o 


g 


to 


H- 


a 


H 1 


H- 


*; 




1- ft 


■3 


y* 


<+ 


ft 


3 


B 




P 




3 *3 rt H 







Hj to 


-^ 


= 




ft 


a 3 


ft 


Hj 


H- p 


ft 


ft a 


to 




P 


ft 


H- 


B 




ft 


B 3 ^ 


p 


£ 


fl 


to 




? 


rt 




3! 


4 


O 


77 ft 


o 


to 




rt 


■Q 


ft 


to 


:-■ 


3 




H- R 


M 


H* 


H "t 


M 


=C 




a 


ty; 


ft -■ 




4 


B hj 


3 


3 


*1 


ft 


K< 




ft 


P 


gj 


O P 3 




rt 


to p 


P 









•3 


p 


rt 


2 


^-^ p. 


M 


w h- 


ft 


H- 




rt 


rt 




rt- 


d 


a h< o 





& 


H« 3 


rt 


fi 


P 


H< 


5 


H 





ft 


6 CQ 


ft 


*3 3 


ft 


ft' 


H. 


P 


B 


B 


s 


!"! 


M 1 


h 




1 a 


H- 


?r 


3 


ft 


H- 


H- *3 




3 


SB 


1 P 


■Q 


ft 


to 


[Q 


P 


to 


g 


rt ft 




H- 


o 


ft 


a 


3 


3 


•d 


rt 




to 




3 3 


ft 


to 




ft 


3. 




p 


n 


3 ^ 


-3 


rt 


Hj 


3 


a 






B % 


B 


TJ 


o> 


s: 


P rt 


a 




P 




B 


H 




ft p P 


3* 


to 


H- 1 






rt 


3 


^r 


to ft 


ft 


■; 


00 


ft 


a 


— 


* 


3 


< 


to 









rt a ft 


H- 




3 O 


s 


rt 


^r 




P 


4 




R 


VJ1 H, 


-; 


•a 




ft 




B 




a 


to 


H 


3- h. d 


H- 





3 


ft 


S 


B 


a 


H< Hj tft 


to 


1 


~ 


3 O 


* 


ft 


H« 


to 


rt 


ft 


ft 




O rt rt 


ft 


Hj 


H> 


a 






3 




3 C 





H- 


-J rt 




o to 


H< 


ft 


ft 







a 


H« 


rt 


a h- ft 


to 


rt 


rt 3 




o 


— 


a 


H- 


H> 


< 


a 


O 3 


— 


1-j h- 


rt 




to 


•d 




H- 


ft 


ft- 


to o H 





ft 


to 


rt 


o 


to 




rt 


tt 


ft 


3 


Vi 


H- 


rt rt 


3" 


3 


ft 


ft 


rt 


1 


- 


ft 


3 ^ 


-3 


3 


rt 


H 


a 


ft 


d 


n 


p a 


1 




^w' 


to 


B H" 




3 


3 


ft 


B 


ft 




o to 






to h- 


P 


H> 


B 


to 




co v; 




P 


£ 


H- 


- O 


rt 


H- 


P 


to 


ft 




ft 


-i 


H, . p 


K- 


HJ 


rt ^ 


3 


Hj 





Q 





B 3 


3 


3 


rt 3 


^j 


3 


3 


d 


R 


ft 




ft 




> 


< 


ft 


O 


P ft 

R to 


to 


i <; 


O 




i 


a p 


ft 


a 


B ft= 


= 


^ 


ft 


ft 


p 


ft 


fe- 


Hi 


B 


3 


S B 


P 


ft 


2 




H- 


IT 


p to 


3 




P - 


H- 


ft & 




Cl 


B 


< 


R 




O 


M 


rt 


?r 


P< 


p 


to 




a rt 


r>-- 


to 


d- » 


to 


to to 


31 




H 


ft 


p 


^ 


a 


H- 


Q >TJ 0} 




K- 


p 


tn 


3 


-. 


P 


o 


- H* 


- 


■^ 


3 


■; 


rt 


-• 


3 


ft 


a 


B 


ft 




ft 


d p 


to 


ft 


to rt 


to 


a 




tf 


B 


ft 




N 


> ' 


a 


c± 


O, 


3 




-» 


H- 


- 


3 


3 


3 n. h- 


rt- 




H- 


H- 




H- 


H- 


H 


1 w 


P 


-' 


1 


— 


to B 


P 


a 


w 




ft 


3 


ft 


rt 


ft ft 3 


4 


P 


3 


O 


« 


3 


ft 


H- 


d - 


H 


3 


P 


■• 


3 ft 


N 


ft 


p 


a 




to 


a 


a 


3 a 


3 


3 


3 3 


3 


ft 




■^ 


3 


M 


rt 


rt 


B 




a 


H' 


*l 


ft 


ft 


H 


= 


H' 




rt rt 


ft 


a 


H ft 




ft 


B 




B 


ft 


B 


h- 


H' 3J 


^ 


3 






rt 


< 


P 


H- 


ft 


• 


- 3* 3" 


rt 




H' ft 





to 


P 


rt 




a ^ 


O 


3 


3 


H- 


ft 


rt 


•.*■ 




ft 


3 


to 


H- 




■^ ft 


3 


o 


ft 


Hj 


ft 


to 


B 




H- 


3 


ft 


rt 


rt- 


p a 


S 


ft 


ft 


H 


[Q 


to 


3 




rt P- 


1 


cr 


H- Hj 




-i 


3 


ft 




H- 3 


32 




B 


B 


to 3 


3 


ft- 


H> 


C 


d 


H- 


ft 




3* 1 


ft 


to 


rt H 


rt 


< 


B 


4 




3 cq 


B 


rt 


ft H- 




rt 


ft 


ft 




3 


p 





■ 


> 


ft « 




ft 


<< P 


B 


ft 




ft 


> 









o rt 


P 


P 






rt 


ft 


03 


3 




M ^ 




3 


ft 







a 




to 


J-3 


ft 


ft 


p 


H 


P 3 


O 


= 


B 


a 


ft 






O 


3 




R 


B rt 




H- 


3 


:-. 




h. 3 


O 


1 


3 C 


H 


hj a 


Hi 


P 


ft 










3 


n 3 n 




a 


P H- 


g> 


rt 


a 


a 


H 


P H 1 


3 


H- 


ft P 




rt 




a 




a 


- 






D 


ft ft o 


O 




a n 


4 


• 




to 


B 


3 ^ 


3 


Cr 


to 


ft 


ft rt 


> 


■* 


~ 


ft 


B 








P 3 C 


H V 


p 


ft 




M 




R 


to 


H 


ft 


rt 


ft 


1 B 


ft 




K- 


p, 


P 






P- 


h- d- 3 




!-l 


H 


ft 




3 


P 


13 


O 3 


ft 


ft 


3- o 


H 


ft 


P 


P 


to 




rr 






h- w rt 


rt 





3 - 


~ 




Hj 




ft 


p p. 


rt 


!-■ 


ft 3 


H- 


V 


ft" 


ft 


H 


3" 








rt 


w ft 


B 


3 


ft 






P 


a 


i 


ft 


ft 


H* 


cr 


d hj 


H- 


0. 





B 


P 






3 


ft rt- ^ 


H- 





3 


$ 






§ 






to 


P ^ 


h- 


B P 


ft 




4 


3 










a H to 


to 


3 


1 rt 









3 


3 3 


O 




a 





B rt 




rt 


a a 






ft 


p 




3 


ft H- 


a 




B eft 




P P 


ft 




3 a 


3 


3 rt 


1 


ft 







1 








rt P. ^ 


H, 


n 


Hj M 


77 




ft 


ft 


r: 


- H 


3 




H- 3 


to 


3 ft 









a 


ft 






H- 


3* 3 H- 


P 


ft 


ft H* 


to 




P 


R 


ft J 




rt 




3 1 




a3 


P 


P 


— 




U 






H 


p ft rt 


n 


1 


4 rt 






a 




ft 


S P 


4 


H} 


H' H« 


k-. 


to 









rt 









rt a B 


rt- 


ft 


P 


Q 




ft 


o 


ft 


O h-> 


P 


B 


to 3 


3 


— 




ft 


ft 


3 








&> 






3 


3 1 


H, 




a 


H 


to 


H H 


H 


:-■ 


rt C2 


to 


to o 


-■ 


ft 


3 




p 






o 


rt H- *3 


rt 


rt 


a H- 












rt- ft 


H- 


to 


l-l 


r*- 


M> 


^ 


ft 


ft 


rt 


ft 






3 


B 3 ft 


B 


to 


ft p 


to 




- 


rt 


ft 


Ba 


to 




P rt 


4 


a 




rt 







p 






1 


ft O 


ft 


— 


3 


ft 




«< 


B 


^ 


H- 


B 


~ 


rt B 


3 


ft 3 


rt 


P 


> 




r— 






^ a*d 






P 


I-- 






ft 




> P 


rt 


p 


H- ft 


ft 


P ft 


~ 


H- 


R 


rt 










H- I-" 


Sa 


3 P 


ft 




to 




3 


K 3 


H* 


< 


< 


rr 


rt ^s 


ft 


3 


p 


~ 


ft 






< 


3 P O 


c 


P 


a 3 


3 




77 


M 


ft 


N. ft 


O 


ft 


ft T 


H- 


B Hj 






3 


ft 


rt 






ft 


ft H" 


to 


-cj 


a 


O 




H- 


P 


3 


H- ft 


3 




ft 


ft 


- ft 


£) 


ft 












3 


ft ft 


H 


ft 


p 


ft 




H 


3 




n 




p 


H> H- 


ft 


ft 


3 


H 


•a 


5; 


rt 






rt 


a o h, 


H- 




3 H 






M 


'ft 


s- 


P rt 


a 


3 


P CQ 




rt- rt 


ft 


r^ 


ft 


ft 


B 








ft rt 


3 


3 


rt ft 


tt 




ft 


3 


o 


h- 




3 3 


ft" 


B H- 




ft 





to 


ft 








a h- rt 


to 





3* H 1 


= 




a 


3 


P 


P 


a 


ft 


tQ 


P 


ft 3 


- 


3 


t3 


ri- 










ft B 






O H- 


a 






tft 


T 


3 




< 


3 


to 


3 


3 


rr 


:— 


ft 










P ft 


~ 


~ 


rj Q 








ft 




a 




ft 


P Hj 


ft 


■ 






ft 












H> 


ft 

ft 


H- 

3 


H- H- 
rt O 
















3 


a 
ft 


a 




1 




to 














B 


a^t s 






































rt O p 


o 


B 1 3 


3 


ft & 
CO 4 to 

O H* ft 


ft 


O 


O 


o rt 3 


a 


?C rt ft 




- ft 1 


B Z 


• 3 P 


P O 


H" 


< 3 


Hi H" 


ft ft 


^ 


c*- 


4 


H< B 


3 P 


3 ft 


\-> 


H 


n to 


S ft 


o 


3 to 


3 


to to 


3 N 


j_i - 


p 


H- 


3 1 


3 rt 


a o 


B 


to P 


ft ft 


to 


<-< 


4 rt 


ft 13 


ft 1 


to 


to H* 


to 


HJ p 


P to 


ft 3 


M 


ft to 


S to 


rt 


p to 


1 


v; h- 




to o 


p H) 


3 


►1 


a 


ft? 


H- 


ft 3 


to h, 


to 


rt 


HJ d 


H- P 


ft B 


3 


O ft 


□ to 


rt 


d n 


« 


H- ft 


ft P 


to H< 


X O 


B « 


rt p 


ft !~ 


ft 3 


a c 


3 to 


*i 


a • 


rt ft 


ft 


B 


a 


ft p 


rt H 


a a 


O B 


ft 


ft 


s: rt 


rt 


to 3 


B * 


ft 


ft 


P 


ft; 


3 * 




a ft 


^ 


i 


ft H- 


O w 


3 


3 B 


*d 


ft? H- 


w to 


H- t» 


ft >3 


to 





rt 


o w 


H- H, 


Hi ft 


B 


3 


3 




to 




p p 

H* H 


H- P P 


to 


2 rt O 


o 


d- d- o s: p & Hj 


^ 


X 03 


to 


E H" 


p 


p d- 3 to Ch H- 


3" H 


H 


P 4 3 




3" 3- 


p o ^ O P 





c o 


•3 


p p 


H 


•P 3 O H- C 3 


E 4 


P 1 1 


f> 


3 !Q H- 


p 


o o 


3 1 P 3 4 


1 


3 H- 


o 


M rt- 


en 


*a p a d- 3 d 


^ h"- 





<■< 3 a* <* 


c 


^ 


P P 3 H> 3 


- 


p to 


n 


C H- 


Q 


o rt- h- 3 a o 


P 


3" 


O C 3" 


H 


< 


4 d- 3 P 


p 


y- 3 


H- 


3 2 




h- n p p 


3 P 





H to (+ a 


K- 


H- ^ 


p O P P d- 


a 


3 O 


Hj 


. 3 


o 


3 to P rt- 01 W 


p H 3 


H* 


3 ^ H* 


ED 


CD P 


M P P (+ N< 




_ ro 


H- 


p t 


3 


rt- CD HP 3* *-< 


» o 


1 d p. 




a - o ffi 


o 


^ ^ 


p 


c 


o 


H 


H 


p < p, p 4 


ft 


C 




H 3 1 




cn o 


*< 4 M p. fO 




. p 


p 


1 


**■ , 


Pi p ^ *3 H- 


4 to H 


o 


H- d W fD 1-3 


p 




H- s HI 


d- 


3 


H 


JO 


C i-3 


4 S 3 P Ui 


ID fl O 3 


H* 


en 3* a 3" 


3 


P 


a* p d- h. d- 


p 


h a 


H 


P HI 


n 3 


P P 4 H- 1 O Q 


t£ ■* 


3 - 3 


tJ 


3" o ra ?T 


P 


h> tf ^ & ^ r ;; 


1 


tn 


s 


en 3 


p p 


CO H ^* d - 3 


O 


n P \A 


S? 


1 en 




H" 


P P Wb O 


E ^ 




3" 


H 


** rr $, p 


P 


3 H- d Hj 
3 H- p 


4 


Z B 13 3" > 

o >3 p o 4 


1 


3 (0 

o 


d- O P !- p 

(o d o o c o 


o 


p p 


o 1 


£6 


h-hT 


tJ CQ H* P p 
CO p 3 3 1 O 


<^i, 


< g 3 




4 (6 o 1 p 


- 


3 rt- 


p d- 3* h- p sr 


Hb 


H" 


4 




1 s. 


■ 4 3 p P H Ht 


p H- 


"£ [3 H> 




a C H» H» tf 


4 


O 


3 ra ^ 3 




-— - o 




Q CO 


1 p. 


to p < »d p 


4 3" cq en 


N 


Co d P d to 





P 


W M« p. M* O > 


tt 


Cl M. 


d 


01 [O 


«-J H- p O 3 d 


3 ffl 


an- 3* 


P 


H- M P 


H« 


5 H< 


3 !- P 4 


o 


• 3 


3- 


rt- o 


3-° 


3 P 3 1 P (Q 3" 




to o s: - 

3" K- 


4 


W O H< CQ P 

d to v; to 4 


M 


3 


O d- H- P 


3" 


p 


p 


SL ^ 


p rt- CQ to 3 3 P 








P, H> 


^ tt p- o h- or 





CO « 




C* d- 


P H> 


HI* H> d- P (0 


P^P 

3 H 


p (+ t+ 

0! d- 3* o 




H- - IS 




K- M 


P O P 3 H- 


H 


-0 


c* 


H 1 3" 


8 S 


o p p 4 <q o 




H H- O 


tj 


< C 


M n Pi o 


p 


■u> 


4 


H> P 


tt 3 3 Q P 


* 3 


3" O 




I-" pj 3 H, H- 


p 


(0 CO 


o 3 d S ef- - 


4 


^-^ 


p 


tt 


P CQ 


3 CO H 10 ^ 


3 


p O p - 




l- 1 3 


^ 


1 3 


3" O "< 3- 


to 


o 


3 


3" n 


- c 


^ p rt- 4 
tn 4 (0 O O 1 


- H- 


t 




m o to m ti 


C 1 


w n 


O ^J tt O P d- 




p 3 


en 


p p 


p 


j-i pg 

■a ■ 


,"D <4 - P 




rr »■ p o o 




p CO 


M h-< d- 1 3" 


H- 


p 


H 


p. H 


P <Q 


H- H, CQ 4 H> H " 


»D ffi 

C P P H 

Hi 4 4 p 




O (5 1 H' *1 


H- 




p p M Hi CD 


3 


a 


p 


H* 


3 P 


P P 4 S S 




£ 3 O Q d- 


3 


P r+ 


|-j o d- p- tn 





CD O 


rt 


rt- 43 


& 


H* rt- H- o rt 




H« H- 3 P 




W 3" 


oi q 3* • h ?r 


H 


CQ Hj 


H- 


3- 3 


"^ 


p 3" 3* rt* 3 P 3" h 


rt- 


M <5 1 




d- rs 3 


Ijfi 


P 


m H p 3 


3 


d- 





p 


rt- P 


3P0O4&P O 


1 hi 




3" p P O <+ 


3 


W 


1 P 3 O 


a- 


t+ 


3 


- p 


p- a 


05 C0 4 r>- Pi C^ 

hj tJ ^ ai d 


p >3 


H CS 




tO H H 


1 


d- 3 


PC H- £ 


H- 


■-! 3" 




3* H 


Q 


3 


P H, 4 




H* P 3 


a 


P 


3; en cq > o h 


3 


H- O 


p 


? X 





rt- 3 H- - d o P 


- o 


s-j n >rt 




i-J p tJ 3 


o 


i-3 a 


C Cf 1 P 


o 


p 


3 


■^ 2 


o g 


O S" rt- H- H 

£r P £ P > 4 


d- (D 5s. ""i >-I 




P H j3i (f 


a 


3* H' 


en i-3 P P p* 




3 3 


p. 


d- P 


P 3 


p. 3 


1 




H- p, O 


O P 


HP rt- u- 3 cq 


« 


o 




-• 


H" H- 


en rt- h* p 3 4 p 


p' p 

4 i 


a b > tj 

O & 4 o 




3 O "0 


■ 


3 P 


H , |_ >^ H . -J 


3 


O th 


D3 


P 3 


p. p 


£ h- tn p p 




t-j 3 P 3" 3 




P < 


3 o p a H- 


B 


Of rt- 


d- 


H C 


•d (Q 


en p w 3 P- 
p 3 3 P ^ H ■< 


01 


3 PI 




l_f p p, h- 1-* 




w eg 


- a 3 4 


p 


1 


3 


1 3 


3* 


rt* k 


- I o" rr 




c d- a m k 

CO 3" H 




m 


O ifl ^ Q Hj 


K> 


H- H, 


ai*3* 


en d- 


o p Pi tn 4 P 


3 H 


C N* N« 






> 


O - H O ^ 


3 


en P 


H 


H- ^^ 


o 


0) O fef H»- •' B 1 


P P 


5) H" O 




3 o q tn Hi 




►q r 


3- p h; c+ 


■ 


rt- 3 




i» 


w 


03 to P P P 


-* )— i 


n p ■ 3 




n 3 t/v o o 




p p 


1 H) ft- FT ^ 3- 


^ 


H- O 


o 


3 P 


H- H O O P Q 


Qi 


CD 




(0 P -• t> 4 




P. rt- 


H- I H- D3 3 CO 




p p 


hj p -.-- -: :■.; 


^ p 3 H- . 3 


,Q CO 
P"* 


K> *tj O 




«• d- 3 d 




3 H- 


en o o - h* 


3 


3 en 




t 


•d en 


P 3 P H H 


(+ M H, 




H- 3 *< tJ 




P 3 


rt- 3 3 P P 


p 


" 


o 


^— ^> 


| i 


H- O HP 3d 


C E» 1— i 




p n p - i 




03 


H. W P- 3" 3 


*d 





4 


- UJ 


H H H p P 4 

P* 3 o 5 


3 d 


3 S 3 Z 




H* p rt- ffl 




^ 


* £ p , P 


3" 


C Hi 


D 


3h 1 ^- j 


d P 


H 3 


B p 




O h- fO tf W 




h- a 


3 3"^ H* en Ms ^ J - 


p 


3 


p 


p 


p 


O til 


•" Pi 1 




3* 13 




3 4 


P 3 O O O 


^ 


a d; 


s* 


C 01 
CO o 


PL CP 


3* O 4 H> H- to 


P Hj 

* o 


Pj 




p d- H- d- H 




H 


P dr Pi 1 3 




P 3 




■-1 


p p H- P 3 d H 


3 3J 3 Cn 




3 3" P <^ 




d- p. 


3 M O <+ 


JC 


4 (0 


s 


P 3 


d- p 


tn 3 rt- 3 CQ H- p 




O 3 3 




*A <9 H» l*> 




J - 


Pi to c: en 


£ 


en 







5" £. 


H- P Q • CD rt- 


% 


4 O 3 




- 3 O 3 




P 


. d- r "d o -x 


tf 


^ ° 


1 


o o 


P er 


Pi £ ?: to P 


h- h- n CD 




4 Q 1 (Q 




O 3- 


(^ 3- p O <| 


p 


3" 


X 


Hj H 


* R 


rt P 3 P- 


o 


p 3 rt- a 




P H- Pi 




t- 1 O 


P d 3 P 4 


K« 


P d- 


b 




p tn p o 




^ *CJ t— H- 




H (D H- d- P 




O H 


j-; o h- 4 h 


CQ 


01 4 




^ (rt 


o 


p a ti h, h> 


& 


O 3 




O P O P 4 3 




co m 


H. p 3 d- p Pi 
to 3 ■*■ 3" H 


" 


p p 


o 


H- 3 


■-i V 


HBh C M 4 


N 1 3 3 




O P CD P. 




^ H- 


« 


3 


d 


tO Q 


" o 


h- p 4 3 M a 


n> 


d H- 




IB H- 




3 


P* dr P CT 




en tn 




& 


H 


ta a o Hi a a 3 


p 


o p s; 3 

O 3 H- cp 




H- 3 p 4 3* 




P (a 


• C OP 
R d- o p o 




C H 


^5 


O H) 


O H- 


3 3" 3 O P P 


H 




m p. 3 p 




3 




tJ p 


►J 


: 3 _i 


H, d- 


to & 4 w en rr> 


& 


- c+ rt 




3 p. O 3 




a d- 


■v; 3- 4 3 p 
P P rt- 3 




i s 


H 


H' 


. p 3 3 id 4 


o 


cr ^ 




- P ^ P 
ai ^d 3 h- 




o 




M -w o 


H- O 


Pi p H- p p 




4 H> 






a 


i-3 o en p a p 
3- 3 P FT 4 




5 3 


o 


H.e 


2 p 


- 4 rt- »d a 




<+ 




p d- 3" 3 




C H 




H' 01 


■..: 


s ^ 


P to B P 7T 




H 3* 




M 1 P to 




H O 


C ^ - H- p 




en 





3 




O 




1 o 




1 


en p p 




H' H 


■a 




f p 


* Pi 




j 




3 3 3 3 




a 3 


1 en 




o (a 


J 


- c^ 










C* P 1 




ra 


p. 




3 


^ 


p 


a 










H- 3 1 






'/: 








CQ 
3 

p 
p 









d W ^ H- d 

O O H- 3 3 d 

3 d H> p 

C d 3" H 

to 3 3 O 



d P M 3 rt- O 



> & 
4 H 

P to 



3 P 

o to 

3* hj 

p 



H- p 

3 

to »g «< 

rt- 4 
4 H- 
C 3 

H- ^ 

3 H 



rt- 

P Hj 
(+ 

H- P 

3 3 

ft) P 

3 & 

(Q C 

i-- n 

H- P 

to d 

3 

a 
p 



■-: 

o 

h a 3 4 

H 
■=J Hj P. 
H« 4 O 

3 a 4 s; 

3 CO o 
d P K- 4 
3 3 cp P 



H- 3 

3 a 

3 
P P 
H CQ 
H P 

en h- 



m ^ Q 

en to to 

-* < CD 



O p H 

P 3 P 

en & 3 

P cp 

3 C 

O p P 

H 3 CQ 

^ P 

p to to 

3 3 o 

P H- 3 

3 <Q O 



> 

4 
P 

3 

H« 

° o 

H 3 

H- 4 

rt- H 

P 01 

4 rt- 

p t* 

rt P 

3 3 

4 i 
p 

n 

a o 

4 d 

H> 4 

3 H 

tP 3 1 

d- d 

3 P 

to a 

H H- 

O 3 

d 

3 3 
P 

O 3 

P ■-< 
3 

d ^ 

3 P 

4 ^ 

^< en 



P rt- S 
en 3 

4 

CO 

p 



4 O 

P H 1 

rt- to 

P - 



d 



h3 d* 

3 3 

H' P 



rt- 3 

3" 4 



4 

P 3 3 P 
Pi p, 

H- p p H- 

3 3 3 P 

CQ P Pi 3 

- <% H- 



4 H- 3 P 3 

CD rt- O 4 3 

3 to d ^ I 

p TJ CD 

H- O Hj 3 4 

3 3 4 P O 

en d o h c 

H 3 W 



K, 3 

O -^ 

4 

d 
H 3* 

H- P 
d 

C Hj 



rt- . 

o P 

& d 

P ^ 



h- e; 3 

tO P CQ 



■■ 4 



O P 

X 3 

to a 



H> M 
3 P 
H H* 



* O H, 

H] Hj O H- 

O 4 3 

to rt- 

rt- W 3* d 3 

i 9 



P 

3 3 4 
p rt- p 



P 3 
MOM 



6 §" 



3 O 
H CQ 
P H- 



O 4 
p H 



CT* d . 
O ft) 4 P 

H) P H> - H 

^ 3 3 gS 

3 rt- 3 H- to 

to 4 P tn 

p p H 

ccj 5 ^ 

H* to O 

H P 4 
m d ^ . 

p hj (J rt- 4 



p to H- 



4 en 

p - 

H 

P t3 

4 P 



H- & 

>M 

4 
p X 

ss 

o p 



"TJ 



4 P 
H- 3 



p 3 



4 & 

n h- 

cr s 



3 3 



rt* rt- O 
O 



H- P 



d P H- 



3 rt- ^ 



rt 

Hj 3 

4 O 
O C 
3 O 

3* 
P 

3 
Hi O 3 to 



H« 3 H> - 

to h- 3 3 

d- H rt- P 

d- 



H Q P 
3 CT to 

P < 



p s; 



H H P 

M Hj 



p 3 

rt- P 
P 

4 O H- pi 

H, 3 G 

O. 4 

p H- H- 

d rt- < 

a co 



H 
P P 
4 3 
P (Q 

c 




H> fS 



(D 

13 3 

p & 

p- * 



3- pj 

Mi to 

Q O to 

p D 

rt- O rt 

ij r 

• *1 3 

H- 

t+ P 



2 c+ H 

p rr p- 

v$ a re 

re o re 
P, 

rt 3 P- 

O (+ CT P 

3 P re cr 
*3 rt P h> 
h p- 3 o 
re o rt- 

rt 3 X tn 

re o 

o p- M 

o* H> 3 



o 
p S 

3 P< 
P- 3 



O 

3 rt 

*1 3* 

< re 

p- 

P" CD 



5b 

O 

o to 
3 £ 

e 
H re 
re 

■a * *-< a 

IP 3 

H H to 

(II H H' 

re n 3 p 
3 - o 
rt- 



►3 
rt (+ 
3 1 

re -3 

<J 

1 



p 3 p- re 

ff (5 3 1 

re rf- re p- 

p- p W 

t» 3 1 ct 



p < 

rt- & 

p- to 

o re 

3 tn 

p - 
P 1 



n m rt* 

p o 
re t+ 
H rt- ti- 
re 



o 

o 3 

Pi O* 
H 

rt re 

re a 
3 
en rt- 



» re 

re 4 

3 3 

Qi Vt 



a 3 
a 

P- 3* 

rt* 

n p 



H a c j *3 

^ w, .. 

o re rt- o 

r-j 3- - o 

p- 3 

h rt s* 3 

re re 3* c 

m n p* 3 

H- rt- P- 

«a C &* 

P- "1 

O P 



s< 



P> 

re 

Pi 

rt- 

IS 

w re 



s h 



re h>« 

3 

& 3 



rt a 



re a 
p p re era i-* re 

Hi o 

*s 

o p 

rt 

H" 



= 



P* 

Hj rt 

W P- 

c to 

M> 

P' rt 



O 3 



rt- H. 

P* <! 
p* re 



5, 

re p 

a re 



rt 

3* 
rt O 



s 1' 

3- < 

H' re 
re 
3" |Q 

3 
3" p 

P P- 
< P* 

o rt- 

re* 
re o 

O Pi 

3 
rt 

rt 3" 
3- re 
re 

» 
3 re 
o H 
tn h- 

c^- PJ 
rt 
O 

O SC 

3 P 

3 to 
o 

3 re 

- 3 

•a 

rt- 3* 

3* p 

O to 

3 P> 

a to 

3- re 

p. 

Hi - 

o 

3 g 

to 3* 



P P 

H 3 

to & 
o 



c+ O 

3* O 

H 3 

re to 

re p- 

to re 

3- I 

O P 

C) 3 4 ff 

,3 \ rt P- 

3 • ■*< 

p 3 . 

I- OP* 

a- re 



3* 6 t-> to 

re 3 to 

<n - o 

p a 

3 < PJ 3 

ti O H tJ 

H =C 3 M 

o re to re 



p to 
P 1 re 

h- re 

% s 

P 

K rt- 




P !D 
3 S 

a w 



3* rt- N. 



3- 3 



in re- 



Cf p "n^ 



re re V, e+ 3 in 



p a 3 re Cu 



H- O 

3 Hj 
Cfi 

re on 

*3 P- 

rt P 

h- re 

o - t-5 

3 3" 

a 3" re 
p 

p <; re 

3 h- P 

& 3 n 



re o p» 

m o 

o h- ^ 

m a 3 

a 

re "i a 

ifi P H) 

rt- a- 

5" > 



p o 
3 3 

a o 

to 

\3- 



3 tj n- h- - 



- 1 

re fn_ 

<< H- O 

^^3 *1 

P H- 

3 O \ 

P- P P 

<+ \ 

N. re 

■< a h 



a 

re t-> 

*3 re 

re rt 

3 rt- 

pl re 



P 

cn re 



M 3 



rt O 

to 3" tj 

H* M« 

3 C re 
re o w 
re p" 

o 

rt rt- K> 

? sr . 

re re rt- 

>*i 3" 

re in re 

g-1 

3 - 
P 
P 3 
to • 



rt- pi h* a a 

rT n ^ re 

re rt- re i 

o 3 & P- 



3. & 



C P- 3 3- - 

to to p 

rt- re ^ " 

k- 1 P 3 

3 p- o re 

a ^3 rt s- 

c rt re 3 

p- w ^ 

en • to p 



< 

O M 

•^ re 

re -+ 

(-> rt 



t, P- O 

3* O 3 

P' 3 M 

t3 K 



% pj a P) 

5- p- re 

o re < to 

h- re p- 

re 3 H B 

f*|§H 

en X 3 



P ^ 

pi 3 3 

rt 3. Hi 

P- 

t P- O 

p to - 
to 

K p- 
ui o in 
O 3 
3 3 *-J 

re a re 
*: h- h- 

3-3 3 
P- P- 



p- re t re 

3 3 

a rt- 
en 



to rt pj H 

re 3- re 3- 

1 P 1 re 

P- rt H- 

« - H 

P 3- BQ 

3 re S 3 

Qi 3" P 

p. re ere 

a p- 3 re 

p i 

rt- en p- o" 

re rt rt- re 



L". 



H, 3 

►1 en 

o o 

3 H 



a" P rt- 



re p- 
o 

h> 3 
o 

3 P- 

1 3 

rt 

3- P 

O *1 

re re 

3 O 

rt O . 

3 a P- 

H 3 rt 

•< P- I* 



a, re 
re 

cl n 
o 

P. 3 

o i 

*i p* 
en 

rt rt 
3" re 

re 3 
rt 

z p* 



g if 

ri- p 



3- 3 

re ca 

3 



> p 

* p> o a 

re Pi re 
& 

pT 3" P> 

p re 3 

P- £) rt 

n 3 3" 

•1 re 

H- - 

en p re 

p.? q 
3 if 

rt 

3* ca m 

o ,7 j" 

P> P< 

p n § 

er re p- 
p re 

rt 

P 

3 



re .«» p 




CO Hi rt 

re o 3- 

3 4 re 

p- rt- 

rt 3" Z 

p- p 

o p. ■■■: 

3 

tn rt 

rt- o ►a 

3 re 

& rt 3 

p- 3 1 en 

re re 



v: 



re 

en p- 

re 3 

n I 

rt- re 



o* re re 

3- P 

to ^d en 

O ^ 

gto - 
ta 

o p- er 

rt- 3* C 

3* H- rt 

re m 

i p- p 

tt- to 

^ H ' ^ 

p- re * 

en in p- 

rt • rt 

P 3" 



P3 O 


3 

re p 

3 3 



S 3 

re ere 
to 

ff - 
re 



< rt 

re re 

3 tJ 



cr ^ 

^ 3" 




3 re 

rt- re 

re to 

o 

p, p 
en 
3 

O P- 

a 3 

re a 

a 



re p 

re 3 
a 

re 

& <j 

re re 

en >i 

re i 

4 tJ 

rt 1 



re 

3 rt 
rt o 

4 rt 

re 3- 

p re 



O 3 3 

P" 3. rt 
X o \ 

rt 
p> O rt rt- 



re 

3- - 
1 



p 

3* O 



rt rt- 3 to W 



rt o rt 

P re re 
< 



rt P 
o o 
p 
rt- P- 
3" 3 



p tfl 



a o 
a P 
re p- 



3" rt 

O P 

o X 

K re 



rt re cr p 
3- rt 3 
re c rt to 



o 
ps 
p- 

p re 
4 

<+ £1 

p- re 

re o 

c o 

P 3 

q I 

p- o 

3 Hj 



re re 
to 

rt P^ 
P 

rt 3 
o a 

3 

rt p 
p- a 
re 



3 3 



p* S 

p p 

rt rt 

re 3 

to 

3 c fca 

en P- 

re a 
-^ p 

3 



Pi 

o ^ 
n rt 

3" 



3 

a p 

rt 3 

D" O 

re i 
re 

3 a 

,a re 

•re rt 

P P 



h- 



v. 



Hi 3 

o re 

*i 3 

rt- 



rt 



to 

re 
gj 

cr o 
re o 

<D & 
H- 

3 ^ 
3 O 
H> 4 

3 P- 
C3 *3 
rt 
rt 
3" O 

re 3- 
p 

p rt 

3 en 

3 P 

p p, 

ere re 

re 



H!« HI 

3- rt re re 
re 4 rt o 

3 rt O 

£ re re ^ 

1 rt T & 

h- 3 tn P- 

tf 4 3 

rt re re en 

re s - tn 

3 z. p ■ 

O 3 

pj re ca 

o en re 

a pj 

3 3^3" 

o 3* re 

3* rt p 

PJ to 

^ re re n 

re 3 4 

< rt P h- 

re p- o *d 

1 1 O rt 

re o 

3 M -1 « 

p *< p. »1 

rt P* © 

re p 3 to 

3" re a re 

ore 3 

to O rt- rt 

n o en 
rt- & 

3* rt- -d 

re s- — ^ 

p. re o 

a rt p- C 

O ffl H 

3 9 

3 rt PJ 3 

& ? Q ID 

to P tn 

rt P* P 
o rt rt 

OOP- 
SHOP! 
03 3 P* 

P- O 4 

0) rt- p- en 
rt 3* 3 rt 
ore 

3 -1 p 

rt cr 

>- trt s; re 

^ re o re 

3 H P 

i p- a 3 

rt -■ to 

< p. re 

3 1 O 

rt- 



to rt 

O 

3 

3 - 

a p3 

en re 

P 

q e- 

re 
p o 

cq 

re to 



re pj 
i — » >-i 

p> o 

3 - C* 

re p *< 

to cr 

rt P- 3 

O O 

M* rt- 

re 

P rt 1 
3 3*fJ 

3 O P 

rt- 3 P- 

ca p- 1 

O 3 "3 

3 3 

re en 

p J en 

3 p- 

re cr 

> P H 

-J 3 

P ^ - 

cr B" 

-rep 
w 

p a 

3 O t, 

p. 3 P- 

re rt 

^ 3* 

p- re 

rt 3 in 

3- O 

3 



r. 



3- p re 

3 3 

re ere co p 

p 3 <~i 3 

3 P P ^ 

aa 3 

re 3 

to p 

. rt 



o p- s: i 



I 



PS 3 
3- P 

re ro 

re 

to 



p y p- P 

3 O 3 V 

a \-> *3 tt 

p- o ^ 

O rt ^ p 

3 P- rt P- 



s - re 
re 3 



i 

3 
O 

re 

o 
re pj 



Ui H 

re re 

3 P 

p- en 

rt o 

P- 3 



P P 



> P- 
►13 3 

p O 

o* R a 

3^ 1 

P O 3 
rt- *3 

p* re 2 

o - P- 

3 CL 

p H' a 

H- 3 



p* n 

en o 

3 

P- 3 

3 re 
rt re 



re 



re 3 



O rt 

5. £ * 

rt ^ 
m re < 

re 
o ^1 

o ^ 

3 

to 4 



o 

p- p 
rt << 



» > 

re p- H 

p- M p 

o - cr 

3 P- 

to re o 
o 

OOP* 

h, 3 en 
o 

3* 3 O 

P* P- Hj 

to o 

re 
v p < 

p p> re 

rt P I 

H* P- 

3-13 
H- to o 
to 4 

rt p re 

O 3 P 

q g . 



re 4 t 
-pa 

er p- 
P M 3 
3 re a 
& 

rt 
p- o 
rt 3 re 
3* re 3 
re - pj 

3 &. 

en re rt 

p> o 

P- 3 

rt >t - 

rt 
p- cr 
Ui p 3 

3 rt 

^ & 

P 3 

h- PJ Q 

3 re rt 
p i 



re to 



H- P *^ 

P- 4 3 

H- rt rt 
to 

P ^ 



re rt 

3 " 
re re 
n 

p 

p 1 



110 




Suggestions for Further Reading 



General 



The Legacy of Islam has interesting articles on various aspects of 

Islamic civilisation, including language, philosophy, science 

A, Chejne, The Arabic Language which includes a discussion of the importance 
of the language to modern national movements 

A. Moscati (ed.), An Introduction to the comparative grammar of the S emitic 
languages 

C. Rabin, Ancient West Arabian 
A.F.L. Beeston, The Arabic Language Today 

Encyclopaedia of Islam , article "Arabiyya" gives an outline of the historical 
development of the language 

Desert and the Arabs 

CM. Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta 

R.F. Burton, A pilgrimage to Mecca and Medinah 

W. Thesiger, Arabian Sands 

A. Musil, Manners and Customs of the Rwala Bedouins 



111 

Religion and Language 

tf.M. Watt, Bell's Introduction to the Qur'an 

W.M. Watt, Islamic Philosophy a nd Theology 

A. Jeffery, The Foreign Vocabula ry of the Qur'an 

Translation and Transmission 
A.R- Badawi, La transmission de la phi losophie grecque au monde arabe 
E.G. Browne, Arabian Medicine 

Christian Arabic 
G . Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabi schen Literatur (5 vols.) 

Script 

The Quran (World of Islam Festival catalogue) gives excellent illustrations 
of the development of Arabic script as used for the Qur'an 

Literature 
R.A. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs 




S 



-JteW 




112 

PETVORTH AND PALESTINE - REFLECTIONS BY P.A.J, 

Small town 

Horc? might a man's name live awhile 

as Sirach said - if any knew who Sirach was 

or cared- Curates there were here once 

for whom this place was but a stepping-stone. 

That wizened man of proverbs meant 

little enough to them I expect - still less 

to those who once hound hoop 

to barrel and amassed such wealth 

as made them never worth an inventory. 

Spent lives as functional as a postman's bike 

and minds cats' saucers with the milk 

ignored and left collecting hairs. 



Good Friday 

Salsify - the drying sandy dust 

falls to the bottom of the box 

and Easter's diffident sun lights up 

an Avocado's leathery skin. 

To close on such a day would be 

a conscious archaism now. 

Those who hurry to their own concerns 

and entertain no angel unawares 

would be surprised to learn 

they were redeemed, alarmed perhaps, 

but more impatient, I would think. 



Messiah 

How would he be if he should come? 

Glib as a chat -show king lolls back 

with erzatz helpless laughter in his chair' 

Or should he mark unrecognized 

the sound of heels on city kerbs 

or handbrake ratchets on the sultry air? 

The redeemed he'd promise life 

upon a purified earth and dull 

white worms would rise to pierce 

the purple-folded mushroom of belief. 



The Second Coming 

And very inconvenient it was, upsetting things. 
Elijah in the streets and people muttering. 
A crate of purple broccoli midway sold 
and daffodils in bud. The children had grown barley 
beans and peas in yogurt jars. But I 
had lost the receptiveness I once had had, 
a miser forced to spend his days. 
At best I'd hoped for some October summer 
of the spirit - with stubble-daisies 
short-lived but Easter-white. 
60,5 
I 5 9 29-0 * ■